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Full text of "Chemical engineering"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/chennicalengineer24newy 



^ 






Chemical & Metallurgical 

Engineering 



A Weekly Technical Newspaper, 

Being the Incorporation of 

Electrochemical and Metallurgical Industry 

and Iron and Steel Magazine 



Volume XXIV 

From January 1 to June 30, 1921 




NEW YORK 
McGRAW-HILL COMPANY, INC. 




•y 



r,j 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXIV 



GENERAL ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



PAGES 

Ian. 5 1 to 

Tan. 12 49 to 

Tan. 19 97 to 

Ian. 26 145 to 

Feb. 2 193 to 

Feb. 9 237 to 

Feb. 16 281 to 

Feb. 23 325 to 

Maich 2 369 to 

March 9 413 to 

March 16 457 to 

March 23 501 to 

March 30 54 5 to 



April 
April 
. .A.pril 
April 
May 
Max- 
May 
May 
June 
June 
Tune 
June. 
June. 



6. 
13. 

20. 

■2\ 



589 to 

633 to 

677 to 

721 to 

765 to 

809 to 

865 to 

909 to 

953 to 

8 997 to 1040 

15 1041 to 1084 

22 1085 to 1128 

29 1129 to 1168 



j: t . 

4. 

11. 

18. 



48 
96 
144 
192 
236 
280 
324 
368 
412 
456 
500 
544 
588 
632 
676 
720 
764 
808 
864 
908 
952 
996 



A 

Abaca industr.v oi Philippine Islands. Cox. 
Accelerators. Vulcanization: (see under 

Rubber) 
Acetaldehyde from acetylene. Plauson and 

Vielle. (B. P.) 

Acetic acid: 

Catal.vsts for mfr. of. Plauson and 

Vielle. (B. P.) 

Prom acetaldehyde. (B. P.) 

From acetaldehyde. Dreyfus. (B. P.) 

From acetylene. Plauson and Vielle. 

(B. P.I 

From suction g-as plants using wood. 

Roberts. (B, P.) 

Acetone: 
. — — Purification of. Duclaux and Lan- 

zenberg-. (S.) 

From starch. Nasmith. (N.) 

Acetyl chloride. mfr. of. Kaufmann 

(P.) 

Acid-resisting: materials: 

Allo.v for chemical apparatus. Fah- 

renwald. (P. ) 

Iron :Chromium allo.v articles. Cle- 
ment. (P.) 



Aeronautics, Contribution of chemistry to. 
Moureu. (S. ) 

Agassiz Medal to be pres?nted to Prince 
of Monaco 

Air Reduction Co. acquires National Car- 
bide Corp 801 

Alaska : 

-Wood pulp mill at Juneau 535 



••285 

'938 

896 
708 
708 

>938 

"272 



34 
534 

36 



36 
1028 
34 
668 



Alberta: 

Oil and g'as claims in. . . 

Alcobronze (N.) 

Alcohol : 

Alcohol and chemical 

Doran. (N.) 



industries. 



534 

220 



829 



Chang-es considered in methods of dis- 
tribution 185 

Chang-es in Reg-ulation 60 176 

From nipa palm. Gibbs. (N.).... 404 

From wood waste. Yields of 212 

Preventing use as intoxicant. Kramer. 373 

Volstead supplementary prohibition 

bill: 

Objectionable sections 1076 

Protest meeting. N. Y. section, 

A. C. S 1088 

Committee on Rules reverses atti- 
tude on 11 ."n 

Alizarine from benzene. Schaffer. (N.) 831 



(B. P.), 



Alkaloids: 

Separation of. 

Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. directors... 

Alloys : 

Effect of meitallic strxicture upon 

properties. Rawdon 

Properties of. Tabulated. Woodward. 

— Ternary. Coefficients of eciuivalence 

in. Guillet and Portevin. (S ).... 
Alsace: 

-Alsatian potash industry. 



Vigneron.. 



402 

7 



•523 
820 

•609 

•655 
921 



Potash prodviction. 1920. 

Alsberg. Dr. Carl L.. becomes director of 
Stanford University Food Research 
Institute •648 

Alum. Potash. Recovery at Tonopah. Dun- 
can •529 

Alumina from basic aluminum nitrate. 

(B. P.) ; 38 

Aluminum : 

Causes of piping in ingots. Edwards 

and Gammon •338 

Density from 20 to 1.000 deg. C. 

Edwards and Moormann 'Gl 

Gases in aluminum furnaces and their 

anal.vsis. Anderson and Capps.. . *\.QXQ 
Recrystallization in. Carpenter and 

Elam. (S.) Ill- 



ALU MINUM — Confmncd: 

Use for electric transmission lines. 

Dusaugey. (S.) 313 

Coating metals with. (B. P.) 984 

Production. 1920 536 

Aluminum nitride research. McCorinack. 

*N.) 767 

Aluminum sulphate used in waler-puri- 

flcation, Illinois. 1920 856 

American Association for the Advancement 
of Science: 

Chicago meeting, Report 83 

American^ Ceramic Society: 
Columbus neeting: 

Announcement 316 

Report 419 

Canton meeting: 

' Announcement 1073 

American Chemical Society : 
Rochester meeting: 

Symposiums on drying and filtra- 

tion planned 87. 35S 

■ Preliminary program 533 

Addition to program 577 

Program 710 

Report *821 

New York meeting: 

Hotel accommodations 1030 

Gas and fuel symposium planned.. 1118 

American Electrochemical Society : 
Atlantic City meeting: 

Preliminary announcement 316 

Program 623 

Report •813 

Lake Placid meeting plans 988 

American Engineering Council : 

Progress of 39 

Assumes activities of Engineering 

Council 86 

rOpens ofhce in Washington 229 

To meet in Syracuse 229 

Wallace elected secretarj' ^357 

Begins war on industrial waste .... 358 

Hoover resigns as president 709 

Executive board meets 709 

American Engineering Standards Com- 



mittee: 
-Activities of 



American Institute of Chemical 
Engineers: 

Detroit meeting: 

Program 



665 



939 



American Institute of Mining and 

Metallurgical Engineers : 
New York meeting: 

Announcement 227 

Report 329 

American Leather Chemists' 
Association : 

Atlantic City meeting: 

Preliminary program 854 

Final program 1030 

Report *1094 

Amei-ican Leather Research Laboratories. . 27 
American Mining Congress: 

Chicago convention plans 490 

American Oil Chemists' Society : 

Aims and organization 535 

Chicago meeting: 

Plans 713 

Report 957 

American Society of Mechanical 

E.ngineers : 
Chicago meeting: 

Steam equipment codes to be dis- 

cussed 624 

Plans 753 

Inspection trips planned 800 

Report 1031 

American Society of Refrigerating Engi- 
neers : 

Chicago meeting 1074 

American Society for Steel Treating : 

Indianapolis meeting: 

Announcement 449 

Program ', 1033 

.American Society for Testing Materials : 



-Asbur.v Park meeting : 
Report 



Moore. 



Amines. Aromatic, Mfr. of. 
P.) 

Ammonia : 

Oxidation at Oppau. Germany 

-Distilling column for. Crupe. 



(B. 



1145 
796 



Synthetic : 

Mfr. at Oppau. Germany 



(P.) 

I. 

II. 
III. 
Claude. 



Status of Claude process 

(S.) 

Catalyst for. (B. P.I .402. 489. 

Ammonia-soda process. Nishigawa (P ) 

Modified. Claude. iB. P.) 

Ammonium chloride: 

As fertilizer 16 

Mfr. at Oppau, Germany '391 



•34S 
•861 

•305 
•347 
•391 

706 
lllti 

133 
lloti 



Ammonium nitrate: 

Mfr. at Oppau. Germany '392 

Ammonium phosphate as fertilizer 12 

Ammonium Sulphate: 

Mfr. at Oppau. Germany •391 

Saturators for. Becker. (P.) 664 

Drjing. Wilton. (B. P.) •621 

Purification of. Lessing. (B. P.) .. •SIS 

Semi-direct method. (B. P.) •402 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. extensions. . 898 
Annual Tables of Constants and Numer- 
ical Data 853, 986 

Anthranol. Mfr. of. Perkin. fB. P.) . . 226 

Anthraquinone. mfr. of (B. P.) 937 

Temperature control in catalytic mfr. 

of. Downi. rp. ) ^1027 

Anthraquinone lerivative. Synthetic. Weiss, 

Bailey and Potter. (P.) 35 

Anthraquinone derivatives and dyes. Ca- 

sella. (B. P.) 489 

Antimony ores. Tariff problems 1003 

Apparatus. Duty-free. For colleges. Rich- 
ards 62 

Comment. Smith 284 

Argentina : 

Vegetable oil industry in 612 

Armour Fertilizer Works. Jones I. •SSS 

n. ^379 

— — Correction. Jcnes 548 

Arsenic: 

Removal from zinc electrolyte by 

H2S. Hanley •eQS 

Automatic detector for arsenic ia 

gases. Logan. (B. P.) 38 

Single potential of. Kahlenberg. 

(N.) 83 

Arsenic compounds. Organic: 

Arsenobenzene derivatives. 

P.) 



Haus. (B. 



852 
Arsenic trioxide: 

Mfr. of. Vie ^527 

Tariff hearings on 403 

Plant at Toulon. Nev 536 

Artillery cartridge cases. Read and Tour. 

(N.) 330 

Atlas Powder Co. to produce refining car- 
bon 1119 

Atoms and metals. Jeffries and Archer. . •607 

B 

Bacteria as chemical reagents. Kendall... 56 
Bain. H. Foster, becomes director. Bureau 

of Mines •ITO 

Bamboo paper pulp plant in Burma 250 

Barrels for petroleum products, mfr. of. 

Baxter. (N.) 360 

Barrett Co.: 

Board of directors "7 

Shadyside research laboratories. Weiss 

and Downs •leo 

Basic Refractories, Inc., Plant destroyed 

by fire 273 

Batteries. Secondary: 

Drying plates for •267 

High-capacity storage batterv. Hazel- 

ett. (N.) 819 

Bauxite. Trade notes on. Coggin. (S.) . . 707 

Tariff problems 1004, 1006 

BEL3ILTM : 

Coal production 608 

Experiments on palm oil as motor 

fuel 400 

^Foreign commerce in 1920 845 

Metallurgical industries in 1920.... 604 

Progress of chemical industry 1070 

Status of iron and steel industry. . . 387 



Beltin 

Use in fertilizer plants. (S.) 706 

Benzanthrone. Purification of. Daniels. 

<P.) 488 

Benzene : 

New type of benzene still in European 

operation. Thau •lOlS 

Recovery from acid sludge. Crook. (B. 

P.) . 

Removing sulphur compounds. (B. 

Benzoic acid. Cliloiine-free. Synthesis from 
benzene McKee and Strauss. I. 

Bichromates, mfr. of. Datta. (B. P.).. 



•226 
272 



'638 

•697 

796 



Biogr.aphical: 



Alsberg. Carl L •648 

Bain. H. Foster \\ •179 

Ciamician. Giacomo '. 549 

Curie. Mme. M. S 1132 1137 

Feiker, Frederick M " •913 

Hadfield, Sir Robert ' ' •1147 

Le Chatelier, Henrv Louis . ' ' ' 549 

Lewis. Gilbert N ' •ggg 

Lloyd. John Uri .'.'..'. 550 

Nichols. Ernest Fox .... ' ' " •682 

Nichols, William Henry • • • • . ^^^ 

fmith, Edgar Fahs .183, 550 

Solvay. Ernest 549 

Thompson. Benjamin. (Count Rtim- 

fordl 252 

Thorpe. Sir Edward .'. 549 

Wallace. Lawrence W. . . '357 

Weston, Edw.".rd 550 

Whitney. Wilhs R '.'.'.'.'.'.'. "gg 



♦Illustrated; (P.), (B. P.) — United States and British patents respectively (S ) Synopsis- 

(N.) — Papers read at society meetings but not printed in full. 



IV 



INDEX 



Bismuth concentrates, Chinese. Refining-. 

Darling- 1108 

Bleaching- cotton goods. Chlorine control 

in. Schroeder 'OSS 

Bleaching dyed cotton fabrics. Matthews. 

(N.) 832 

Bluing and browning steel articles. Cor- 
nell 301 

Book Reviews. 41. 137. •ISO. 318. 362. 405, 
449. 49'3, 536, 580. 668. 714. 982. 1029, 
1120. 

Book Revie-w's : 



Allen. Recover.v of Nitrate from 

Chilean Caliche 

Andres. Fuel Oil in Industry 

Camp and Francis. The Making. 

Shaping, and Treating of Steel. . . . 

Clark. The Determination of Hydro- 
gen Ions 

— -Cushman. Chemistry and Civilization 

-■ — Foote. Fairchild and Harrison. Pyro- 
metric Practice 

^Goodale and Speer. Chronology of 

Iron and Steel 

Harrow. Eminent Chemists of Our 

Time 

Heriot. The Manufacture of Sugar 

from the Cane and Beet 

Hoyt. Metallograiihy, Part II 

Hultgren. A Metallographic Study on 

Tungsten Steels 

Johnson. Rapid Method for the 

Chemical Analysis of Special Steels. 
Steel-making Alloys. Their Ores 
and Graphites 

Maeleod. Textbook of Chemistry for 

Nurses and Students of Home Eco- 
nomics 

- — 'Matthews. Application of Dyestuffs 

McCo.v and Terr.v. Introduction to 

General Chemistry 

Osann. Lehrbuch der Eisen und 

Stahlgiesserei 

Patterson. A French-English Diction- 
ary for Chemists 

Ralston. Elef'rolvtic Deposition and 

H.vdrometallurgv of Zinc 

Scott. The Journal of the Institute 

of Metals 

Smith. Priestle.v in America 

Speer and Goodale. Chronology of 

Iron and Steel 

Sutermeister. Chemistry of Pulp and 

Paper Making- 

Van der Bijl. Thp Thermionic Vac- 
uum Tube and Its Applications. . . 

Whitb.v. Plantation Rubber and the 

Testing of .Rubber 

Comment. Whitb.v 

White. Silver. Its Intimate Associa- 
tion With the Dail.v Life of Man. . 

Windett. The Open Hearth — .Its Re- 
lation to the Steel Industry — Its 

Design and Operation 

-MacRae's Blue Book 



^The Microscope 

Official and Tentative Methods of 

Anal.vsis of the Association of Offi- 
cial Agricultural Chemists 

Proceedings of the Chicago Meeting 

of the Industrial Relations Asso- 
ciation of Am^r'ca 

Research and Methods of Analysis of 

Iron and Steel 

Borax mfr. at Owens and Searles Lakes. . 

Boric acid from boro-natro-calcite. Schott 
& Ges. 'B. P.) 

Brass : 

Season cracking of. Beckinsale and 

Mallinson 

Tc'-'ary brasses. Guillft (S.t 

Nickel brasses Guillet. (S.) 

Cobalt brasses. Guill-'t. (S.) . . 

Coefficients of enuivalence in ternary 

alloys. Guillet and Portevin. 
(S.l •. 

In^'nence of gases on high-grade. 

Bnmfnrd and Ballard. (S.) 

Scrap. Treating. Ralston, (P.) . . . . 

Bregeat process for solvent recovery. Rol- 
le\ix and Dort 

Brincll hardness tester, Modified. (B. P.) 

British-American Nickel Corporation, De- 
velopment of 

British Chemical Industry. 85. 190. 418 
812. 1001. 

British CoM-MniA : 

Pfiper possibilities 

Prinnp Rup-^rt Pulp & Paper Co. sul- 
phite mill 

Tnii)erial Oil Co. refinery to resume. . 

Tti.hwii-i.i' notes 7^n(\ 

Sodinm Mi'vnir & Products Co. plant 

Bromine in 1920 

Browning and \)Iuing steel articles. Cor- 
nell 

Buenos Aires exposition delayed 

Buffalo University chemistry buildinif . . . . 

BuREAf OF Mines: 

Cr.vogcni'^ 'aboratorv d^'ii^ation .... 

H Foster H.iin bnoni"* dii'cctor of.. 

Apprr;i)rialioiiM reduced 

Ai)i)ropriation asked for study of non- 
metallic structural materials .... 

Discussion of western melallurirical 

problems 

May study Black Hill ores 

Officials to visit mining experiment 

stations 



1101 
449 

137 

714 
230 

1029 

580 

318 

405 
1160 

1120 



668 

362 

318 

983 

536 

1121 

492 

449 
137 

580 

580 

669 

41 
417 

982 



982 

406 

1161 



982 



492 

1029 
•685 

489 



►976 
»]77 
•261 
•439 



*609 

132 

1115 

•91fl 

•226 

228 
594. 



183 

492 
492 

1 1 .^H 

137 

1108 

301 
533 
899 



•914 

•179 
40 

797 

185 
580 



.577 

ib;u 



Technical motion pictures 

Bt;REAtT OF Standarps: 

Recent work of. Warner. (N.) ... 799 

Staiulard steel and hronr.e samples . . 160 

St.-ii\(l.-ird iron and steel samples. . . . 492 



Burgess nominated for Tariff Commission. 1157 
Burns, Acid and alkali. Treatment of. 

Smith 748 

Comment. Goetschius 868 

Butyl alcohol .md acetone from starch. 

Nasmith. (N.) 534 



Cadmium lithopone. Webster 

Calcium carbide, mfr. in blast furnace. 

Norton. (P.) 

Calcium requirement of man (S.) 

Calcium silicide as deoxidizer 

Calomel electrode. Laubengayer. (N.) . 
Camphor: 

New tariff proposed 

Production in the United States. . . . 

Taiwan production 

Canisellite. A new mineral 

Canada : 

Coal trade for 1920 

.Foreign trade, 1920 

Gas industry in 1918 

Oil field developments in 



Pulpwood resources of 

Cans for petroleum products, mfr. of. 
Baxter. (N.) 

Canvas. Treated. Water resistance of. 
Veitch. (N.) 

Capillar.v flow and surface tension. Wash- 
burn (S.) 

Capital Increases, etc. 412. 456. 499. 
588. 631. 720. 764. 864. 907, 951. 
1040. 1084. 1128. 1168. 



372 

1027 
129 
980 
819 

360 
185 
926 

1158 



599 

564 
785 
856 
208 

360 

831 

314 

544. 
995, 



Carbon bisulphide: 

Mfr. in blast 

(P.) 



furnace. McElroy. 



Casein 
Casein 



Carbon monoxide detection. Hoover. (N.) 

Caribbean ports. Trade trip to 

Cartridge cases. Artillery. Read and Tour. 

(N.) 

specifications and tests. (N.) . . . 

compounds. Hoffmann-La Roche. 

(B. P.) 

Casein glue affected by chemical reaction 
Castor oil : 

Castor bean production in Java .... 

Catalysis: 

Catalyst for synthetic ammonia. (B. 

P.) 

(B. P.) 
Temperature control during-. Downs. 

(P.) • 

Cellulose: 

Action of h.vdrobromic acid on. Hib- 

bert. (N.) 

Standard cellulose proposed. Johnsen. 

(N.) ; 

Tropics as future source of. Whit- 
ford. (N.) 



707 
830 
275 

330 

727 

708 
964 

384 



402 
489 

1027 



Drinker. (N.) 
Dreyfus 



(B. 



Cellulose acetate: 

European practice. 

-Dj-eing. (B. P.) . . 

Solvents for use with 

P.) 

Cellulose Section. A. C. S.: 

Rochester meeting report 

Cement : 

German industry 

-State-owned plant in South Dakota. . 



Cements: 

H.vdrocarbon. 

(B. P.) 



834 

834 

833 

s;u 
1116 

708 

833 

688 
667 



Barrie and Chad wick. 



Central Leather Co. report '. 

Ceramics : 

Bureau of Mines may study non-metal- 
lic structural materials 

Ceramic appropriation fails in Ohio. . 

^Ceramic exposition in Newark, N. J. 

Po-operative work in 

'^o-opcrative work planned ........ 

■ Electric heating in. Scott 

Problems to be solved. Minton. (N.j 

.Research in ceramic decorative i)roc- 

esses. R'.icad. (S.) 

Research on Colorado ceramic re- 
sources 

Chandler Medal awarded to Dr. P. G Hop- 
kins 

Charcoal absorption process for g-asoline 
Burrell, Oberfcll and Voress. . . . 

Charts: 

Calculation of percentage removal of 

a coiKtitucnt from a mixture. Van 
Arsdel 

Chemical and Allied Industrial Markets 
90. 139. 187. 230. 275 319 36" 
450. 493. 537. 582. 625. 670 714' 
801. 857, 901, 945, 989. 1034 
1121. 1162. 

rhemieal companies formed. New... 943 

Chemical disarmament. Lefcbure 

Chemic.ll engineering education survey . 

Chemical imi)orts and exports- 

.Ian\iary. 1921 

Fcbru;irv !!!.!! 

Chemic-'' literature. Investiirations ' of. 

Barrows i 

II.' 

Ill 

Correction. Van Patten 

Chemical organization and manasrement. 

Whittaker. (N.) 

Chemical preiiaredness. Wadsworth. (N.j 

Chemical Products Co. closes ])lant 

Chemical reactions. Effecting vnider pres- 

s\n-e. Scliellenberg. (B P.) .... 
Chomical toimagc on Class 1 railroads. . . . 
Chemical Warfare Service: 

Fries advocates plan to atTmulate in- 
ventive initiative 

Service school opens 

A. C. S. advisor.v committee to meet 

Resolution to be submitted to A. C. S. 



621 

448 



797 
578 
801 
668 
492 
400 
419 

1117 
579 
668 

•156 



•846 

42. 

406. 

758. 

1078. 

1120 

5 

1047 

535 

757 

423 
477 
517 
548 

136 
822 
491 

•984 
779 



89 
136 
228 
273 



Chemical Warfare Service — Continued: 

Appropriation 273 

Investigating alleged gas injuries. . . 361 

'Needs commissioned personnel 447 

Report by War Dept. committee on 

expenditures 491 

iChemical warfare exhibit ^512 

At Wilmington 942 

At House Office Building- 943 

Dinner : 

Announcement 665 

Report ^754 

Legislators visit Edgewood Arsenal. . 624 

Senator Lenroot's opinion of visit 

A. C. S. committee to visit Edgewood 

To concentrate work at Edgewood . . 

-To test gas bombs in aerial warfare 



668 
713 

709 
899 

General staff college hears of 897 

Appropriation 941 

Anniversary exercises at Edgewood 

Arsenal 1073 

Chemical Warfare Service Association pro- 
posed 580 

Chemicals moved throug-h Panama Canal 

in March 985 

Chemists: 

Who is a chemist? McCormick. Perino 416 

Comment 593 

Comment. Kaempffert 956 

— ■ — 'Compensation of chemists and sales- 
men Ferguson 460 

Comment. Chemist 637 

Business and chemists. Giston 401 

Chemists Club: 

Tenth annual meeting: 

Announcement 448 

Report •549 

Chemistry. Language of. B. T. B 548 

Chewing erum. Gutta-gaekwar as base for. 

Dannerth 308 

Chia seed oil. Industrial possibilities of.. 82 
Chicago Chemists Club: 

Smolder 361 

Annual meeting 667 

Ladies' niglit 756 

Hike over dunes 

Chicago Section. A. Cer. S. : 

February meeting. Uses of lead. . . 

May meeting 

Chicago Section. A. C. S.: 

January meeting. Home remedies. 

February meeting. Redmanol 

Aiiril meeting. Photochemistry . . 

-May meetin?. Oxidation. 



987 

317 
1075 

229 

448 
800 
986 

Chicago Universi',.v reports favorably on 

research plan 942 

Chilean nitrate: 

Exports for 1920 557 

Recovery of. Gringioni. (B. P.) . . ^532 



Chimne.vs : 

Ste°l. In copper plants. 

(N.) 



McGregor. 



329 



China. 

Economic and political conditions. 

Chan. (N.) 136 

Ksg products industry 16 

Sugar project in 845 

Chinawood oil. Solidified. Scobel 532 

Chloridizing complex ores. Hamilton. (B. 

P.) 271 

Chlorine : 

Control in bleaching- cotton g-oods. 

Schroeder ^925 

Attempt to activate photometrically. 

Wendt. (N.) 8.'' 

Electrolytic chlorine :caustic cells: 

— ' — • Rise and development of the elec- 
trolytic alkali and chlorine i"- 
dustrv in Europe. Kershaw . . T. 

II. 

ni. 

Comment. Hutchins 

Marsh type. Marsh. (N.) 

Chloroform from isopropyl alcohol. Phil- 
lips. (P.) 



Chromite. Tariff problems 

Civil Service Examinations 447. 491. 622. 

899. 
Classifiers. Upward current ore. Jalabert. 

(B. P.) 

Clay. Aa-ing of. Sp\irricr. (S.) 

Clav storage within factory. (S.) 

Cleaning metallic materials 

Cloths for mechanical uses. Cox 

Coal: 

Extraction of hydrocarbons from. 

Plauson and Vielle. (B. P.) .... 
Pulverized coal 

Gasification of. Bourcoud 



•119 

•167 

506 

819 

36 
1004 
666. 



Coal-tar: 
Research 

Downs. 
Chemicals 

(S.) .. 



•938 
620 
260 
209 
613 



937 

251 

•601 



at Shadyside. Weiss and 
in i9i9. Tariff census. 



Cobalt 

And nickel, separating-. Udy and Ral- 
ston. (P.) 

Cobalt bra.sses. Guillet. (S.) 

Cobalt oxide. Tariff problems 

Coi'onut oil: 

Mill situation in Dutch East Indies. . 

Priihlems in preparation of copra and. 

Brill 

Coke: 

Byproduct coke plant of Jones & 

Laughlin- Steel Co. Meissner 

Byproduct coke plants in United 

States 

Coke ovens: 

Charging- car for. Becker. (P.) ...' 

Wallace retort. Wallace. (P ) ... 

Construction of. Koi>pers. (P.) . . . 

Colloidal clay as paper filler 

Colloids : 

Survey of physics and chemistry of. 

Svedljerg- 



•150 
180 

489 
•439 

1003 

378 
567 

•891 

1056 

•1115 

36 

604 

580 



•Illustrated: (P.). (B. P.) — United States and British patents respectively: (S.) — Synopsis; 
(N.) — Papers read at society ineetiiigrs but not printed in full. 



INDEX 



Colloids — Continued: 

A. C. S. symposium on contact 

catalysis (N.) .• • • ■ 

Border lines of colloid chemistry. 

Comment. Loeb 681 

Industrial applications of. Holmes. 

(N.) 

Colloids. Holmes. iN.( .. 

Preparation of colloidal suspensions 

by g-rinding-. Plauson and Vielle. 

(B. P.) 



837 



579 
109t) 



852 



Color 



228 

361 

800 

1077 

986 



Colloid chemistry and. Bancroft. (N.) 824 

Measurement of. Mees. (N.) o-i 

Chemical constitution and. Lewis.. 'S/l 

Columbia University: „ 

New chemistry building- for tyi 

Condenser, multiwhirl subcooling- *2b7 

Connecticut Valley Branch. T. A. P. P. I.: 

—January meeting. Rubber rolls 

February meeting. Drying of paper. 

April meeting. Dyes 

May meeting. Water purification... 

Constants, Chemical and physical: 

Annual Tables of 8'>3 

Critical tables of ._,- ■ ■ • • 1 !•'» 

Construction and operation. 4/. 9h, 144, U)^ 
235 280, 324, 367, 411, 4.}0, 498, 042, 
.>87: 630, 675, 719. 763, 806, 863, 906, 
950, 994, 1039. 1083. 1127. 1167. 
Connecticut Valley Section, A. C. S.: 

February meeting. X-Rays 317 

April meetiuif. Corrosion <oo 

Containers. Deceptive, Congress may ban 8oh 
Coors Pottery Co. reduces force 492 

Copper : 

Influence on some physical properties 

of iron and steel. Richardson. . . . 

. — A S T. M. specifications submitted to 

A. E. S • • ■ 

Cerro de Pasco Copper Corp. produc- 
tion 

Tests- of brazed cooper sheets for 

roofing w ■: • ' ' ' 

Coating with. Smith. (B. P.) ... 

Electrolytic. Cowper-Coles. (B. P) 



Diamonds. Tariff problems 1004 

Diaphrag-m for electrolytic cells. Krejci and 

Johnson. (P.) 36 

Dinitrophenol. Mfr. of. (B. P.) '402 

Disarmament, Chemical. Lefebure 6 

Distillation: 

— . — Benzene still. New European. Thau.*1013 

Apparatus for distilling hydrocarbons. 

etc. Granger et al. (B. P.) ... 'Idd 

Driers and Drying: 

Atmospheric drying. Carrier. (N.) 

Compartment driers. Stacey. (N.) . 



565 

448 

644 

1160 
316 
795 



Copper :aluminum alloys: 
Mechanism of solidification of. Ed- 
wards 217 

Alcobronze (N.) 230 

Copper :nickel allovs: -rco 

Notes on. Meriea 'oOo 

Copra and coconut oil. Problems in prep- 

aration of. Brill • 5H7 

Coaquito nut industry in Mexico 345 

Cordage fiber industry of Philippine Is- 
lands. Cox 

Corn products : 

U. S. export trade in corn sirup and 

corn sugar 



•285 



485 



Corn Products Refining- Co. operating- at 50 

per cent 988 

Costs — A short study of factory economics. 

Peterkin 253 

Cottonseed oil : 

Chemical problems in mfr. of. Howe 

(N.) 

Cottonseed valuation. Johnson. (N.) . . 



fi66 
829 

Cottrell goes to Europe 1074 

Cracking processes: 

Alcohols, esters and ketones from 

waste vapors of. Ellis et al. (P ) 

Process. George. (B. P.) 

Use of sodium in. Knibbs. (B. P.) 

Crane. Locomotive. Small type 



488 

•134 

795 
• 32 

•30.3 



Creosote evaporation from open tanks. . . 
Creosote, Separating from tar. Erdmann. 

(B. P.) 1028 

Crescent Refractories Co. merger 490 

Cresols. Separation of meta- and para-. 

Downs and Potter. (P.) 314 

Crocker-McElwain plan to help employees 137 
Crystals. Washing in centrifugals. Wind- 
ram (B. P.) 134 

Curie. Mme. M. S. : 

Plans for visit 533 

Willard Gibbs Medal awarded to ... . 713 

Presentation •1132 

Entertainment for 753 

To visit Washington 898 

Visit an inspiration 987 

Receives 50 mg. mosothorium 1120 

Current Events. 39. 86. 135. 180, 227, 273, 

316, 358, 403. 491), ."133, 578, 622. 

665 709. 753. 797. 853. 897, 939. 
985. 1030, 1073, 1118, 1157. 

Cyanamide: 

Continuous furnace for. Thrane. 

(P.) 



■^Mfr. in blast furnace. Norton. (P ) 
-Granular. Akt. Ges. fiir Stickstoff- 

diinger.. fB. P.) 

-Mfr. of Thossell and Lunden. (B.P ) 
-Solution free from dicyandiamide. 

Wargons Akt. and Lidholm. (B. P.) 



314 
1027 

37 

796 

38 



-Direct-heat rotary driers. Merz. (N.) 

-Kelp drier. Spencer. (N.) 

-Rate of drying of solid materials. 

Lewis. (N. ) 

-Spray process. Fleming. (N.) 

-Tunnel driers. Ridley. (N.) 

-<Vaccum drying. Van Marie. (N.) 



Duralumin sheet. Corrosion of 

Dust collector. Boby. (B. P.I 

Dust Explosions: 

'Engineering jiroblems in prevention 

of. Price 

Methods of preventing. Price 

Comment. Clark Dust Collecting Co. 



827 
828 
828 
828 

•827 
828 
828 
828 
939 
•1111) 



•29 
473 
681 
680 



Chicago elevator wrecked by 

Explosion of hard rubber dust. Price 

and Brown •TS? 

-Would investigate 985 



378 
438 



Dutch East Indies: 

Coconut-oil mill situation in 

^Indigo production in 

Dye Division, A. C. S.: 

Rochester meeting report 831 

Dye Legislation : 

British dye bill 40 

Dye bill: 

Compromise rumored 229 

Dye licensing may be continued. . . . 987 

Knox amendment to peace resolution 798 

Knox amendment to emergency tariff 

bill 863 

Passes Senate 897 

Conferees agree on 941 

< Text of 985 



Dyes : 



-Compilation of American dye patents 

in abstract form. Ambler 

-Development of dye industry. Derick. 

(N.) 



636 

88 

-Dye imports. 1920. deLong 845 

-Dyes in 1919. Tariff census. (S,) . 180 
-DuPont dye plant increases produc- 
tion 1118 

-Industry lags pending- legislation . . . 362 

-Anthraquinone. Casella & Co. (B. P.) 489 

-Azo. British Dyestuffs Corp. (B P.; 272 
-From nitrated diphenylamine. British 
Dyestuffs Corp. and Turner. <B. 

P.) 134 

-Sulphur. Cassella & Co. (B. P.) ... 37 



E 



Eastman Kodak Co.. Kodak Park Works. . ^838 
Editorial : 

Actual smoke damage must cause 

visible markings 459 

American Leather Chemists Associa- 
tion 1086 

Army's nitrogen policy determined. . 810 

Artistic influence in scientific devel- ' 

opment 767 

Authoritative opinion on synthetic 

food 414 

Beware the ides of March ! 50 

The border lines of colloid chemistry 547 

Brains applied to forging 239 

^Byproduct coking establishes another 

record 2.39 

999 
500 

147 

865 

282 
502 

98 
999 

589 
147 

51 

1130 

954 

326 



-Can opportiinity be capitalized?. 
-A chance to try again 



-The chemical engineer and the human 

viewpoint 

Chemical industry and the Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Chemical Warfare Service an invest- 
ment for economy 

The chemistry of olfactics 

Chemists may become chemical am- 
bassadors 

Common honesty and self-interest . . 

Consolidation of research by electro 

carbon group '. . 

— ■ — Conversion of sawdust into cattle feed 

Corporation dividends, education and 

research 

Courage a byproduct of research .... 

Cracking brass by corrosive reagents 

Decentralization in technical socie- 
ties 



Editorial — Continued: 

A general and particular confession 

of pharmaceutical fault 679 

German chemi-^ts in American employ 591 

Germany bows to the inevitable. . . . 867 

Gossiping tongues injure the profes- 
sion 4 

The g^reat cemetery of archives 413 

A great obligation 866 

Green grass as a mine for vitamines 547 

High co.sls in producing steel 1086 

Home valuation of imports 909 

Hours of service in the steel industry 503 

How much conceit is beneficial'-.... 237 

Idealism tempered with common sense 633 

Ignorance in high places 281 

An important position filled •325 

Improvement in drill steels 327 

Inadequate support of foreign trade 

representatives .325 

Inconsistencies in prices and wages.. 911 

'Industrial alcohol and prohibition. . 1085 

Information on fatigue failures 370 

Interim protection for the dye indus- 

^try 811 

International migration of technical 

men and the diffusion of manufac- 
turing secrets 237 

Investment cf work 1129 

Iron and steel production costs. . . . 326 

— — Labels to inform and to deceive. . . . 458 

Labor unions and industrial decay. . 867 

Labor unions and inefficiency 1043 

The language of chemistry 194 

Legislation that passed and leg-isla- 

tion that failed 457 

Let's go after -'Two per cent for 

C. W. S." .545 

The lime industry looks to research. . 1131 

Madame Curie honored by New York 

chemists 909 

Making plant troubles pay dividends 3 

Mechanical training for the industrial 

chemist 4 

Meetings of chemists and electro- 
chemists 809 

The merit and value of ceremony! '. 634 

Metallurgical mysteries 238 

Metallurgy and civilization 590 

Mineral tariffs and raw materials. . . . 997 

More business in chemistry 810 

^Necessar;- operating conditions to 

avoid smoke damage 678 

— • — Never built, but building '. 723 

— ' — A new explanation for hardening. . 1041 

A new gateway to chemistry 546 

New Iiearings on the patent office 

bill 

A noteworthy year in the steel mar- 
ket 

Nutrition and the road to pleasant 

living 

'Occupational diseases in the chemical 

industries 

The opportunist in research ....... 

— I — Opportunity for engineer-citizens. . '. '. 

Optimistic outlook in the chemical 

industries 

The overtones of efficiency!!!!!!!' 

Participation of technical men in 

public affairs 

Perkin Medal for Doctor Whitney'"' 

Petrified wool fat 11,30 

Plan to make new tariff duties im- 
mediately effective 

Popular appeal in industrial reels! ' 

Popularizing science 

Power plant wastes contain recover- 
able chemicals 194 

— ' — Prevention of food waste aim of Re- 
search Institute 633 

Professional services recogrnized in 

proposed classification 865 

Promotion in technical positions 1043 

A question that will not down 19.3 

Ra-l statistics for 1920 ! ojjo 

Research, a capital investment or an 

operating expense? 

Research opportunities of the Soiith 

Resignation of A. I. ME. secretary 

Responsibility holds the better man 



Cyanides: 

Rich producer gas and. Franchot. 

(P.) 315 

'Mfr. from nitrogen and al'<ali. Thos- 
sell and Lunden. (B. P.) 37 

^Mfr. of. Thossell and Lunden. (B.P t 796 

Cymene-stearosulphonic acid. Hydrolysis of 

fats by. McKee and Lewis ^969 



D 



Da.vlight saving. No chance for 943 

Deoxidizers: 

Calcium silioide 980 

Ferro-silico-magnes'um. Pistor <P) 1115 

Detinning process. Electrolytic. Steven- 
son and Mabbitt. •"fl.S 

Dextrine industry in Japan 608 

Diamond powder. Recovery from waste 

paste. Berger 208 



Demonstrated improvement — the best 

argument for protection 

Development possibilities are unlim- 
ited 

Developments in the Army's nitrogen 

policy 722 

'Dividing -tlie sheep from the goats in 

research 

Dryness of the liquid phase 

— I — D.ves. world peace, and chemical d's- 
armament , 

Easy money from work 

Eflficiercy in freight movement,, 

Federal Trade Commission accepts 

Judge Gary's invitation 

Fluoresceine and industrial alcohol., 

lA fool and his money 195 

For the improvement of society meet- 
ings 9,-,.3 

The function of educational institu- 
tions in res°ar''h 283 

Fur'her comment on occupational 

diseases 95.5 



370 
811 



145 
998 



1087 
147 

-67 
371 



49 



765 

910 

98 

146 

1 
766 

281 
97 



953 
634 
634 



195 
500 
955 
1129 



A review on book reviewers... ^459 

The right way to do it ' ' ' 282 

Science in the public service ! ! ! 503 

Science vs. politics 91X 

Season-cracking and intergraiiiilai 

fracture 997 

Senate muddle^ the Nitrate bill! ' ' ' " 97 

Shuffling- the pack and dealing a new 

hand 4^4 

Sir or prince !!!!!!!!! 371 

Some steel price comparisons.!!!!! 678 

^Sorts and conditions of men. . . . 369 

Special experts: Charwomen and 

chemists 415 

Steel production in 1920. . . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! lisl 

Stifling water - power development 

through inaction 194 

Strangling business by too much or- 
ganization g77 

Successful chemical research in 

anaesthesia 415 

Suggesting an exhibit for the Ameri- 
can Ceramic Society 910 

A suggestion to authors ! ! ! ! ! 810 

Sunday clothes for chemists' ideas. . 765 

'Sursum corda 14(5 

Surveys of chemical industry! ! ! ! ! 51 

Technologj- brings youth to industry 866 

Theoretical organic chemistry and 

synthetic chemical technology. . . . 635 

Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes 50 

Tinkering with the patent system... 1042 

Unconscious disarmament 721 

U. S Steel Corporation twenty years 

old ". . . . 591 

Universities and research .!!!!!!! 72.3 

-^n unwise immigration measure! ! ! ! 545 

Useful statistics for the chemical in- 

<'"*t''ies 1085 



♦Illustrated; (P ) (R P.) — United States and British patents respectively; (S.) — Synopsis; 
(^•) — Papers read at society meetings but not printed in full. 



VI 



INDEX 



Editorial — Contmued: 

The value of short renorts 

Wanted : A nitrogen industry 

Wanted: A tarag-ometer 

The ways and habits of micro- 
organisms 

What we want is orders 

When will activity in greneral business 

return ? 

Why hire a chemist? 



Education : 

Chemical eng-ineering', 

E§r>-pt : 

Importation of dyes. . 

Electric heating- exhibit . . 



Survey of 



413 

590 
677 

50;: 
458 

49 

72''' 

1047 

528 
943 



Electric Furnace : 

General : 

Operating details of. Moore 

Use in ceramics, glass, etc. Scott. 

Electrodynamic forces in. Bering. 

(N.) 

RegTilation of steel arc furnaces 

using movable electrodes. My- 
lius. (N.) 

Control system. Greaves and Et- 

chells. (P.) 

Various Desicns: 

Swedish electric pig iron furnace. 

Herlenius 

High-frequency induction steel fur- 

nace. Northrup 

HiE-h-frequency inductive heating. 

Progress in Northnii) * 

Acid vs. basic type for foundry. 

Brooke 

G. E furnaces for non-ferrous 

metals. . . '. 

Melting scrap in Herault furnace. 

Cahill. (S.) 

For non-ferrous metals. Gillett. 

(N.) 

High-frequency induction. North- 

rup. (N.) 

Modified induction furnace for 

melting scrap. Clark (P.) . . . 

Resistance type. Erichsen (B 

P.) 

Electrical precipitators: 

— ' — 'Electric purification of fumes and 
g-ases. Delasalle. (S ) 



'171 
400 

817 



Eleetrodeposition : 

— ' — Research work on 

Electrodes: 

-Continuous calcination of carbon for. 

Hoopes. (P.) 

For arc welding and cutting. Boorne. 

(B. P.) 

Electroplating efficiency increased. (S.) 

Employees' clubs association 

Employment in chemical industries de- 
creases 

Emulsions. Chromatic. Holmes. (N.) . . 

Enamels : 

Porcelain enameling furnaces. Arm- 
strong 

Comment. FitzGerald : 

Comment. Wa.shburn 

Firing methods. (N.) 

Fish scaling. Danielson and Souder. 

(N.) 

For cast iron, Wet process. Daniel- 
son. (N.) 

For copper. (N.) 

— • — RcfU'i'tdr enamels. Parmelee. (N.).. 

Solubility in acids. Staley. (N.) . . 

EngineT who anticipated Hoover. Mc- 
Donald 

Engineering Foundation: 

And industrial research 

England: 

British chemical industry 85, 196. 

r)i»4. 812. 1001. 

Briti.sh dye bill 

British optical glass and scientific in- 
strument bill 

British r)hosT)hate reserves 

British research on automobile steels. 

Comment. CoUitt 

Draft of British Horn? Office regrula- 

tions for chemical works 

Fertilizer embargo 

iljowcr silver content in token coins 

Lubrication-research report 

Mara-arine industry of Hull 

■ Pottery industry, Increased costs in . . 
-Swansea tin i.late industry 



•818 
707 

•108 

•309 

1097 

794 

•793 

851 

817 

818 

851 

•795 

33 

1075 

576 

271 
107 

855 

856 
838 



-Tidal power report 



Etching reagents. List of 

For nickel and nickel alloys 

Evaporation : 

Phosphoric acid evaiKiration. LaBour 

Vapor compression system of evapora- 
tion. Carlsson 

Comment. Dunglinson 

Reiily. Carlsson 

Test code for evaporating- apparatus 

(S.) 

Apparatus. Barbet et Fils ( B. P. I . • 

Explosions, Dust: (see Dust Explosions) 

Explosives: 

Ammonium perchlorate blasting pow- 

d»'r. Langmeier. (P.) 

Produ.tion, 1920 

Export industries to be nidetl 



•486 
593 
868 
420 

419 

420 
420 

1075 
420 

252 

490 



418. 

40 

492 
769 

648 

472 
449 
229 
294 
250 
575 
486 
428 
207 
987 

•466 

•ti45 
1044 
1045 

707 
1072 



664 
929 

1077 



Fabrics, Increasing tensile strength of. 

Henry. (B. P.) 790 

Fats: 

Hydrolysis of fats b.v eymene-stearo- 

uulphonic acid. McKee and Lewis. •969 



Fats — Continued: 

Oils, fats and waxes in Latin America. 

Wilson * 

Refining oils and fats. Vakil. (B. P.) 

Fatty acids. Distilled. Mfr. of. Bodman. 

(N.) 

Federal Leather Co., Fire at Wilmington 

plant 

Federal Power Commission: 

Aid asked of Congress for 

Grants permit to Southern Edison Co. 

Federated American Engineering Societies : 

Activities of 

Feiker to join Department of Commerce. . 

Ferroehromium : 

^Mfr. of. T. Goldschmidt Akt. (B. 

P.) 

Mfr. of. Ballantine. (B. P.» 

Ferromanganese : 

Tariff hearings on 

Ferrosilicon : 

— Influence of silicon upon properties of. 

Lowzow 

Fertilizers : 

Outlook for fertilizer industry. Cam- 
eron 

Armour Fertilizer Works. Jones 



Correction. Jones 
-Svenska den system 

phate 

-Magnesium salts as. (S.) 



I. 
II. 



for acid phos- 



Use of belting in fertilizer plants (S.) 

Present status of fertilizer industry. 

(N.) 

British embargo on 

Federal regulation opposed 

Investigation of fertilizers sold in 

Pennsylvania 

Need for fertilizer grows rapidly. . . . 

Senate asks for report on 

Report in preparation 

Colloidal phosphates. Plauson and 

Vielle. (B. P.) 

Ground eakium phosphate. Thomp- 
son. (B. P.) 

Pho.sphate fertilizer. Morel. (B. P.) 

Supen^hosphate mfr. Matheson (B. 

P. ) 

Fibers: 

Cordage fiber industry of Philippines. 

Cox 

Pieldner becomes superintendent of Pitts- 
burgh Station, Bureau of Mines.. 

Finish of metallic materials. Cornell... 

Fixed Nitrogen Corjioration Bill: (see 
under Nitrogen Fixation). 

Fiakes, Styri 

Flax, Retting. Johnson. (B. P.) 

Flotation process. Minerals Separation 
(B. P.) 

Flow of gases. Measuring. Hayward. . . . 

Comments. Knowland. Donaldson.. 

Fluorspar industry in Germany 

Food dehydration : 

—Fruits and vegetables. Cruess 

Food Industry : 

-What chemistry can do in. Hiltner. 



1101 
•795 

957 

112 

227 
374 

665 
•913 

226 

272 

403 
•481 



•9 

•333 

•379 

548 

•380 

72 
706 

359 

449 

1119 

709 
535 
230 
316 

896 

38 
1156 

1116 



•285 

1073 
209 



Gasoline : 

Charcoal absorption process. 

Ob"rfell ind Voress. 



Burrell, 



.•468 
37 

796 

•780 
956 
332 

•781 

243 

579 

316 

1120 



Forest Products Laboratory : 

Appropriation increased 

Kiln drying course at . . 

Foundry sands. Reclaiming 

France : 

Beet and sugar output 118 

Notes on French industries ....328, 462 

Pig iron production 921 

Perfume industry in 220 

Reconstructing French chemical in- 

dus_try 260 

Recoiistruetion of sugar refineries .... 567 

Recovery of beet sugar industry in. 599 

Reparation in Pasde-Calais district.. 118 

Steel companies combine 1021 

Fries gets recess appointment 623 

Fritz Medal to be presented to Sir Rob- 
ert Hadfieid 798 

Fruit and vegetable dehydration. Present 

status of. Cruess "781 

Fuel: 

Future supply from forests. Hawley. 

fN.) 833 

Fuc' "conomy : 

U- e of 85 j)er cent mr.gnesia insula- 
tion Wei'llein ^295 

Furfural. Synthetic resins from. Mains 

and Phillips 661 



G 

Gary sees prosperity ahead 

<^;as and GASfcs : 

Blast furnace. Purifying. (B. P.) . . 

Canadian industry. 1918 

Flow of. Measuring. Hayward. . . . 

Comments. Knowland. Donaldson.. 

Poison: 

U.se for boll weevil control criticised 

by Dept. of Agriculture 

Producers, Cyanid s and. Franchot. 

(P.) 

Water. Bitu.niribus coal in mfr. of. 

Odell 

Wood distillation ga.a. (S.) 

(ias density (■••timatinir aiiparatiis. Dahlem 

IB. P.l • 

Gas furnaces for melting non-ferrous 

metals. Combs 

Comment. Crosby 

Gas generating apparatus. Bull 

Gas liiiuor. Treating to remove evanides. 

etc. (B. P.) 

Gas producer. Perry. 'B. P.) " 

Soc. Franco-BelK-e. (B. P.) . . < 



1 1 -i6 
785 

•780 
956 



Gasoline container ruling reversed 

Georgia kaolins to be studied 

Georgria mineral deposits to be examined. 
General Asphalt Co. annual meeting . . . 

Germany : 

-Cement industry 



•156 
940 

112 < 
753 

987 



-Chemical industry during 1919 

-Fluorspar industry in 

-New refractor.v product 

-Nitrogen fixation status 

-Organization of employers in . . 



Organization of workers in 

Synthetic ammonia manufacture at . . 

Oppau I •305. II '347, III 

Gibbs Medal awarded to Mme. Curie. . . . 
Presentation * 

Glass : 

Electric heating in. Scott 

Ancient and modern methods. Dixon. 

(S ) 

Dissolved gases in. Washburn. (S ) 

Mfr. of melting pots for. Brownlee 

and Gorton. (S.) 

Barium glass. Composition of. Mont- 
gomery. fN. ) 

Dissolved ga?es in. Washburn. (N.) 

^Le°rs. Operation of. Frazier. CS .) . 

Training glassworks chemist. Silver- 
man. fN.) . 

Census report on 



Glue: 



-Low coefficient of expansion. Smith 

(P.) 

-Non-fragile. Grossley. (B. P.) ... 

-Factors influencing viscosity of. Crupi. 

Comparison of five types of 

Casein glue affected by chemical re- 
action 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. reorganiza- 
tion 

Government : 

Administration favors fact find-ng. 

Kelp products plant to b^ soH 

Problem of reorganization of. Hoover 

Surplus supplies: 

Chemicals sold 

Brass sold 53-1. 

Smokeless powder sold 

Graphite: « 

Industry in 1920 

Status of Madagascar industry 

— ■ — Tariff problems 1003. 

Greensand. Action of lime on. Shreve. 

(N.) 

Correction 

Gutta gaekwar base for chewing gnm. 

Dannerth 

Gypsum plaster: 

Plastic. Ernley 

Commercially available 

iSpecifications for color of. Emiey 

and Faxon 



R8S 
259 

332 

!«-., 

621 
889 
934 

••391 

■71 "K 

1132 

400 

620 
663 

620 

421 
422 
422 

421 
1017 

489 
315 

575 
165 

964 

987 

856 

743 

184 
756 
623 

884 

289 

1005 

831 
964 

308 

740 
1119 

•1054 



Hadfieid. Sir Robert. Fritz Medalist 

Hardening of metals. Slip interfppen'^e 
theory of. .leffries and Archer. . . • 

Hardness tester, Brinell. Modification of. 
(B. P.) 

Heat conductivities of some insulating and 
building materials Lichtin. . . . 

Heat insulation. Weidlein 

Helium : 

Story of. Moore. (N.) 

Purification. Finkelstein. (N.) . . . 

Repurification 

Aopronri.ition for study of 

Hercules Powder Co. acquires Aetna Ex- 
plosives Co 

Highwavs and streets. Ownership of. 
Sherlock 

Hoover requests additional funds '. . 

House committee approves appropria- 
tions 

Hoi)kins Dr. F. G., to receive Chatidler 
Medal 

"nmie acids. Synthesis of. (S.) '.'. 

H.vdroearbons : 

Catalytic oxidation of. Wohl. (B, P.) 

Chlorination of. Houlehan. (P.) . . . 

<!hlorination of. Plauson and Vielle 

(B. P.) 

Extraction of. Plauson and Vielle. 

(B. P.) 

Hydrogen : 

.Artificial iron ore for generation of.. 

Production for synthetic ammonia. 

Claude. fS.) • 

From electric and blast furnace gases 

Toniolo. (B. P.) 

Hydrogen Ton Concentration: 

In chemic,"' and biological work. 

-V'<ree. (N.) 

H.vdros-en i>eroxide: 

Mfr. of. Jacquelet. (P.) 

Hydroa-en sulphide: 

Large-scale generation of. Hanley. . . 

Laboratory generator. Bull 



316 

315 

60 
132 

1116 Ice molecule, 

(N.) 

•515 Illinois, University of. 

912 India. Oil seeds in 

•749 Indiana Section. ACS.: 

January meeting. Activated nitro- 

485f gen. hydrogen and oxyg-en. An- 

1116 deregg. iN.) 

1156 February meeting. Butyl alcohol... 



Structure of. Langmuir 
Fellowships at. . . . 



1147 

1057 

•226 

•388 
•295 

816 

838 
1031 
1160 

1076 

266 
799 

985 

668 
313 

937 
36 

937 

937 

1068 

1071 

226 

318 

488 

•693 
•749 



838 
135 
346 



1S5 
534 



•Illustrated: (P.). (B. P.) — United States and British patents respectively: (S.)- 
(N.) — Papers read at society meetings but not printed in "full. 



-SjTiopsis : 



INDEX 



Vll 



Iiidisro in Dutch East Indies 

Industrial hygiene: 

British Home Office regulations for 

chemical works 

Practical jokers among- workmen. 

Sherlock 

Safety methods applied in Ryerson 

steel-service plants 

Industrial needs of chemistry. Hale (N.) 

Industrial Notes. 47. tMj. -yMi. 499. 54:$. 
807. 995. 

Industrial Relations Association Confer- 
ence 

Institute of Chemistry: 
-Opinions on 



-Committee report on 



International Chamber of Commerce Com- 
mittee 

Iodine. Tariff problems 

Ionization and resonance potentials. Foote 
and Mohler. (N.) 

Iron : 

Chemical equilibrium between iron. 

carbon and oxygen. Ma.subara. 
(N.) 

Commercially pure Iron in basic open- 
hearth. Beck 

Iron :nickel alloy.s. Merica 

Iron pyrites. Heat of dissociation of. 
Kamura 

Iron and Steel : 
-.Analysis: 



438 Iron and Steei^ — Continufd: 

Drill steel from hollow ingots. Arm- 

strong 

*'^" High-speed tool steel. (P.) 

• Iron :ni<-kel alloys. Mericii 

"!'' Molybdenum steels. Matthews... 

.„_, Molybdenum steel and its applica- 

2gl tion. Schmid 

83" Molybdenum steel. Sargent and 

fi-il- Schmid. (N.) 

Rock-drill steel. Hoffman. (S.).. 

,„^ Tungsten steels. Structure of 

184 Iron and Steel Market. 43. 92. 140. 
„.„ 277, :i-ZO. 363. 407. 451. 494. 

240 H27. ti71. 715. 759. 803. H59. 

579 OJH). i();jt). 1080 1123. Ilti3. 

Isopropyl alcohol from cracking 
vapors. Ellis et al. (P.).. 



Simplified carbon combustion train. 

Boone •1068 

Corrosion: ; see Metal Protection and 

Corrosion) 

— • — More' flakes. Styri •468 

Rail fail ares and segregation. 

Comstock 149 

Comment. Dornin 504 

Reply. Comstock 506 

Superficial burning of low-carbon 

steel. Mitchell. (S.) 

Wheel-burnt rails. Howard. (S.) 

Effect of Various Elements: 

Influence of copper on some physi- 

cal properties. Richardson.... 

Manganese, Effect on tensile prop- 

erties >i malleable iron Leuen- 

berger. (S.) 

Comment. Schwartz 

Nitrogen in steel. Comments 

Sulphur and phosphorus investiga- 

tions 



850 
•850 



565 



751 
913 
331 



404 



799 
794 



387 
301 



331 
404 
938 



968 

•.532 
289 



— Furnaces: 

— Swedish electric pig iron furnace. 

Herlenius • J 

— Oil-fired ?onverters in Scotland. . . . 

— Acid vs. basic electric furnace for 

foundry. Brooke 

— High-frequency induction steel fur- 

nace. Northrup *309 

— Melting scrap in Heroult furnace. 

Cahill (S.) 851 

— Gas-fired crucible furnaces 10 70 

—General : 

— Belgian industry. Status of 

— Bluing and browning steel articles. 

Cornell 

— Chemical eouilibrium between iron. 

carbon and oxygen. Matsubara. 
(N.) 

— International steel conference pro- 

posed 

— Removing carbon by oxygen. 

Schutz. (B. P.) 

-Heat Trejit.ment : 

— Diniensional limitations of succes- 

sive heat-treatments of carbon 
steel. Wood . .• '345 

— Heat-treatment of heavy forgings. 

Fry and McKinney. (N.) ... 

— Magnetic device for use in. San- 

berg and Humphrey. (B. P. ) . . 

— Nitrogen and case-hardening. Fay 

— Steel castings of high strength and 

toughness. Giolitti I '113. II •IHl 
-Mechanical M'ork: 

— Forge press operations. Schneider. 

(S.) •269 

-Sletallography : (see also Heat-Treat- 
ment) 

— Carbide in quenched and tempered 

steels. Saito. (S.) 133 

Macroscopic examination of metals. 

Rawdon ^385 

— Preparation of small pieces for 

microscopic examintion. Rawdon ^475 
-Processes: 

Electric pig: 

Electric pig iron at Domnarfvet. 

Sweden. dcGeer ^429 

Wrought iron : 

Method of making wrought iron. 

Aston.. (P.) 707 

-Ph'sioal Properties: (see also Heat- 
Treatment ) 

Comparative tests at high tempera- 
tures. MacPherran •1153 

— Effect of mechanical treatment on 612 

— Influence of copper on. Richardson 565 

— Motion pictures in physical testing 

laboratory. French ^131 

— Length changes at transformation 

points. Lemoine and Garvin. 

IS ) •1117 

— Predicting strength of rolled steel. 
Webster. (S.) 1071 



-Spec-al Ste,'ls 

- Alloy steel. White. (N.) 361 

Allo.v steel patent case before Su- 
preme Court 358 

- Chromium steels, Microstructare of •703 
Chromium :tungsten steels: 

-decent work on •^".'^ 

Constit:ition of ^791 



189. 
538. 
902. 

still 



•96;> 

1115 

•375 

395 

927 

800 
751 

•745 

232. 

583. 

946. 



87 
1004 

84 



331 

•965 
'375 

•437 



Italy : 



-Hydro-electric developments i.i 
-Italian chemical industries . . 
-Sumac prod'iotion 



.770. 



Japan : 

Dextrine industry in 

Iron from volcanic iron oxide sand. 

(S.) 

Japanning 

Java : 

-Production of castor beans in 



of. 



489 

706 

1046 

604 



608 

200 
211 

384 

666 

619 

725 

•891 

274 



Jelly, Chemical problems in mfr. 

Howe. (N ) 

Jokers, Practical, Among workmen. Sher- 
lock 

Comment. Lunt 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. coke plant. 
Meissner 

Journal of Electricity and Western Industry 



K 



Kelly-Springfield Tire Co. moves to Cum- 
berland 490 

Kelp products plant to be sold 753 

Kilns : 

Data on Dressier Kiln. Riddle. (N.) 422 

Description of unique kiln. Harrop. 

fN.) 422 

Compartment kiln for clay products. 

Richardson. (N.) 422 

Shaw compartment kiln. Minton. 

<N.) 422 

Firing ceramic ware in tunnel kilns. 

(B. P.) 1156 



Laboratories : 

Barrett Co. Shadyside laboratories. 

Weiss and Downs •ISO 

Bureau of Mines cryogenic laboratory •914 

Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory. 

Tolmaii ^595 



Lacquering 211 

Latin America. Oils, fats and waxes in. 

Wilson •IIOI 



laundering problems. Wakefield. (N.) 
Lead : 

^Use in ceramics. Wilson 

Lead ores. Sulphide. Treating 
(B. P.) 

Leather : 



(N.) .. 
Mackay. 



622 
317 
708 



Conditions in leather industry. Rob- 
ertson. (N) 1096 

Extraction of. Wilson. Veitch. (N.) 1095 

Sampling for analysis. Small. (N.) 1095 

South America and leather industry. 

Kerr. (N.) 1094 

American Leather Research Labora- 
tories established 27 

Improved conditions in leather indus- 
try 943 

Paint for. Richard and Dubois. 

(B. P.) 225 

'Scouring and dressing composition for. 

Hough. (B. P.) 1156 

Legal Notes. 27. 129, 223. 303, 355. 397 
480, 521. 571, 653. 692. 735, 789. 
930, 1018. 

Legal, Notes : 

Injuries caused by emergencies. Sher- 
lock 



-Legal and official chemistry. Dannerth 
-Ownership of highways and streets. 

Sherlock 

-Who is entitled to inventions? Sher- 
lock 

By Wellington Gustin 



-Contract to buy may not be trans- 
ferred without consent of original 
seller 

-Corporation casting metal furnished 
b.v contractor held "manufacturer" 

-Court construes contract of .seller not 
to engage in similar business 

-Court holds Langmuir's patent for in- 
candescent lamp valid 

-Court holds seller under the contract 
could have others manufacture the 
products 

-Creditor's knowledge relieves sto'^k- 
holder in corporation from liability 
under Georgia laws 

-Crop surplus awarded fertilizer works 
where surplus was due to fertilizer 
used 

-Device having "U. S." as most promi- 
nent feature not registrable 



1069 
397 

266 

438 

355 

571 
304 
303 

28 

692 

1018 
129 



I^eoal Notes — Continued: 

Employee may recover damages for 

accident that aggravates a diseai5e 480 

General rules of Water Purification 

Board of Rhode Island do not ag- 
grieve c-orporations or persons . . . 653 

Government need not pay for product 

it destroys under act of Congress of 

March 4. 1915 692 

Grosvenor process for hardening sicca- 
tive coatings held invention 1018 

Guano company held liable for un- 
lawful obstruction to navigation.. 223 

Guarantee of products by another is 

a direct obligation and need not be 

in writing 654 

Liability of buyer by acceptance of 

part of shipment 480 

Manufacturer mu.st account for royal- 
ties 28 

Negligence in handling of acid.s — care 

required to prevent injuries to 

others 129 

Non-riparian owner has no right of 

action for pollution of stream .... 572 

Plea of set-off good where company 

sold product exclusively contracted 

for by another 735 

Principles of shipping and delivery of 

goods enunciated by court decision 930 

Process for making arsenate of lead 

is held valid — Growth of the indus- 
try 521 

Right of stockholder to inspect records 

of chemical company 572 

Rights to trade mark between manu- 
facturer and distributor 355 

Rule laid down where defendant may 

examine plaintiff before trial .... 654 
Sale contract held subject to rule fix- 
ing percentage of estimated output. 571 

Salesmanager of chemical company 

may not alter contract of company 

without authority 27 

Secret processes and letters patent — 

nature of the rights therein distin- 
guished 130 

Seller not responsible for crop failure 

where fertilizer was sold by an- 
alysis 304 

Sympathetic strike to compel employ- 
ment cf union men only held un- 
lawful 223 

U. S. Supreme Court holds Burchenal 

patent void for anticipation by the 

Normann process 789 

United States Supreme Court holds 

Virginia tax uncon'ititutional . . . . 2S 

'Varnish drying patent held valid . . . 736 

Verbal promise by salesman not bind- 
ing, especiallj- when promptly re- 
pudiated 692 

Vessel of paper united by fused ce- 
ment not patentable 27 

What constitutes a contract by letters 

and telegrams 930 

Where customs and usages were part 

of contract — deliveries explained by 

showing custom 52'^ 

Library and research work 372 

Comment. AVilson 593 

Light waves. Ruling scales by 112'1 

Lighting. Industrial. Glare vs", diffusion in 32 
Lime: 

^Chemical Control. The key to kiln 

efficiency. Mount iN.) 



Evaluation by causticizing test. (N.) 

New features in kiln construction. 

Meade. (N.) 

Modern plant at Rockland. Me. Wood. 

(N.) 

Use in water purification. Brown (N.) 

Linseed oil : 

Mfr. of. (S.) 

Liquids. Apparatus for indicating height 

in receptacles. Fuller. CP.) .... 
Literature. Chemical. Investigations of... 
Barrows I 423. 11 477, III 

Correction. Van Patten 

Lithopone: 

Cadmium lithopone. Webster 

Louisiana Section. A. C. S.: 

-January meeling 



Lubricants: 

British lubrication-research report 

Lumber, Killing molds by steaming . . 



M 



IJ •■< 
726 

1141 

1141 
1142 

401 

•895 

517 
548 

372 

227 

294 
924 



Madagascar graphite industry 289 

Magnesia : 

Heat insulatioi with 85 per cent 

magnesia. Weidlein ^295 

Magnesite: 

— — ^Industry in 1920 744 

Tariff problems 1005 



Magnesium 

Applications of. (S.) 

^Mfr. of. Ashcroft. 'P.) 



663 

133 



Magnesium borate mineral ..' 1158 

Magnesium chloride: 

Anhvdrous. Mfr. of. Ashcroft. (P ) 

IB P.) 1.33 07.-. 

Mfr. from dolomite. Barstow. (P ) i34 

'^■f.Tgnesium salts as fertilizers. (S ) 7'"' 

Manganese ores. Tariff problems 1004 

Manufacturers' catalogs, 48, 96, 235 280 324 

632. 908. 951. 
Manufacturing Chemists' Association an- 
nual mepfing 11 -« 

Marble. Artificial. Jager, (B. P.) . . . . 271 
Margarines: 

Margarine industry of Hull 250 

Market Reports. Current. 42, 90 139 187 
230. 275. 319. 362. 406.' 450.' 493" 

'A^l- 5^-- !^'-='"- *^™- 'l-l- 758. 801. 8.57. 
901. 94o, 989. 1034. 1078, 1121 1162. 



•Illustrated; (P.). (B. P.) — United States and British patents respectively: (S.) — Synopsis- 
(N.) — Papers read at society meetings but not printed in full. 



Vlll 



INDEX 



Market. Baltimore 140, CSl 

Market. Chioagro. 02. 188. 276, 583. 671, 759, 

858. 946. 1035. 1123. 
Market. St. Louis. 91, 188, 276. 859, 990, 

1079. 1163. 
Marl. Calcareous. Production in 1920 . . . 748 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology' : 

Co-operative s.vstem. Lewis. (N.) . . 89 

Dr. Nichols becomes president of .... '682 

Materials Handling Division, A. S. M. E.: 

Aims and org-anization of 854 

Materials. Physical properties of. (S.) . . 620 
Measuring device for granular materials. 

Crowther. (B. P.) 1156 

Meetings. Coming, and Events. 47, 96. 144, 

192, 236. 280. 324. 368. 412, 456. 500. 

.544, 588, 632, 676. 720. 764. 808, 864. 

908. 952, 996. 1040, 1084, 1128, 1168. 
Melting points: 

Determination of. Carpenter '569 

Melting point curve. Estimating impurities 

from. White. (S.) 76 

Mercury : 

Consumption in clinical thermometers 736 

Tal-ift problems 1005 

Metal Protection and Corrosion : 
A. E. S. symposium on corrosion: 

Preliminary announcement 316 

Report •841 

— — Preventing' corrosion in iron and steel 

under water. Speller 'lOOO 

Bluing and browning steel articles. 

Cornell 301 

Metal protective paints. Gardner. . . 931 

Corrosion and its prevention. Becker 

and Cushman. (N.) 



— Causps of (orrosion of copper and 
brass, (d.) 

—By lacquering, .iapanning, etc 

—Corrosion of duralumin sheet 

—Corrosion of soft metals 

--Cushman Coating Tpster . 

—Rust-preventing mixture. 
(P.) 



Morgan. 



Metallic materials. Finish of. Cornell . . 
Metallic structure. Effect upon properties. 

Rawdon 

Metals: 

Atoms and. Jefferies and Archer. . 

Crystalline structure of. Jeffries and 

Archer 

— —Slip interference theor.v of hardening 

of. Jeffries and Archer * 

Macroscopic examination. Rawdon.. 

Preparing small pieces for microscopic 

examination. Rawdon 

Non-ferrous. Melting in gas furnaces. 

Combs 

Comment. Crosby 

Properties of. Tabulated. Woodward. 

Cr.vstal growth and recr.vstallization 

in. Carpenter and Elam. (S.) 



755 

242 
211 
939 
564 
936 

576 
209 

•523 

•507 

•771 

•385 

•475 



-Polished. Preventing tarnishing during 
heat-treatment. (S.) 

-Effect of temperature, etc., on me- 
chanical properties. Sykes. (N.) 

-Soft. Corrosion of 

-Pulverizing. Miller. (B. P.) 



Metric s.vstem nnd religion. Henderson. . 

Metric system bill introduced 

Mexico: 

Coouifo nut production in ........ 

Mica. Tariff problems 

Micanito waste. Treatment of. (B. P. I . . 
Microscope illumination. Silverman. (N.) 

Midland Chemical Works fire 

Milk. S.vnthetic. Giston 

"'Hk Testing. Hoyberg. (B. P.) 

Minerals Separation Litigation : 

-Argument on supplemental bill 



Minerals. Tariff on. Paul 

Mixed acid. Supreme court ruling on .... 

Mixture. Calculation of percentage re- 
moval of a constituent from. Van 
Arsdel 

Molecules. Relation between stability and 
structure. lyangmuir. (N.) 

Molybdenum ores. Behavior of copper in. 
non;i"(li aiKi Shapiro 

Monaiiite. Tariff problems 

Monel metal : 

Notes on. Merica 

Motion pictures in physical testing labo- 
ratory. French 

Muscle Shoals nitrate plants: (see under 
Nitrogen Fixation). 



M 



National ExpoHition of Chemical Indus- 
tries: 

-J — ^Announcement ' 

National Fertilizer Association: 

White Sulphur Springs meeting. . 855. 

National Lime Association: 
' New York meeting: 

'■ — Program 

Report 

National Public Works Association final 
report. 

National Research Coitncil: 

A suggestion for. Brill 

Chemical exhibit at Wilmington and 

House onice Building. .. 942. 943, 



•515 
912 
820 

•224 

290 

330 
564 
37 
373 
136 

345 
1005 

7<lli 

985 
548 
621 

713 

1002 

942 

•846 

825 

847 
1004 

•291 

'131 



1031 

987 



986 
1141 

88 



Division of chemistry meetinp: 

Announcement 

Report 

Division of chemistry officers . . , 

Divisioti of Engineering: 

February nieetinir 

iResearch chemicals committee . . 

Research Information Service . . 

Science Service 

Navy interested 'n chemical \rarfare 
Navy to use C W. S. masks 



1000 

1119 

709 

855 

1074 

317 
1030 
5.36 
667 
756 
766 



New Companies. 368. 412. 456. 498, 543. 588, 
631, 676. 720, 764, 808, 863. 907, 951, 
995. 1040. 1084. 1128, 1168. 
New Haven Section, A. C. S.: 

January meeting- 318 

New Jersey Chemical Society: 

January meeting 136 

May meeting' 900 

New Jersey Clayworkers' Association : 

Annual meeting' deferred 491 

Hold dinner for ceramic school de- 

sig'ners 668 

Summer meeting. Plans for 986 

Program 1075 

Report 1143 

New York Chapter, Amer. Soc. for Steel 

Treating": 

— • — February meeting. Alloy steel 361 

New York Section, A. C. S.: 

— February joint meeting 318 

New York Section. A. E. S.: 

February joint meeting .318 

Niagara Falls water-power applications. . . 228 

Niagara hydro-electric canal nearing com- 
pletion 1012 

Nichols. Dr. Ernest F.. New president of 

M. I. T •682 

Nichols medal: 

Awarded to Dr. G. N. Lewis 1 84 

Presentation f 869 

Nickel : 

Notes on metallurgy, grades, uses, 

etc. Merica •!" 

Physical properties of. Merica .... *73 

Chemical properties and metallography 

of. Merica •197 

Electrodeposition of. use of fluorides 

in. Blum '1109 

Electrolytic, Ductile. Madsen 922 

Nickel brasses. Guillet. (S.) .... 'Zei 

British-American Nickel Corp 228 

Electrodeposition of 20 

Tariff problems 1004 

And Cobalt, Separating-. Udy and 

Ralston. (P.) 489 

Electrodeposition of. Edison. (P.) . . 752 

-Electrolytic. Heberlein. (B. P.) . . . 795 



Nickel alloys: 

-Miscellaneous. 



Merica 



649 

•558 
►375 



Nickel :copper allovs: 

Notes on. Merica 

Nickel :iron alloys. Merica 

Nickel compounds. Research on uses for. 

Thompson and Suhl. (N.) 

Nitrates. Removal by means of alcohol. 

Schneidewind 

Nitration of oils. Howse. (B. P.) 

Nitric Acid : 

Manufacture of nitric acid. Zeisberg. 

(N.) 

Comment. Zeisberg' 868 

Expansion chamber after retorts. 

Tayntor. (P.) 

By absorption of nitrous gases. (B. 

P.) 

Mfr. by absorption of nitrogen oxides. 

(B. P.) 



900 

*'2 
22'6 



443 



315 
938 



Nitrocellulose: 

Dicvandiamide as stabilizer for. Reese. 

(P.) 

Nitrocellulose compositions. Claessen. (B. 

P.) 

Nitrog-en and case-hardening. Fay 

Nitrogen Fixation : 

(Comments on Birkeland-Eyde arc 

process Bierke 

Reply. Landis 



225 

36 

896 
289 



72 t 

724 

-Cost in Nor»vay. Hagemann 531 

Comment. Jensen 68] 

Comment. Ow 956 

Reply. Hag-emann 1000 

Present German status 624 

'Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory: 

Present status. Tolman ^595 

Acknowledgment. Tolman .... 724 

Comment. Franchot 768 

Reply. Tolman 769 

Weeks considering report on 71.3 

To be continued 853 

To be transferred 111!) 

^Government plants: 

Hearings on operation of Muscle 

Shoals 40.^ 

Muscle Shoals fight to continue... 491 

Muscle Shoals work stops 753 

American Farm Bureau Federation 

investigation 856. 941 

Report of 1074 

Process. Jacobs. (P.) 1116 

^Synthetic ammonia: (see under Am- 
monia.) 

U. S. Fixed Nitrogen Corporation Bill: 

Controver.sies over 40, 41. 87 

Passes Senat<> 135 

Status in House i 36, 227 

In committee 273, .318 

Nitrogen report reprint asked " 943 

Nitrogen. Separation from air. Thorsell 

and Lunden. (B. P.) •852 

Norway : 

Diminished paper production 476 

Cost of fixed nitrogen in. Hagemann 531 

Comment. Jensen 681 

Comment Ow 956 

Notes of French Industries .328. 462 

Notes on Italian Industries 770. 1046 



Obituary. 41. 187. 2.30. 405. 450, 493, 581. 
625. 669 757. 801, 857. 900. 944. 
1033. 1077. 

Oriti'ary : 

Baker. Frank D 1033 



Obituary — Continued: 

Baug-h, Daniel 450 

Briggs, Thomas Lynton 625 

Broad. James B 581 

— ' — Bumstead. Dr. Henry A 41 

Clarke, C. H 900 

Clarke, Col. Thomas Curtis 1033 

Cogswell, W. B 1077 

— ' — Converse. Edmund Cog-swell 669 

^Foran. George J 944 

^French, Lester Gray 757 

GarUchs. Herman 230 

Gunsaulus, Dr. Frank W 581 

Hasslacher. Jacob 581 

Ha-viland. C. E 625 

Hawes. Charles S 801 

Holbrook. Robert 450 

Jones, William A 450 

Lane, Franklin Knight 944 

^Lederle. Dr. Ernst J 669 

Leiteh. John W 1077 

Mayer. Ernest P 230 

McHugh. Edward T 187 

McQuade. John 944 

Millett, Elie 669 

Monell. Ambrose 900 

Morse. Charles Hosmer 944 

Pennock. John D 493 

Rosa. Dr. Edward Bennett 944 

Rosengarten. H. B 40.5 

Schlesinger. Ferdinand 187 

Sedgwick. WilUam T 230 

Sorge. Adolph. Jr 944 

Willis. Arthur R 857 

Oil Shales: 

Plant design for hot-gas pyrolytic dis- 
tillation of. Simpson •341 

Studies in Colorado shale oils. 

Franks •561 

Study of saturated and unsaturated 

oils from. Botkin 876 

Possible uses for spent shale. Thomas 389 

^Johns eduction process plant ^312 

Pyrolysis of shale kerogens. McKee 

and Lyder. (N.) 89 

Ownership of New Brunswick shales. 

Simpson 417 

Pennsylvania experiments on 273 

Oils: 

Oils, fats and waxes in Latin America. 

Wilson 'IIOI 

Nitration of. Howse. (B. P.) .... 226 

Refining oils and fats. Vakil. (B. 

P.) ^795 

Old Hickory, Industrial survey being made 

at 358 

Optical methods for chemists. (N.) .... 942 

Organic chemistry. Recent advances in. 

Norris. (N.) 577 

Owens Lake salt-refining plants. Chap- 
man •683 

Oxidation and leduction, Electron theory. 

Stieglitz. (N.) 986 

Oxygen : 

Low-temperature Brin's process. Ken- 
dall. (N.) 837 



Packers' Bill: 

-^Chemists oppose 317 



Paint : 



931 



r26 



— — Metal protective paints. Gardnpr . 

White interior finish that diffuses 

ligrht 32 

Palm oil : 

As motor fuel. Belgian experiments. . 400 

Paper and Pulp : 

Bleaching efficienoy. (N.) 

Alden dvnamometer for water-driven 

ground wood mill. Allen. (N.) . . 

Allen weightometer. Trimbey. (N.) 

Drying of paper. Farneworth. (N.) 

Hall Pi'Ocess for ground wood pulp. 

(N.) 

Paner moisture content indicator. 

Thwing. (N.) 

iStenni economy in drying-. Fulton. 

CS.) 

Suli)hite digestion. Shortenins-. (N.) 

Woo<lpile and its relation to paper in- 
dustry. Baker. (N.l 

Bamboo pulp plant in Burma 

Book paper from Southern pine 

British Columbia paper possibilities. 

Canadian pulpwood resources 

Norwegian production diminishing-. . 

-Production in Quebec during 1919. .. 



/ v: / 
361 

72e 

727 

622 
726 

184 
250 
250 
183 
20S 
476 
260 
- 557 
1155 

797 

612 

.578 

1120 

938 

819 
362 

39 
5.t 

-Conferees reach agreement 316 

-Opposition to Federal Trade Commis- 
sion section 



iPulp and paper in 1920. 

Quebec developments. 1920 

(Juebec pulp-wood business at stand- 

.still 

TTniformity of digester chip charg-es. . 

Wage changes at Holyoke mills... 

Would modify Canadian restrictions. 

From jute. hemp. etc. Muller. (B. 

P.) . 

Paraminophenol. Electrolytic mfr. of. Mc- 

Daniel. (N.) 

Paris-Havre oil pipe line delayed 

Patent Office Bill: 

Notice of hearings 

—^Hearings on 

-Conference dela.ved 



American Engineering- Council report 

on 622. 

Merchants' Association in favor of. . 

To be reported out 

Reporte<l out 

Patents: 

iPatent Claims. Chemical. Breadth and 

scope of. Biesterfeld 



404 

89.<* 

941 

1120 

115S 



881 



•Illustrated; (P.), (B. P.) — TTnlted States and British patents respectively: (S.) — Synopsis; 
(N.) — Papers read at society meetings but not printed in full. 



INDEX 



IX 



Patents — Con tin u cd : 

By employees of Dept. of Agriculture. 

1920 39 

Stanley amencim:nt to Hevised Stat- 
utes 107;{ 

Being' pushed 1118 

Who is entitled to inventions? Sher- 
lock 438 

Patents. Recent chemical and metallurg-ical. 

35. 133. 225. 271. 314, 402. 488. 532. 
576, H21, fi64. 707. 752. 795. 851, 895, 
937, 984, 1027, 1072, 1115, 1150. 

Peat: 

Easy money from 

Comment 

Comment. Chemist 

Inventor of gasoline from peat ar- 
rested 

Hydroturf process for drying' turf .... 

Percarbonates. Alkali. (B. P.) 

Perfume industry in France 

Perkin Medal presentation to Willis R. 

Whitney 

Personal. 41. 89. 139 186. 230. 275. 

362, 405. 450. 493. 537. 581, 625. 

714. 758. 801. 857. 901, 943, 

1033. 1077. 1121. 1161. 

Personnel Research Federation 

Peru : 

Centennial expositions 

Petroleum : 

Chemical considerations of petroleum 

refining. Brooks 

Pipe-line transportation of hot oil. 

Barrett ' * 

Measuring color of. Parsons. (N.) . 

^Separating hydrocarbons that cannot 

be distilled. Mabery. (N.) 

Directory of refineries 

^Legislation pending 

Oil and gas claims in Alberta 

Oilfield developments in northern 

Canada 

Producing wells in United States .... 

Specifications. Conference on 

United States crude oil production. 

1920 

World's production 1920 

Petroleum Section. A. C. S.: 



213 

50« 

1000 

985 
215 
271 
220 

•99 
319, 
669, 
988, 

624 

449 



-Organization 

-Rochester meeting. Report 



Phenol-aldehyde condensation products : 

Redmanol. Redman. (N.) 

Birkley. ( B. P. ) 

ScuddT and Pettigrew. (B. P.) . 

Mfr. of. i3rnhat. (B. P.) 

Mfr. of. Vickers 

-Mfr. of. Wellei 



P.) . 



Phenols from redwood. 
Philadelphia Chemical 

bers 

Philadelphia Section. A. 
-April meeting . . . 



Ltd. (B. 

(B. P.) 

Hunt. (P.) ... 
Club after mem- 



C. S. 



Philippine Islands: 

Cordage fiber industry of. Cox 

Palm products. Oibbs. (N.) . 



-Foreign trade, 1920 



of. 



Germann. 



Phosgene. Vapor, density 

IS.) 

Phosphate Export Association 

Phosphates: 

Conditions in phosphate rock industry 

Island of Nauru and Ocean Island de- 
posits 

^Western phosphate developments .... 

Phosphorescence and fluorescence. Wood. 
(N.) 

Phosnhoric acid : 

Evaporation of. LaBour 

Mfr. of. Washburn. (P.) 



1022 

11-18 
826 

826 
448 
228 
534 

856 

266 

1157 

514 
449 

666 
825 

448 
532 
5.32 
984 
796 
271 
489 

900 

799 

•285 
404 
964 

838 
988 



Phosnhorus ; 

Tariff hearings on 

Photochemistry. Mathews. (N.) 

Photo-electric cell. Cushman (N.) . . . 

Photographic development. Electrochemi- 
cal aspects of. Sheppard. (N.I. 

Photography. Color. Faulstitch. (B. P.) 

Phvsical chemistry. Future of. Langmuir. 

Pickling 

Pipe-line transportation of hot oil. Bar- 
rett • 

"■D° lines. Effect of incrustation on. (N.) 

Phister. Gypsum: 

Plastic. Emley 

Commerciall.v available 

Specifications for color of. Emley 

and Faxon * 

Plastering code to be d'=cussed 

P'asticimeter. Emley (N.) 

Platinum : 

Preparation of pure platinum 

Comment. Kent 

Renly. Hilleb'-and 

Stolen Bureau of Standards platinum 

recovered 

Refining. (B. P.) ' 

Polarimetry. Bates. (N. 1 

Polishing metallic materials 

Polishing motor for metal sections. Clay- 
ton 

Porcelain. Electrical, Use of alumina and 
zirconia in. Twells and Lin. (S.) 

Porcp'ain enam^eling furnaces. Armstrong 

Comment. FitzGerald 

'^'omment. Washburn 

Portland. Ore., exposition 

Posts, wooden, for plant inclosures 

PoTASH^ : 



11 

769 
11 

83 

•466 
133 

40.3 
800 

•818 

819 

553 

211 

1148 

578 

740 
1119 

1054 
1 075 
1142 

696 

3 044 
1044 

580 

107-' 

942 

210 

•356 

750 

•486 

593 

868 

1120 

1070 



A'satian industry. Vigneron •655 

*'s-)tian prod'iction ri'ivinsr 19''0. . . . 921 

domestic producers discouraged .... 668 

-■ — 'Extraction from leucite. Blanc and 

Jourdan. (B. P.) 225 

— Prr>m greensand. Shreve. (N.) .... 8.31 

Correction 964 

fJerman sal'^s in 1919 166 

In Illinois shal' s 779 



Potash — Continued: 

^Plants at Owens and Searles Lakes . *683 

Potash in 1919. Hicks and Nourse.. 216 

Potash situation. Brown. (N.) . . . 359 

Potash supplies. Foreign and domestic ^12 

Problems in handling potash brines. 

Teeple, ^N.) 229 

Production. 1 920 359 

Outlook for 1921 1120 

Tariff problems 1005 

Potash alum. Recovery at Tonopah. Dun- 
can ^529 

Potassium carbonate, Mfr. Larum. (B. 

P. ) 795 

U. S. Imports, 1920 1008 

Potassium sulphate, Mfr. from KCl. (B. 

P.) 708 

Priestley's theory, Commercializing. Rein- 
berg 769 

Proteins. Chemical and physical uehavior 

of. Loeb •SSO 

Publications. New. 48. 500, 544, 632, 907, 

952, 996, 1168, 
Pumps: 

New principle of rotary pump con 

struction. Farkas 



Automatic motor pump 

Pyrites : 

Heat of dissociation of. Kamura. 

iOppose dut.v on 



-Tariff problems 



Pyrogenic reactions. Preventing carbon- 
deposition during. Fischer. (B. P.) 

Pyrometers : 

Calibrating base metal thermocouples. 

Marsh 

Recording, setting for cold-junction 

temperature. Marsh 



•1025 
•356 

•437 

855 

1005 



1071 
1152 



Q 

Quebec : 

Pulp-wood business at standstill . . . 

Pulp and paper developments, 1920. 



Rp.diu'm : 

Presentation of Gibbs Medal to 

Mme. Curie 

Experimental lecture on 

-Production 



797 
1155 



Radium emanation. Coloring gem stones 
with 

Rails, Wheel-burnt. Howard. (S.) .... 

Rancidity. Cause and prevention of. Kerr. 
(N.) 

Reactions. Facilitating by radiations. 
Statineanu. (B. P.) 

Recent chemical and metallurgical patents. 
35. 133. 225. 271. 314, 402. 488, 
576. 621. 664. 707. 752. 795. 
895. 937. 984. 1027. 1072. 1115. 

Redwood. Phenols from. Hund. (P.) . . 

Refractometry. Valentine. (N.) 

Refractories : 

Electric furnace. Pike 

Coke-oven, Testing. Harvey. (N.) . 

Molds for magnesite. chrome and 

silica brick. Avars. (N.) 

Refractories division. American Ce- 
ramic Society 

—New German refractor.v product 

C.irborundum, Bond for, Hartmann. 

(P.) 

Lubrication during extrusion of. 

Anderson. (P.) 



"1132 

577 
624 

988 
•850 

958 

•621 

532, 

851, 

1156 

489 

799 

148 
420 

420 

420 
1070 

1115 

488 



Research : 

^Coal-tar reseirch at Shadyside. Weiss 

and Downs 

Promotion of scientific research. Hos- 

kins and Wiles 

Deopndencp of modem industry on. 

Little (N.) 

Importance of scientific research. 

Me'es. (N.) 

Research. Smith. (N.) 

Research in explosives and nickel. 

Reese, Wadhams. (N.) 

Research in Federal service. Alsberg. 

(N.) 

Standardization and. Stratton. (N.) 

A capital investment or an operating 

expense? Berkeley 

Encouragement of research by funds. 

etc, 

'Function of educational institutions 

in. Wilson 

Library and research work 

^Librar.v and research work. Wilson. 

Research Information Service, N. R. 

C 

University of Chicago reports favor- 
ably on research plan 

Resins. Synthetic: 

Prom furfural. Mains and Phillips.. 

From tar oil fractions. (B. P.) .... 

Rhodium for rodents. Comments 

Rochester Section. A. C. S. : 

January meeting. Potash brines . . . 

February meeting. Barrels 

Rubber : 

I,egal notes on. Dannerth 

Use in dynamite mfr. (S.) 

'Analysis. Tentative procedure 

Direct determination of sulphur of 

vulcanization. Collier. (N.l . . . 

Hevea rubber resins. Whitby and 

Dolid. (N.) 

Refrigeration in mfr. of. Vance. 

(N.) 

Rubber rolls. Adams. (N.) 

Soliibilitv of gases as aff'"'*ine' per- 
meability. Venable and Fuwa. 
(N.) 



•150 

689 

1142 

274 
318 

317 



957 
1142 

506 

1159 

725 
372 
593 

536 

942 

661 
984 
680 

229 
360 

397 

64 

834 

835 

835 

1074 

228 
835 



RuBBErR — Continued: 

Sulphur determination by bomb. 

Evan.s. (N.) 

Compounds : 

Thermal conductivity of. Somer- 

ville. (N.) 

Volume increase under strain. 

Green. (N.) 

Vulcanization accelerators: 

Furfurvl derivatives (B. Pi.... 

Piperidine-piperidyl-dithiocarba- 

mate. Whitby. (N.) 

Reactions of. Bedford and Sebrill. 

(N.I 

Vulcanized : 

Devulcanizing. Young and Ben- 

ner 

Rubber Division. A. C. S. : 

— I — (Rochester meeting report 

Russia. Ore production in 

Ryerson steel service plants. Safety meth- 
ods in 



Saccharine. Mfr. of. (B. P.) 

Salt manufacture in Michigan. Bn''<rer 

Satin white. Chemistry and manufacture 
of. Cobenzl. *S.) 

Sawdust, Conversion into cattle feed. 
Sherrard 

Science Service. N. R. C 

Scientific articles. Obtaining r-op-e- of 

Searles Lake brine. Alkalinity of. (N.) 

Searles Lake salts-refining plants. Chap- 
man 

Selenium oxychloride. Lenher. (S.I.... 

Senatorial science. Seyt 

Sewage treatment: 

Pioperties of activated sludge. Bus- 
well and Larson. (N.) 

Shadyside-Edgewater plants. Hearings 
postponed on 

Sheffield Scientific School lectures 

Shovel. Gasoline engine 

Silica. Fused. Mfr. of. Scharl. fP.) . . 

Silicates. Alkah. Mfr. of. Phillips and 
Rose (B. P.) 

Smith. Edgar 'R'ahs, President. A. C. S.. . . 

Smoke nuisance: 

Swain's report on smoke in Salt Lake 

valley 

Final decree in Salt Lake smoke 

suits 

SociETE de Chimie Industrielle : 

February joint meeting 



Society of Chemical Ixdustrt : 

February joint meeting 

Canadian and New York meeting: 

Plans 



Soda ash mfr. at Owens and Searles Lakes 

Sodium carbonate: 

British Columbia evaporation plant. 

Sodium compounds. 1920 statistics .... 

Sodium nitrate: (see also Chilean 
nitrate) : 

Recovery of. Gringioni. (B. P.)... 

Sodium nitrite. License required for im- 
portation 

Sodium silicate. Mfr. of. Phillips aiid 
Rose. (B. P.) 

Sodium silicate. Relation of structure to 
free alkali in. Stericker. (N.) . . 

Soldering fluxes. Ladon 

Solders : 

For aluminvim 

For aluminum. Ansell. (B. P.) . . . 

For enamel-vare. Johnson. ( B. P.) 

Solvents. Volatile. Recovery of: 

Bregeat process. Rolleux and Dort.. 

By mixture containing sperm oil etc. 

Sadtler. (P.) 

Southern California Edison Co. water-power 
permit 

Spectrophotometer : 

TJirect-reading. Priest. (N.) 

Use of. Mathewson CN.) '. 

Spectrum analysis. Quantitative. Meggers 

(N.) I rr 

Sponges. Rubber. Ryall. (B. P.) 

Stamford Chemical Society officers . 

June meeting 

Standards. International . . 

Standard Chemic.il Co. radium production 

Steffens process. Montgomery 

Stocks, Industrial. Distribution of 

Sugar: 



Extraction of iuice from the sugar 

beet. Montf-omery 

Refinerv practice in beet sugar mfr 

Montgomery 

Recovery from beet molasses. Mont- 
gomery 

Preventing deterioration. (S.) 

From nipa palm. Gibbs. (N.) . . . 

Infusorial earth for fiUering. Coates. 

(N.) 

French beet and sugar output 

Reconstruction of French refineries. . 

^Recovery of French beet sugar indus- 

tr.v 

Electrified sugar mill in Central 

America 

Chinese beet-sugar project 



-Two cent duty asked 



Waste recovery at Holland St. Louis 

Sugar Co. plant 

Exports from Cuba to U. S 

Imports in 1920 

United States production. 1920 

Census report on beet and cane sugar 

industries 

Sugar Chemistry Section. A. C. S.: 

Rochester meeting report 



836 

834 
835 
.984 
835 
836 

532 

8.34 
448 

•351 



708 
•201 

221 

160 

667 

J , - , > 

838 

•683 
j.ni 

636 



83 

274 

135 

•9.36 

664 

38 
'183 



463 
709 

318 

318 

899 
•685 

137 
940 

•532 

79S 

38 

830 
981 

11 oi 
621 

•917 

489 

374 

942 
942 

942 

37 

135 

1119 
11 -.7 

624 
•605 

447 



•435 

•469 

•605 

76 

404 

007 

lis 

567 

599 

100."^ 
845 
856 

756 
31.3 
51 J^ 
428 

1017 

880 



♦Illustrated; (P.), (B. P.) — United States and British patents respectively: ^S.) — Synopsis; 
(N.) — Papers read at society meetings but not printed in full. 



I 



INDEX 



Sulphur: 

Recent advances in American sulphur 

industry. Bacon and Davis. . ■ • • • 
Rem very by flotation at Tonopah. 

Duncan 

Growth of American industry 

Inoculated -ulphur as fertilizer . . . . . 

Moving- iiicliires of Texas deposit 

shown at T. A. P. P. I 

Refinery at Portland. Ore. . . . . ... • • 

Sulphur burners. Feeding^ device tor. cnap- 

pell. (P.) 

Sulphur dioxide: 

May have therapeutic value. lonides. 

Sulphuric Acid: 

iMills-Packard water-cooled chambers. 

Fairlie • ■ •••••• 

^Mfr. at Armour Ferti'izer Works... 

Ceco system for handling^ 

Influence of gelatine on transference 

number of. Ferg-uson. (N.) ... 

Municipal plant proposed in Eng-land 

Cleaning- burner gases for. Brown. 

(P.) • • ; 

Vanadium catalyst for contact process. 

Slama and Wolt. (P.) . . • 

Sulphurvl chloride, Mfr. of. Durrans. 

(P.) 

Sumac production in Sicily 

Supernower Survey: 

Progress report on 

Meeting- 

Surface films' as plastic solids. Wilson. 

(N.) 

Surface tension and capillary flow. Wash- 
burn. (S.) 

Swansea tin plate industry 

Sweden : 

— — Electric pig 

lenius ,:,■■■ 

Electric smelting of pig- iron at Dom- 

perfvet. deGeer 

Crisis in tar industry 

Sweet. A new 



iron furnace in. Her- 



Switz^rland: ^ , „ 

Chemical industry of. Landoll 

Synopsis of Recent Chemical and Metal- 
lurgical Literature. :3:i. Vi'Z 224 
313. 401. (520. Hti3, 70(>. 7.>1. S.iO. 
1026. 1071. 1117. 

Syracuse Section, A. C. S.: 

January meeting- 



•65 

•529 

1031 

10 

727 



284 



•786 
>3:?.S 
»380 

838 
780 

576 

752 

488 
604 

445 
941 

825 

314 

485 



•108 

• J. on 

384 

64 

21 

2«9. 

891, 



Temperature control for catalytic oxida- 
tion. Downs. (P. ) ^1027 

Temperature conversion tables. Comment. 

Holmes 637 

Temperature recorder, Time-punch feature 

of '30 

Theoretical chemistry. Future developments 

of. Lansrmuir. ................ 553 

Therapeutic valu"?. A question of. Leech 548 

Thermal analysis by differential method. 

Gray. (S.) 225 

Thermocouples, Base metal, Calibrating. 

Marsh l^^l 

Thiog-l.vcollates. ( B P.) • • 896 

Thorium salts. Mfr. of. Lindsay Light 

Co. (B. P.) ■ ••• 225 

Tidal power. British report on use of . . . 4<i8 

Tinning pot scr.ip. Treatment of. Clegrg-. 

(B. P.) 134 

Tin: inni 

Tariff problems •'-io- 

Tin plate industry in Swansea 48o 

TNT not highly sensitive 1118 

Tower packing efficiencies. Jorgensen. . . •/41 

Trade associations. Secretary Hoover on . . 1076 

Trade marks used by export associations 8ob 
Tribenzvl phosphate in celluloid mfr. 

Stockelbach. (P. ) 851 

Tungsten: ^ , „ , „_^ 

Metallic, Production at Keeler, Cal... 374 

In 1920 757 

Mfr. of. Head. (B. P.) *896 

Tungsten ores. Tariff problems lOOo 

Turf, Hydroturf process for drying 215 



Ultramarine. Mfr. of. Guimet. (B. P.) 315 
Union Bag & Paper Corp. plants closed. . 986 
Units of volume and weight, and energy, 

Interconversion tables for 434 

U S. Fixed Nitrogen Corporation bill: (see 

under Nitrogen Fixation) 
Utah University fellowships in metallurgy 798 



IS.'j 



Tanning: 

Electro-osmotic process. 

-Process. (B. P.) 



(B. P.) 



Tanning extracts and materials: 
Chestnut wood tannin Griffith. 



(N.) 



P.) 

(N) 



272 
937^ 

109 '< 
988 
18 4 
337 
984 

lOO'. 
984 
621 

1096 

181 
318 
359 
360 

403 
533 

580 
713 
855 
856 
1030 
1002 

712 

824 

853 
897 
941 
985 

712 

86 

1157 

Technical Association of the Pulp and 

Paper Industry: 
New York meeting; 

Preliminary plans 185 

Program 447 

Report '726 

Executive committee meeting 900 



-From Acacia arabica 

From Australian shrub 

^Kongo trees as source of 

Mfr. of extracts. Rialland. (B 

Synthetic. Hill and Merryman 

Synthetic. (B. P.) 

Synthetic. (B. P.) 

Tanning materials in Far East. Bal 

derston. (N.) 

Tariff : 

Chemical schedule under consideration 

Free list under consideration 

Duty on potash asked 

New tariff lor camphor proposed . . . 

Hearings on phosphorus, ferroman- 

ganese and arsenic 

Tariff prospects 

Dra fting of bill starts 

Tariff asked for South's minerals . . . 

Oi)i)oses duty on iron pyrites 

-Two cent duty on sugar asked. 



Young opiioses Longworth resolution 

Tariff on minerals. Pawl 

Chemical industry from tariff view- 
point. Def.,ong. (N.) 

Tariff schedules. Longworth. (N.). 

Emergency tariff bill: 

Knox dye amendment 

Passes Senate •. 

Conferees agree on 

Tfxt of dye control title 

Commission : 

industry and. DeLong. (N.) 



Tariff 

Chemiial 



-Surveys of <hcmical industries 
-Burgess nominated for 



Valve, Flow-regulating. For viscous liquids 
Vanadium : 

Plant closed 

Tariff problems 

Vanilla production in Guadeloupe 

Vegetable and fruit dehydration. Present 
status of. Cru;ss 

Vegetable Oils : 

Edible vegetable oil industry. Tefft. 

(S.) 

— p — Treating cake from Baskerville proc- 
ess. Baskerville. (N.) 

Argentine industry 

Indian oil *eeds 

Viscose, Mfr. of. Muller. (B. P.) 

Vulcanized fiber. Washing. Linder. (P.) 



W 



Wages in New York chemical plants for 
Nov., 1920 

Wallace elected secretary, American En- 
gineering Council 

War Minerals Relief Act administration . . 

Washington Cha.ner, A. S. S. T.: 

-April meeting. Molybdi!num steel... 



•268 

491 

1005 

608 

•781 



894 

829 
612 
345 

621 

752 



Water-softening: 

Comparison of various m-'thid-; of. 

Taylor 

Correction 

Comment. Booth 

Comment. Yoder 

Wave power transmission 

Waxes : 

— - — Oils, fats and waxes in Latin America. 

Wilson 

Weights and measures conference .... 850. 
Welding: 

Long oast sections made by welding 

Welding blow-holes in st el. Brearly. 

(S.)' • 

Phenomena of are-welding. Escholz. 

(N.) 

Western Canada Pulp & Paper Co enlarges 
Western Chemical and Metallur^-ical Field 
Western Chemicals. Inc.. plant at Tonopah 
Weston standard cell. Abnormal behavior 

of. Mellon 

Whitney. Willis R., Presentation of Perkin 

Medal to 

Wilcox Oil & Gas Corp. plans refinery at 

Wood River. Ill 

Willard Gibbs Medal awarded to Mme. 

Curie 

Presentation ' 

Wilson dam: (see also Nitrogen Fixation: 

Government Plants) 

— ■ — Hearings on continuation of 

Wisconsin University students to make 

organic ch-micals 

Scholarship to France 



May meeting 

Washington Section. A. C. S. : 

February :neeting. Fertilizers 

May meeting. Optical methods .... 

Washington University fellowships 

Wastes. Industrial: 

American Engineering Council plans 

to elimin,.te 

Progress of surveys 

Report 

Recovery at Holland-St. Louis Sugar 

Co. plant 

U. S. Industrial Waste Commission.. 

Water, Separating air from feed water. 

Hulsmeyer, (B. P.) ' 

Water purification: 

Residual aluminum compounds in 

water filter eflluents. Wolman and 

Hannan 

Discussion by Dr. Whipple. (N.).. 

Lime in. Brown. (N.) 

Chlorine control apparatus for. 

Paterson. (B. P.) • 



123 
252 

284 

"592 

85 



Wood: 



11(11 
942 

•268 

1026 

817 

135 

3-1 

•529 

166 

•99 

274 

713 
1132 

403 

492 
1118 

92 1 
834 

964 

.-,^ .-> 



132 
829 

833 

757 



K-lling molds by steaming 

Microstructure of. Abrams. (N.) . . 

Moisture co;itent of pulpwood. Rapid 

method for 

Waste. Yields of alcohol from 

Coloring. Slade. (B. P.) 

Wood Distillation : 

Illuminating and heating gas from. 

(S.) 

Application of Cottrell precipitator to. 

Hawley. > N. ) 

Effect of adding chemicals previous 

to distillation. Hawley. (N.) . . 

^Distillation ->t Missouri oaks 

Removing tar from pyroligneous 

liquors. Barbet. (P.) 752 

Wood pipe in chemical industry •32 

Wood posts for plant inclosures 1070 

Wood preservation : 

Sodium fluoride. (N.) 578 

Protection of piles in infested waters 

(N.) 578 

Industry in 1919 165 

Wool. Imitation: 

From vegetaljle fibers Soc. Gillet 

et Fils. iB. P.) 36 



X-Ra.vs : 

In industry. Shearer. (N.) 317 

Analysis of crystals by ^775 



Yeast : 



-Edible 
and 



veast 
Vielle. 



prenaratians. 
IB. P.) . . 



Plauson 



360 

•357 
1120 

800 
968 

359 
942 

854 



358 

623 

1073 

756 
1157 

1028 



•728 
1077 
1142 

1072 



vaoor Ravner 
(B. P.) 



Zinc : 

Condensation of zinc 

Pulverizing. Miller. 

Electrolytic : 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. plant 

at Great Falls 

Discussion on 

Analvfical control of. Bradley.. . . 

English plants 

Purification of solutions for. Peter- 

sou. (B P.I 

Removal 'if arsenic from zinc elec- 

trolyte. Hanley 

Zinc dust. Nature of Ravner 

Activating. (B. P ) 

Zinc nitride re.search. McCormack. (N.) 
Zinc ores. Sulphide. Treating. Mackay. 

(B. P.) 

Zinc oxide: 

French process. Singmaster and Cour- 

sen. (P.) 

Mfr. of. McKee. (P.) 

Zin- pigments. Mfr of. Clerc. (B. P.).. 

Ziic- iiolysulphide. (B. P.) 

Zirconia cements. Sheppards. (N.) ... 



937 



• 88" 
37 



'245 
329 
461 

884 

315 

•693 

•932 

315 

7.57 

708 



•895 
35 

1028 
896 
421 



•Illustrated; (P.), (B. P.) — United States and British patents respectively: (S.) — Synopsis; 
(N.) — Papers read at society meeting-s but not printed in full. 



INDEX 



XI 



AUTHOR INDEX 



AMBLER. JOSEPH A. A compilation of 
American dye patents in abstract 

form 636 

Anderson. Robert J., and J. H. Capps. 
Gases in aluminum furnaces and 

their analysis lOlf) 

^Andrews. A. B. Rhodium for rodents.... 680 
Archer. R. S.. and Zay Jeffries. Atoms and 

metals 507 

The crystalline structure of metals 771 

The slip interference theory of the 

hardening' of metals 1057 

Armstrong-, C. G. Porcelain enameling fur- 
naces 486 

. Armstrong. P. A. E. Drill steel from hol- 
low ingots 960 



BACON. RAYMOND F.. and Harold S. 
Davis. Recent advances in the 
American sulphur industry .... 65 
Badger, W. L. Salt manufacture in Michi- 
gan 001 

Barrett. Leonard L. Pipe-line- transporta- 
tion of hot oil 1148 

Barrows, Frank E. Investigation of the 
chemical literature 

I 433 

II 477 

III 517 

Beck. W. J. Commercially pure iron in the 

basic open-hearth 965 

Beckinsale, S.. H. Moore and Clarice E. 
Mallinson. Season-cracking of 
brass 976 

Berger. Richard G. Recovery of diamond 

powder from waste paste 208 

Berkeley. William N. Research, a capital 
investment or an operating ex- 
pense? 506 

Berolzheimer. D. D. Rhodium for rodents 680 

Biesterfeld. C. H. Breadth and scope of 

chemical patent claims 881 

Bjerke, Harald. Birkeland-Eyde arc proc- 
ess of nitrogen fixation 724 

Blum. William. The use of fluorides in 

solutions for nickel deposition.. 1109 

Bogert, Marston T. Certification a diffi- 
cult problem 241 

" Bonardi. J. P., and Max Shapiro. Behavior 

of coppr in molybdenum ores . . . 847 

Boone, W. W. A simplified carbon com- 
bustion train 1068 

Booth. L. M. Water purification 384 

Baoth. William. Rhodium for rodents... 680 

Botkin. C. W. Study of the saturated and 

unsaturated oils from shale. . . 876 

Boureoud. A. E. Gasification of powdered 

coal 600 

Bradley. H. F. Analytical control of elec- 
trolytic zinc production 461 

Brill. Hars-ey C. Problems in the prepara- 
tion of copra and coconut oil . . . 567 

A suggestion for the National Re- 
search Council 1000 

Brooke. F. W. Acid vs. basic electric 

furnace for the foundry 794 

"Brooks. Benjamin T. Some chemical con- 
siderations of petroleum refining 1022 

Brown. Hylton R.. and David J. Price. 
An explosion of hard rubber 
dust 737 

B. T. B. The language of chemistry 548 

Bull. Arthur W. A gas-generating appa- 
ratus 749 

Burrell. G. A.. G. G. Oberfell and C L. 
Voress. Gasoline by the charcoal 
absorption process 156 

/^AMERON. FRANK K. The outlook for 

^ the fertilizer industry 9, 

Capps. J. H.. and Robert J. Anderson 
Gasea in aluminum furnaces and 
their analysis 1019 

Carlsson. Gustav The vapor compression 

system of evaporation 645 

— The vapoi compression system of 

evaporation 1044 

Carpenter. Clifford D. Determination of 

melting point.s 569 

Chandler, C. F. I*resentation address, 

Perkin medal presentation 100 

■ Chapman. L. W. Salts-refining plants at 

Owens and Searles Lakes 683 

Clayton. Charles Y. Polishing motor for 

metal sections 356 

' Cobenzl. A. The chemistry and manufac- 
ture of satin white 231 

'Collitt. Bernard. British research on auto- 
mobile steels 548 

Comstock. George F. Fundamentals essen- 
tial to soundness of steel rails. . .504 

Relationship between segregation 

and rail failures 148 

'Combs. M. A. Gas furnaces for melting 

non-ferrous metals 51.5 

Cornell. Sidney. Bluing and browning 

steel articles 301 

Finish of metallic materials .... 309 

Cox. Dr. Alvin J. The cordage fiber in- 
dustry of the Philippine Islands. 285 

Cox. Jamf's W. Jr. Cloths for mechanical 

uses 613 

Craig. Hugh. Rhodium for rodents .... 680 

Crosby. E L. Melting non-ferrous metals. 912 
' Cruess, William V. Present status of fruit 

and vegetable deh.vdration 781 

'Crupi. F. J. Factors influencing the vis- 
cosity of glue 57.5 



•pxANNERTH, FREDERIC. Gutta gaek- 

■'--' war. a new base for chewing 

gum 308 

Legal notes 397 

Darling, Elton R. Refining Chinese bis- 
muth concentrates 1108 

Davis, Harold S., and Raymond F. Bacon. 
Recent advances in the American 
sulphur industry 65 

deGeer, Baron Gerard. Electric smelting 
of pig iron at Dom.iarfvet, 
Sweden 429 

deLong, C. R. Dye imports 845 

Dodge, F. D. Rhodium for rodents .... 680 

Donaldson, Robert N. Measuring the flow 

of gases 956 

Dornin, George A. Fundamentals essential 

to soundness of steel I'ails 504 

Dort. Robert G., and M. Roulleux. Re- 
covery of volatile solvents by the 
Bi-egeat process 916 

Downs, Charles Raymond, and John Morris 
Weiss. Coal-tar research at 
Shadyside 150 

Duncan, Lindsay. Recovery of potash 

alum and sulphur at Tonopah. . 529 

Dunglinson. Burton. The vapor compres- 
sion system of evaporation 1044 



pDWARDS, JUNIUS DAVID, and Harold 

-'-' T. Gammon. Causes of piping 

in aluminum ingots 338 

Edwards, Junius David. Mechanism of 
solidification of a copper-alumi- 
num allo.v 217 

Edwards. Junius David, and T. A. Moor- 
mann. Density of aluminum from 
30 to 1.000 deg. C 61 

Ellis, Carleton. Rhodium for rodents .... 680 

Emley, Warren E. Plastic gypsum plas- 
ter 740 

Emley, Warren E.. and Charlotte G. Faxon. 
Specifications for the color of 
gypsum plasters 1054 



pAIRLIE, ANDREW M. Water-cooled 

-^ acid chambers adopted in Eng- 
land 786 

Farkas, S. H. A new principle of rotary 

pump construction 1035 

Faxon, Charlotte G., and Warren E. Emley. 
Specifications for the color of 
gypsum plasters 1054 

Fay, Henry. Nitrogen and case-hardening 289 

FergTison, Walter. Compensation of chem- 
ists and salesmen 460 

Fink, Colin G. Shall chemists be regis- 
tered, certified and legalized?.. 240 

FitzGerald. Francis A. J. Porcelain enamel- 
ing furnaces 593 

Franchot, R. Activities of Fixed Nitrogen 

Research Laborator.v 763 

Franks, Arthur J. Studies in Colorado 

shale oils 561 

French, H. J. Motion pictures in physical 

testing laboratory 131 



/^AMMON. HAROLD T., and Junius 
^-' David Edwards. Causes of 

piping in aluminum ingots 338 

Gardner, Henry A. Metal protective 

paints 931 

Giolitti, Fedei'ico. Steel castings of high 

strength and toughness 

I 113 

II 161 

Giston. F. Bids bon jour to benign bovine 548 

Purity for the pure 461 

Goetschius. Dalton M. Treatment of acid 

and alkali burns 868 

Guillet, Leon. Cobalt brasses 439 

Guillet, Leon, and Albert Portevin. Co- 
efficients of equivalence in ternary 

alloys 609 

Gu.stin, Welhngton. Legal notes. 37. 129. 223, 
303, 355, 480, 521, 571. 653. 692, 
735, 789, 930, 1018. 



TTAGEMANN, T. C. Cost of fixed nitro- 

••^ gen in Norway 531, 1000 

Hanley. Herbert R. Removal of arsenic 
from zinc electrolyte by means 
of hydrogen sulphide 693 

Hannan. Frank, and Abel Wolman, Re- 
sidual aluminum compounds in 
water filter effluents 728- 

Hayward. Carle R. A device for measuring 

the flow of gases 780 

Henderson. R. R. The metric system and 

religion 373 

Herlenius, Jonas. Swedish electric pig iron 

furnace 108 

Hesse, Bernhard C. Plan should be tried 

on a small scale at first 242 

Hicks. W. B., and M. R. Nourse. Potash 

in 1919 216 

Hillebrand. W. F. Production of pure 

platinum 1044 

Hiltner. R. S. What chemistry can do 

in the food industry 243 

Holmes. W. C. Temperature conversion 

tables 637 



Hoover, Herbert C. The problem of re- 
organization of the Federal gov- 
ernment 

Hoskins. William, and Russell Wiles. Pro- 
motion of scientific research . . 

Hougen, O. A. Translation <»f A T. Low- 
zow's article on influence of sili- 
con upon the properties of ferro- 
silicon 

Husa, William P. Rhodium for rodents. . 

Hutchins, S. The Hargreaves-Bird electro- 
lytic cell 506 



743 
689 



481 
680 



TONIDES.-S. A. Sulphur dioxide may 

-'• have therapeutic value 28 1 

Ittner, Martin Hill. Report of the Com- 
mittee ou Industrial Alcohol .... 1088 



T EFFRIES. ZAY, and R. S. Archer. Atoms 

J and metals 507 

■ — The crystalline structure of metals 771 

• — The slip interference theory of the 

hardening of metals 1057 

Jensen, K. W. Cost of nitrogen fixation 

in Norway 681 

Johnson, Wellington B. Rhodium for ro- 
dents 680 

Johnston, John. Some personal reminis- 
cences — Nichols award to Dr. 
Lewis 870 

Jones, Chester H. Armour Fertilizer 
Works 

I 333 

II 37J1 

Comment 548 

Jorgensen, E. L. Tower packing efficien- 
cies 741 



T^AEMPFFERT. WALDEMAB. Who is a 

■'^ chemist ? • 956 

Kamura, Heihachi. Heat of dissociation 

of iron pyrites 437 

Kendall, Arthur I. Bacteria as chemical 

reagents 56 

Kent. H. A. Production of pure platinum 1044 
Kershaw, John B. C. Rise and develop- 
ment of the electrolytic alkaU 
and chlorine industry in Europe 

I 77 

II 119 

III 167 

Knowland. R. G. Measuring the flow of 

gases 956 

Kramer, John F. To prevent use of in- 
dustrial alcohol as intoxicating 
beverage 373 



T aBOUR. H. E. Phosphoric acid evapo- 

-'-' ration .' . . . 466 

Ladon, A. A. Soldering fluxes 981 

Lamb. Arthur B. An appreciation of the 

medalist — Nichols award 869 

Landis, W. S. Birkeland-Eyde are process 

of nitrogen fixation 724 

Landoll. Dr. A. The chemical industry of 

Switzerland 31 

Langmuir, Irving. Future developments of 

theoretical chemistry 553 

Leech Paul Nicholas. A a.uestion of 

therapeutic value 548 

Lefebure. V. Cliemical disarmament 5 

Lewis. Gilbert N. Color and chemical 

constitution 871 

Lewis. Leland J., and Ralph H. McKee. 
The hydrolysis of fats by re- 
agents made from cymene 969 

Lichtin, James J. Relative heat conduc- 
tivities of some insulating and 
building materials 388 

Little. Arthur D. Biographical reminis- 

ences. Perkin medal presentation 99 

Loeb. Jacques. The border lines of colloid 

chemistry 681 

Chemical and physical behavior of 

proteins 550 

Lowzow. A. T. Influence of silicon upon 

the properties of ferrosilicon. . . 481 

Lunt. Horace F. Practical jokers among 

workmen 725 



IVTAC PHERRAN. R. S. Comparative 

^^■^ tests of steels at high tempera- 
tures 1153 

Madsen. Charles P. Ductile electrol.vtic 

nickel 922 

Mains. Gerald H., and Max Phillips. 
Some synthetic resins from fur- 
fural 661 

Mallinson. Clarice E., H. Moore and S. 
Beckinsale. Season-cracking of 
brass 976 

Marsh, Kirtland. Setting a recording py- 
rometer for cold-junction tem- 
perature 1153 

Suggestions for calibrating base 

metal thermocouple by the freez- 
ing point method 1 071 



Xll 



INDEX 



Matthews, John A. Molybdenum steels.. 395 

MoCollum. Ross. Measuring- the flow of 

gases 956 

McCormifk, G. C. Who is a chemist?. . . 416 

McDonald, P. B. An eng-ineer who antici- 
pated Hoover 252 

Mcllhiney, Parker C. Would advertise 
profession of chemistry for pub- 
lic's education 243 

McKee, Ralph H.. and Leland J. Lewis. 
The hydrolysis of fats by re- 
agents made from oyniene 969 

McKee, Ralph H.. and Frank A. Strauss. 
Synthesis of chlorine-free ben- 
zoic acid from benzene 

I 638 

II 697 

Meissner, C. R. Byproduct coke plant of 

the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. 891 
Mellon, M. G. Abnormal behavior of a 

Weston standard cell 166 

Merica, Paul D. Chemical properties and 

metallography of nickel 197 

Copj)er :nickel alloys ,558 

Iron :nickel alloys 375 

Miscellaneous alloys of nickel .... 649 

^Notes on Monel metal 291 

(Notes on nickel 17 

Physical properties of nickel 73 

Montgomery, Wallace. Extraction of juice 

from sugar beet 435 

Recovery of sugar from beet mo- 
lasses 605 

Refinery practice in beet sugar 

manufacture 469 

Moore, Edward T. Operating details of 

electric furnaces 171 

Moore, H., S. Beckinsale and Clarice E. 
Mallinson. Season-cracking of 

brass 976 

Moormann, T. A., and Junius David Ed- 
wards. Density of aluminum 
from 30 to 1,000 deg. C 61 



TVTORTHRUP, E. E. High-frequency in- 

-^^ duction steel-furnace 309 

— ' Recent progress in high-frequency 

inductive heating 1097 

Nourse, M. R., and W. B. Hicks. Potash 

in 1919 216 



QBERPELL G. G., G. a. Burrell and C. L. 

^^ Voress. Gasoline by the char- 
coal absorption process 156 

Odell. W. W. Use of bituminous coal as 

water-gas generator fuel 60 

Ow, J. W. W. Cost of nitrogen fixation 

in Norway 956 



pAWL, MARC. The tariff on minerals.. 1002 

Perino. J. Who is a chemist? 416 

Peterkin. A. G. Costs — ^^a short study of 

factory economics 253 

Phillips, Max, and Gerald H. Mains. Some 

synthetic resins from furfural. . 661 

Pike, Robert D. Electric furnace refrac- 
tories 148 

Portevin, Albert, and Leon Guillet. Co- 
efficients of equivalence in ter- 
nary alloys 609 



Price, David J. Dust explosions 473 

Engineering problems in dust ex- 
plosion prevention 29 



Price, David J., and Hylton R. Brown. An 
explosion of hard rubber dust . . 



737 



T5AVNER, OYSTEIN. Condensation of 

-^^ zinc vapor 88.5 

The nature of zinc dust 932 

Rawdon, Henry S. Effects of metallic 

structure upon properties 533 

Macroscopic examination of metals 385 

Preparation of small pieces for 

microscopic examination 475 

Read. T. T. Rhodium for rodents 680 

Reinberg, Gustave. Jr. Commercializing 

Priestley's theory 769' 

Richards, J. W. Duty-free apparatus for 

colleges 52 

Richardson, E. A., and L. T. Richardson. 
Influence of copper on some 
physical properties of iron and 

steel 565 

Riederer, Herman S. Futility of exami- 
nations 242i 

Rogers, Allen. Need for complete and 

classified list 341 

Roulleux, M., and Robert G. Dort. Re- 
covery of volatile solvents by 
the Bregeat process 910 



OCHMID, M. H, Molybdenum steel and 

■^ its application 937 

Schneidewind, R. The removal of ni- 

tates by means of alcohol .... 22 

Schroeder, C. M. Edward. The control of 
chlorine in the bleaching of 
cotton goods 925 

Schwartz, H. A. Effect of manganese on 

malleable iron 912 

Scott, Wirt S. Electric heating in ceram- 
ics 400 

Seyt, Martin. Senatorial science 636 

Shapiro, Max. and J. P. Bonardi. Behavior 

of copper in molybdenum ores . . 847 

Sherlock, Chesla C. Injuries caused by 

emergencies 1069 

Ownership of highways and streets 266 

J — ^Practical jokers among workmen.. 619 

Who is entitled to inventions?. . . 438 

Sherrard, E. C. The conversion of saw- 
dust into cattle feed 160 

Simpson, Louis. Ownership of oil-yielding 

shales in New Brunswick 417 

Plant design for hot-gas pyrolytic 

distillation of shale 341 

Smith, A. K. The treatment of acid and 

alkali burns 748 

Smith, Albert W. Duty-free apparatus for 

colleges 284 

Speller. F. N. Preventing corrosion in 

iron and steel under water .... 1009 

Strauss, Frank A., and Ralph H. McKee. 
Synthesis of chlorine-free ben- 
zoic acid from benzene 

I 638 

II 697 

Styri, Haakon. More flakes 468 

Svedberg, Theodore. Survey of the physics 

and chemistry of colloids .... 33 



nnAYLOR, WILLIAM MACKLIN. A com- 
-*■ parison of various methods of 

water purification 133 

Teeple, John E. Presentation — Nichols 

award to Dr. Lewis 871 

Thau, A. A new type of benzene still in 

European operation 1013 

Thomas, Kirby. Possible uses for the 
spent shale from oil shale oper- 
ations 389 

Tolman, Richard C. Activities of Fixed 

Nitrogen Research Laboratory. . 768 

Government fi.xed nitrogen research 595 

Prof. Milton Whitney and nitro- 
gen fixation 724 



■y-AN ARSDEL. W. B. Calculation of 
^ percentage removal of a constit- 
uent from a mixture 846 

"Van Patten, Nathan. Investigations of 

the chemical literature 548 

Vie, George. The manufacture of arsenic 

trioxide 527 

Vigneron, Henri. The Alsatian potash in- 
dustry 655 

Voress, C. L., G. A. Burrell and G. G. 
Oberfell. Gasoline by the char- 
coal absorption process 156 

-IXZ-ASHBURN, E. W. Porcelain enamel- 
'' ing furnaces 868 

Webster, Paul W. Advantages of cad- 
mium lithopone 373 

Weidlein, Edward R. Conservation of 
heat in power and heating sys- 
tems 295 

Weiss, John Morris, and Charles Raymond 
Downs. Coal-tar research at 
Shadyside 130 

Wesson, David. Register, perhaps certify, 

but not legalize ''41 

Whitby, G. Stafford. Plantation rubber and 

the testing of rubber 417 

Whitney, W. R. The biggest things in 
chemistry. Perkin medal presen- 
tation 103 

Waring. W. George. Rhodium for rodents 680 

Whitaker, M. C. Industrial alcohol and 
its relation to prohibition en- 
forcement from the manufac- 
turers' standpoint 1090 

Wiles, Russell, and William Hoskins. Pro- 
motion of scientific research . . 689 

Wilson, H. W. Library and research work 593 

Wilson, Otto. Oils, fats and waxes in 

Latin America 1101 

Wilson, Robert E. Function of educa- 
tional institutions in research . . 725 

Wolman, Abel, and Frank Hannan. Re- 
sidual aluminum compounds in 
water filter efliuents 728 

Wood, W. P. The dimensional limitation 
of successive heat-treatments of 
carbon stel 345 



^ODER, J. D. Comparison of various 
••■ methods of water purification. . 592 



2EISBERG. F. C. The Valentiner vacuum 

process 868 



H. C. PARMELEE 

Editor 

ELLWOOD HENDRIOK 
Consulting Editor 

ERNEST E. THUM 
Associate Editor 

WALLACE SAVAGE 
ALAN G. WIKOFF 
R. S. MeBRIDE 
CHARLES N, HULBURT 
Assistant Editors 



CHEMICAL 

&> METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERING 



L. W. CHAPMAH 

Western Editor 

CHESTER H. JONES 

CHARLES A. BLATCHLEY 

. 7-T i- r Industrial Editors 

A consolidation of j g jjegeb 

ELECTROCHEMICAL & METALLXmOICAL INDUSTRY and IRON & STEE:L MAGAZINE Managing Editor 



Volume 24 



New York, January 5, 1921 



Number 1 



Optimistic Outlook in 

The Chemical Industries 



IN EXTENDING to the friends of Chemical & Metal- 
lurgical Engineering a cordial holiday greeting and 
sincere wish for a happy and prosperous New Year, the 
editors are not lightly repeating a perfunctory saluta- 
tion. On the contrary, we are fully mindful of the 
serious industrial and economic problems which must 
be happily solved if our wish is to be consummated 
before Nineteen Hundred and Twenty-One slips away. 
With the year that has gone we need have little concern 
except to profit by its lessons. In many respects it was 
disappointing. It had a skyrocket career; and while a 
skyrocket in flight is an interesting spectacle until after 
it bursts in radiant r-plendor at the zenith, there is 
always the dull and uninteresting but inevitable accom- 
paniment — the descent of the stick. 

But it is with neither the rise of the rocket nor the 
descent of the stick that we salute our friends. Rather 
do we wish to greet them at the opening of the year with 
a note of optimism and confidence which we ourselves 
feel and which we have found in a remarkable degree 
pervading the chemical industries. Being somewhat 
curious as to the mental attitude of manufacturers in 
the chemical and allied industries under the industrial 
depression which has prevailed for some time, and 
wishing to discover at first hand what plans they were 
making for the future, when they expected a revival of 
business and how they felt about our chemical indus- 
tries as a whole, we resorted to the useful questionnaire. 
The replies have been gratifying. If we had been suffer- 
ing from depressed spirits, we would have been revived 
by the expressions of optimism and confidence in the 
future voiced by our correspondents. Seventy-five per 
cent of them were distinctly optimistic, and the balance 
noncommittal. The current industrial depression has 
been felt by only 60 per cent, although some who have 
not yet felt it admit the possibility of a slight lull early 
this year. It is noteworthy, however, that two-thirds of 
our friends have neither reduced their forces nor cur- 
tailed their outputs. In many instances they are run- 
ning on accumulated orders which will require from two 
to four months for completion, thus tiding them over 
any temporary lull in business which may occur between 
now and spring. Such labor as is being dispensed with 
is mainly the unskilled variety, because manufacturers 
of engineering and technical equipment and apparatus 
realize the value of the skilled artisan and are preserv- 
ing their organizations. As a consequence we may con- 
clude that unemployment is not widespread in these 
industries. In some cases forces are being reduced in 
order to weed out the inefficient, and the beneficent 
influence of this process has already been observed in 
the attitude of the employee toward his job. 



Speculation has been rife as to the time when we 
might look for normal resumption of business. Econo- 
mists, industrial leaders, business men and the average 
citizen have all made their guesses. The matter is not 
altogether one of psychology, because time is required 
for the physical accomplishment of certain things. Curi- 
ously enough, the impression seems to be almost univer- 
sal that late spring or early summer should witness the 
transition from depression to activity. This opinion is 
concurred in by our correspondents. 

As to the factors which will influence a speedy return 
to normal conditions, there is remarkable unanimity of 
opinion that tariff legislation is of primary and vital 
importance. There is a marked tendency to place con- 
fidence in the lawmakers at Washington, as well as to 
impose upon them the necessity for hard work and 
exercise of brain power. Not a few are of the opinion 
that Congress must listen more and more to technical 
advisers. The feeling that a tariff on dyes, chemicals 
and apparatus is essential arises largely from the fact 
that many of these industries have a direct relation to 
national welfare. In the case of dyes particularly, the 
fact that other nations have already protected their 
domestic industry only adds to the necessity of prompt 
action here. 

Next to tariff protection, improvement in methods of 
taxation is mentioned as a factor in the return to normal 
business conditions. Next, in the opinion of our friends, 
is the matter of foreign exchange. Those who have 
commodities for export find it difficult, if not impossible, 
to do business at current rates, while those who are 
manufacturing in competition with foreign countries 
feel that the United States will become a dumping 
ground for cheap imports as long as the inequality in 
exchange exists. A hopeful note is sounded in one in- 
stance by a correspondent who sees the buying power of 
the dollar increased as domestic prices fall so that it 
will more nearly equal its value in foreign markets. It 
is noteworthy that few referred to the necessity of 
reducing wages as a prerequisite to business prosperity. 
Evidently manufacturers are not concerned so much 
with what a man earns as what return he gives for his 



wage. 

Not infrequently during the past fow years the funda- 
mental soundness of our chemical industry has been the 
subject of question and discussion. Consequently we 
were particularly anxious to get the opinion of manu- 
facturers on this point. The gist of the matter as con- 
tained in replies to our questionnaire is that in general 
the chemical and allied industries are on a sound basis, 
both financially and technically. This is particularly 
true with the organizations having large resources in 
men and money, though it is recognized that some of 
the smaller organizations which have been overcapital- 
ized and poorly manned are not likely to weather the 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 1 



distress of this period of readjustment. This curious 
but fatal combination prevails: Poor technology is 
observed in those organizations which have not the 
financial means to withstand the present strain. As a 
consequence they will fall under severe competitive 
conditions. If the service which they performed dur- 
ing the war is still needed it will be supplied by the 
larger organizations, whereas if their product is rela- 
tively unimportant, small in quantity and low in value, 
it may not be manufactured here at all. In any event 
it is the general impression that American chemical 
industry will hold most of the advanced positions gained 
during the war, although tariff protection is considered 
necessary in some instances. 

All of this bears directly upon the ability with which 
we can meet foreign competition and establish ourselves 
in a position of independence. It is quite evident that 
industrial independence can usually be achieved if the 
people are willing to pay the price. Already there is 
evidence of the fact that competition with German and 
other European products is actively threatening the 
existence of some of the industries which during the 
war we came to regard as vitally necessary to our 
national welfare. As an example we may cite a widely 
used scientific instrument for which domestic manufac- 
turers are charging about seven times as much as the 
cost of an imported article of equal grade. With such a 
discrepancy of price there is but one inevitable result, 
because buyers will look first at the price. The general 
feeling, however, as reflected in the replies to our ques- 
tionnaire, is that the United States has thoroughly estab- 
lished its independence in those chemical industries 
which are characterized by large-scale production. On 
the contrary, it is not felt that the manufacture of many 
specialties has been perfected to a sufficiently high de- 
gree to meet foreign competition. Of course, a basic 
factor in the whole matter is the difference in cost of 
labor at home and abroad which cannot be materially 
altered by technology or good business methods. 

Scattered here and there throughout our correspond- 
ence we find a few points mentioned only incidentally 
which we believe worthy of further emphasis. It is 
quite evident that those manufacturers who serve a 
diversity of consumers are in a strategic position when 
a period of depression comes. This can be accomplished 
in two ways: Either by manufacturing a variety of 
products for different industries or, more fortunately, 
producing some one thing that is useful in a number of 
industries. In either case the demand for the products 
may also have a seasonal nature which will distribute 
business uniformly throughout the year. 

One of the most hopeful aspects of business in the 
chemical and allied industries is the money-saving and 
waste-eliminating character of the service, equipment 
or process offered by manufacturers and engineers. This 
is responsible for more than a few of our correspond- 
ents stating that inquiry for their product is more brisk 
than for some time past and that the prospect for clos- 
ing contracts is unusually good. In other words, those 
who are prepared to put our industries on a scientific 
basis find their services in demand in direct proportion 
with the necessity for reducing costs, saving wastes, or 
increasing output. 

Considering all conditions, we may conclude that what 
is now npedful is business courage and respect for 
fundamental economic principles. Time will be re- 
quired for the operation of economic laws, and some 



distress will follow as a consequence; but if we look at 
business over a five-year instead of a one-year period, we 
may find current losses more than counterbalanced by 
earlier gains. Attempts to forestall by artificial means 
the inevitable readjustment now going on, or failure to 
understand the reason for it, or stubborn refusal to yield 
to it will only delay the revival of business. Psychologic 
as well as economic forces are at work. The latter are 
outside the scope of our influence, but to the former 
we want to add our note of courage, confidence and 
optimism, supported in tangible form by the judgment 
and testimony of leaders in the chemical and allied 
industries. By giving a little thought even a short 
period of adversity can be turned to useful purposes. 

A Noteworthy Year 

In the Steel Market 

THE steel trade is one that has a habit of breaking 
precedents and records. The changes occurring in 
the market have been likened to the view obtained in a 
kaleidoscope. It is not the changes that occurred in the 
steel market during 1920 that constitute the most note- 
worthy thing about the year, but the character of the 
market itself, with its flight of prices on the part of 
the independents and the even line maintained by the 
Steel Corporation. No steel manufacturer would have 
predicted what occurred, and none perhaps would have 
admitted the possibility of such a thing occurring. A 
few might have admitted the possibility, at the same 
time asserting that the actual event was so improbable 
as not to be worth considering. 

It was at the end of 1919 that the independent steel 
makers as a whole were primed for a substantial ad- 
vance in steel prices. Some had advanced their prices, 
but the appearance was that of charging premiums for 
early delivery and merely refraining from selling for 
later delivery at base prices. It was expected that the 
Steel Corporation would advance its prices, and when 
the corporation did not take the initiative it was thought 
that at any rate it would follow the independents on the 
up track. To many independents if not the majority 
the remarkable thing seemed to be, not that the inde- 
pendent market advanced, but that the Steel Corporation 
did not make advances. 

It was not a case, however, of the independents aban- 
doning an established philosophy, of holding prices 
steady. No similar conditions had obtained in the past. 
There was a new state of affairs in connection with 
which there were no precedents. It was the Industrial 
Board prices of March 21, 1919, to which the Steel Cor- 
poration adhered, and when those prices, representing 
the second reduction from the war control prices, were 
announced it was a common feeling among buyers of 
steel, and among not a few sellers, that the prices were 
on the whole too high. They were, as a matter of fact, 
shaded in the April and May following, and when even- 
tually steel makers found that instead of its being 
necessary to let the whole market go down there was to 
be an opportunity to obtain higher prices for a time, it 
seemed natural enough to go while the going was good, 
or "make hay while the sun shines." There was a 
scarcity of steel, resulting from the iron and steel strike 
being followed closely by the bituminous coal strike, a 
temporary situation likely to be followed eventually by 
a collapse. There seemed to be no hope either of holding 
prices down at the time or of holding them up afterward. 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



One of the great difficulties of the situation was the 
lack of integration among some of the independents. 
Some steel producers must buy their pig iron, and many 
pig iron producers must buy their coke. The coke pro- 
ducer sought such profits as were obtainable, particu- 
larly when his coal had a very high market value, the 
amount of coal converted into merchant coke being 
scarcely more than the proverbial drop in the bucket 
when compared with the size of the coal trade as a 
whole. The merchant furnaceman sells more pig iron 
to foundries than to steel makers and could not be ex- 
pected to hold down the price of steel-making pig iron. 
Some steel makers had to have high prices in order to 
meet their costs, and they could obtain the prices. Why 
should others not? 

Profits were made, but production costs naturally rose, 
and a readjustment is already in progress. Costs can- 
not be reduced to the pre-war level, but various 
excrescences can be lopped off, and many have been 
already. Costs will now have to be regulated by selling 
prices, when formerly they were allowed to go where 
they would. 

Making Plant Troubles 
Pay Dividends 

THE Cottrell precipitator for recovery of fume forms 
the classic example of making profits from what 
were previously regarded as wastes or public nuisances. 
Many industries have used this means of dust or fume 
recovery to their financial advantage as well as for the 
improvement of their reputation among their neighbors. 
Fire and explosion prevention has generally been re- 
garded as a necessary but costly problem with which 
the chemical plant must deal. However, new methods 
for elimination of fire and dust or vapor explosions give 
promise of being profitable, as well as effective for their 
primary purpose. This is possible through the use of 
inert gas methods for control of combustible vapors 
and dusts. 

One large industrial plant which had numerous fires 
and a few small explosions caused by mixtures of air 
with the vapor of the solvent used is affording a strik- 
ing example of the advantage of this work. This com- 
pany installed equipment for making an inert gas mix- 
ture — carbon dioxide and nitrogen as the purified 
product of fuel combustion being the gas employed. 
This inert mixture carries off the vapor from the proc- 
ess, the solvent is absorbed from the gas by an oil- 
scrubbing process similar to that used for recovery of 
toluene from city gas, and the solvent is thus recovered. 
The result is safe and uninterrupted operation at very 
low cost and even this small cost is more than offset by 
the financial advantage through the solvent reclaimed. 
It is reported that this solvent costs about four cents 
a gallon instead of approximately thirty cents for new 
material. 

There are many other industries using solvents under 
conditions that make explosion and fire hazard serious. 
The fire insurance interests have long since done their 
best to enforce care in these matters and have in many 
cases made it financially profitable to eliminate the 
principal hazard by largely increasing the insurance 
rates where the plant was not operated with maximum 
of safety. If one may add to this insurance saving the 
actual income from recovered solvents, there is cer- 
tainly no longer an excuse for continuance of these dan- 
gerous plant practices. 



Dyes, World Peace, 

And Chemical Disarmament 

AFTER much controversy, during which it came 
L dangerously near muddling the whole matter, the 
British Government has adopted a definite policy with 
relation to its dye industry. Parliament saved the in- 
dustry at the eleventh hour by passing a regulatory 
bill, the text of which is printed elsewhere in this issue. 
In its principal features it prohibits, subject to a licens- 
ing system, the importation of synthetic organic dyes 
and intermediates used in their manufacture. The 
Board of Trade is constituted the licensing authority, 
supplemented by an advisory committee composed of 
manufacturers amd consumers. The provisions of the 
bill are to apply for ten years and no longer, at the end 
of which time it is confidently expected that the British 
dye industry will be able to stand alone. 

England's action holds a salutary lesson for the 
United States which the present Senate will do well to 
consider. Conditions in the two countries prior to 
England's recent action were almost identical. Neither 
nation had a well-developed, independent dye industry, 
both being large consumers of the German product. By 
the same token both nations were helpless in the early 
stages of gas warfare during the late conflict. Follow- 
ing the Armistice both nations regulated the importa- 
tions of German dyes, and England announces her inten- 
tion of supporting a domestic dye industry. Subse- 
quently the famous Sankey judgment destroyed the 
government's authority to regulate dye imports, and as 
a consequence the industry was in a perilous position 
until the new dye bill was passed by Parliament late in 
December. 

Our own position in respect to post-war regulation 
is still satisfactory, but should peace with Germany be 
declared prior to the passage of the Longworth dye bill 
by the Senate, the licensing authority of the War Trade 
Board Section of the State Department would be abro- 
gated and the way would be open for unrestricted 
importation of German dyes. It is this critical situa- 
tion which makes it incumbent upon this Senate to 
agree upon a measure which will protect the domestic 
dye industry and permit it to develop to a state of 
independence. 

The necessity for protection of the dye industry until 
it can stand alone is not wholly an industrial and eco- 
nomic matter. Its relation to world peace is closer than 
is suspected at first glance. One of the steps advocated 
in the interest of world peace is international disarma- 
ment, but thus far the advocates of such a measure have 
considered physical disarmament only and have strangely 
neglected the greater necessity for chemical disarma- 
ment. The latter is practically impossible as long as 
any nation holds a world monopoly in the manufacture 
and distribution of synthetic coal-tar products. No 
thoughtful reader can peruse V. Lefebure's article, 
published on another page, without being forcibly struck 
with the author's logical reasoning on this subject. We 
commend it to the earnest consideration of our law- 
makers and shall see to it that they have an opportunity 
to read it. It is immaterial whether Lefebure's com- 
plete scheme can be carried out at the present time, but 
it is of vital importance to recognize the fact that the 
United States, as well as the other leading nations of 
the earth, must have an independent dye industry, in 
the interest of chemical disarmament and world peace, 
if for no other reason. 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



Mechanical Training- 

For the Industrial Chemist 

THE average chemist is essentially a theoretical man 
and without knowledge of mechanical matters, but 
he must acquire such information as will enable him to 
direct them to his purposes. The lack of the simplest 
knowledge of mechanics and construction details among 
chemists is deplorable. Instances may be cited. 

A highly trained chemist, more through good fortune 
to himself than judgment on the part of his superiors, 
had secured an operating position with the responsi- 
bility, among other heavy charges, of starting the equip- 
ment in an enormous new manufacturing plant. He 
knew nothing about the simple need of sweating in a 
bearing and at first i-efused to run the machinery idle, 
preferring to wait until the material commenced to 
come through. He insisted that a simple turnover of a 
few minutes proved the readiness of the machines to 
handle the load. Finally, however, under the threat of 
dismissal from the staff chemical engineer, who had 
mechanical training, he was persuaded to start up with- 
out load. It developed during the three weeks' tune-up 
that none of the equipment was ready, that bearings 
burned out, shafts had to be re-aligned and in two 
instances entire change in design was necessary. Had 
these breakdowns occurred under load several months' 
delay would have been inevitable. 

But one might say, "Call in the mechanical engineer." 
Unfortunately he is not always available. The mechani- 
cal engineer with a knowledge of chemical plants is, 
moreover, a rara avis. Two instances will illustrate. 

A large number of steel containers designed to hold 
a poisonous gas under pressure were put in by me- 
chanics. These had been pressure-tested at the factory 
but traveled a long distance in coming to the plant. The 
chemical engineer, much tp the disgust of the mechanical 
engineer, insisted on a second test in place. He knew 
that leakage of the gas would suffocate the workmen in 
the whole plant and cause expensive shut-downs. 
Finally, he had his way, and on putting each under a 500- 
Ib. hydraulic test — accomplished inexpensively with a 
hand pump — water spurted forth from the seams and 
even from the sides of the steel vessels. These leaks 
were soon stopped by oxy-acetylene torch and calking 
with a cold chisel. Many thousands of dollars and vexa- 
tious delays were saved. The risk to human life was 
reduced to nothing. 

A Gay-Lussac acid tower stood on four brick piers 
erected with the footing in sand of an old river bed. 
Evidently two of them were located over decayed matter 
beneath the surface, for one day they suddenly sank 
several inches, tilting the structure to a dangerous angle. 
The manager called in a construction company to quote 
on straightening up the work. It returned an estimate 
of about $2,000. In the meantime a practical chemical- 
engineer foreman asked for a chance to try before the 
construction company was retained and received permis- 
sion from the manager. 

He requisitioned two ordinary two-man timber saws 
from the storehouse and called in four workmen. They 
proceeded to saw out two courses of brickwork and 
mortar on each of the two high piers, working around 
the pier until at last a slim support of material was 
left in the center of each. Mortar was thrown into the 
spaces, the remaining material was chipped out and the 
tower settled back to the vertical, where it has since 
lieen standing for several years. 



This chap knew that of all tools available to the indus- 
tries there are very few for putting on material, most 
of them being "taking-off" tools, and he simply saw it 
was easier to saw off a leg than to put one on. This 
is not chemical engineering, but common sense, which 
carries men far in business, chemical engineers included. 

Gossiping Tongues 

Injure the Profession 

SOME time ago we heard a veritable tale of woe in 
regard to a commercial laboratory in good standing. 
The "kicker" declared himself to have been robbed by 
it of large sums of money, and to have been involved 
in a great waste of time with no results and, as he 
believed, no genuine effort to show for it. The man 
was not a chemist, but he talked with fervor, and his 
bitterness aroused our curiosity inasmuch as we knew 
the consulting chemist against whom the complaint was 
directed to be scrupulously careful, very competent in 
science, rich in technological experience, and a man of 
honor. So we proceeded with a little investigation of 
our own, and found three chemical laboratories involved 
instead of one — a little fact that was not related by the 
complainant and which the three chemists themselves 
did not know. We shall designate them as A, B, and C 
respectively. It was B who was the butt of the manu- 
facturer's diatribe on the occasion in question. 

What happened was that A was retained to develop 
a process, which he did. He did not finish his work, 
having carried it only to the initial stage. Then Mr. 
Manufacturer went to B without telling him anything 
of A and consulted him in regard to the process of which 
he declared he had made an initial instalment. B took 
the matter up where A had left it, and designated the 
necessary steps to carry it to completion. For this B 
charged a fee of $75 and $6.32 traveling expenses. 
Considerable correspondence of a friendly nature en- 
sued for which no charge was made, which related to 
what the manufacturer would do when he had his com- 
plete apparatus installed. Without purchasing the ap- 
paratus at all Mr. Manufacturer then went to C, and 
how C is coming along with him we do not know, but 
we can guess. 

All three are competent men; any one of them could 
have developed the process and carried it through to 
profitable operation; but the pig-headed manufacturer 
cannot understand chemical consequences; he does not 
know the difference between work in glass and in iron, 
he takes his chemistry as a lot of yokels take patent 
medicines, and the only so-called "reason" to which he 
will listen must emanate from men as ignorant of chem- 
istry as he. 

What is needed is less destructive gossip and more 
co-operation among consulting chemists. There is no 
profit whatever in letting ignorant men engage in loose 
and libelous talk about the vain things which they 
imagine. A few libel suits would do no harm in this 
respect. When a man begins to libel a brother chemist 
it is a good thing to make him give facts and figures, 
and then to send this record in to the man against 
whom the complaint is made. We do not want to put 
anything in the way of men of affairs seeking advice 
and counsel where they desire to get it; but we should 
like to see a halt called to malicious gossip. There is 
too much of it going on that has no foundation in fact, 
and that has its origin in crass and sour ignorance. 
It injures the whole profession. 



/ 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Chemical Disarmament 



The Author Passes in Review the Chemical Armament Implied in Chemical Warfare and Shows That 
the Crux of All Chemical Disarmament Must Be an Internationally Legalized Redistribution of 
Organic Chemical Producing Capacity Throughout the World 



By V. LEFEBURE 



WHAT is the present disarmament situation? 
Chemical disarmament is the crux of all dis- 
armament. 

The League of Nations, representing most of the 
nationalities, with the notable exceptions of America, 
Germany and Russia, has instituted a definite commis- 
sion to consider the question of world disarmament. 
Of the above exceptions acute interest must be attached 
to the American attitude. The initiative for any new 
disarmament schemes, an essential backing of any such 
schemes already before the world, must come from 
America with special weight. We may safely assume 
that in the block of nations represented by the League 
there is a desire for peace and any measures which 
can insure it. No doubt can exist that this feeling 
is common to America. On this common ground, there- 
fore, all parties, whether associated with or hostile 
to the League, must welcome any new light on the 
critical disarmament situation. 

A brief analysis of armament reveals the fact that 
disarmament must cover three essential factors in war- 
fare — the combatants, mechanical types of armament 
and war chemicals. Mechanical armament covers all 
projectile-throwing weapons, or projectors as we will 
call them, tanks, aircraft, appliances for transporta- 
tion, warships, etc. 

Chemical Armament 

Chemical armament, very generally, represents the 
actual death-dealing constituents of projectiles. This 
must, however, be qualified by the statement , that 
although all pre-war chemical armament — that is to say, 
explosives — required a special projectile to convey it 
to the enemy — that is to say, was dependent on a shell 
— the new type of chemical armament has become in 
some cases and may increasingly become independent 
of any special projectile. This is a most important 
item from the point of view of disarmament. It means 
that the limitation of projectiles may not carry with it 
limitation of the chemical weapon. 

It is fairly safe to assume that any world organiza- 
tion devising disarmament schemes could cover with 
a fair degree of certainty the first two forms — that is, 
the combatant and the mechanical type of warfare. It 
can be claimed that the component parts of mechanical 
armament can be produced rapidly in easily-converted 
peace-time factories. This applies, for example, to 
machine-gun parts ; but all of these weapons, if pro- 
duced in quantity, necessitate huge assembly plants, and 
these without doubt can be subjected to inspection and 
control. 

But how do normal disarmament schemes apply to 



Editor's Note — The author was British liaison officer with the 
Fi-ench forces from the inception of chemical warfare until after 
the Peace Conference and is especially qualified to speak with 
authority on this subject. 



the chemical type? This type of weapon covers, 
roughly, two classes — explosives and the so-called poison 
gases. Now we must at once correct any false impres- 
sion as to the relative importance of these two sections 
of chemical armament. The recent war has witnessed 
a gradual change in this matter. Explosives which 
at the commencement of the war represented nearly 
100 per cent of all projectile fillings can no longer 
claim more than 50 per cent of that capacity. This 
can be substantiated in many ways. It is sufficient, 
however, to point to the fact that in the last great 
German retreat their huge ammunition dumps which 
we captured contained at least and in many cases more 
than 50 per cent of shell which were filled not with 
explosives but with the other type of war chemical, 
commonly called poison gas. There is no doubt that 
another year of war would have seen this percentage 
greatly increased. 

Convertibility of Dye Plants for Poison Gas 
Production 

Pursuing our analysis, we must face the following 
question: Is there any essential difference in the dis- 
armament aspect of explosives and the other types of 
war chemical? They have one common characteristic. 
This is their peace-time use. This refuses to any dis- 
armament scheme the right to disarm in the simplest 
fashion — that is, by the total destruction of producing 
capacity. The world must have for normal development 
a large producing capacity for explosives and for the 
other types of chemical armament. This is self-evident 
for explosives, but may not be so for poison gas. We 
can readily establish the point, however, that the poison 
gas or chemical warfare campaign was initiated, fos- 
tered and most thoroughly exploited by Germany of all 
the belligerents. This country produced practically 
every ounce of her hundreds of thousands of tons of 
poison gas in dye plants, in dye factories. The exam- 
ination of German gas production leaves no doubt what- 
ever that the infinitely flexible, almost instantaneously 
converted dye plants are a logical means of production 
of all organic chemical weapons, including explosives. 

Facts to Be Considered in Connection With 
Chemical Disarmament 

We must now stop to lay emphasis on a general prin- 
ciple. There are two methods of disarmament. In 
the first class you can disarm very simply by destroying 
all the means of production and preventing their re- 
newed growth. In the second class, because the means 
of production — the factories — have a peace-time func- 
tion, you cannot disarm by destruction. How then can 
you disarm in this case? 

There is only one way — it is to insure that no one 
country possesses a monopoly in the means of produc- 



6 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



tion. The brightest and most telling war chemical 
invention has no value for and no incidence upon war- 
fare unless it can be produced rapidly and in quantity. 
Production is the key to its war use. Let us examine 
very briefly, therefore, the world distribution of the 
means of production for this new type of weapon. The 
facts are too well known to demand more than a brief 
reference. Before the war Germany held the almost 
absolute monopoly of world organic chemical production. 
Through this monopoly she launched the poison gas cam- 
paign, and for more than two years the Allied reply 
was relatively feeble. This was not due to Allied lack 
of invention, but to lack of producing capacity. Pro- 
duction occurred in improvised plants which weakened 
Allied resources and, most important of all, introduced 
no essential change in the German monopoly position. 

During the war, however, for economic rather than 
military reasons, dye-producing industries sprang up 
in France, America and England. Their development 
was relatively feeble, owing to numerous obvious rea- 
sons. They could not make their just demand upon 
the research forces of the countries concerned. The 
erection of the plants suffered at the expense of the 
other great munitions industries which. were developing, 
and in some cases as soon as a plant was erected the • 
dire needs of the situation diverted its production from 
that of dyes to that of explosives and other organic 
chemicals. From the point of view of our argument this 
development left the world in the following situation 
regarding organic chemical producing capacity: 

The German dye industry, the source of her war 
chemical production, was considerably strengthened. 
She had a world monopoly before the war, and in 
every way from the point of view of production, re- 
search forces, government support, etc., she was 
strengthened by the war in her bid for post-war world 
monopoly. Other countries than Germany were left 
with promising but relatively feeble organic chemical 
resources which could not immediately, even under nor- 
mal commercial conditions, hope to break the German 
monopoly. In other words, although for most types of 
armament the pre-war balance in favor of Germany 
was decreased, yet for this one type of chemical arma- 
ment the German monopoly was strengthened. 

What the German Organic Chemical Monopoly 

Implies 

We are, therefore, left in face of the following situa- 
tion: For most types of armament the war has led to 
a redistribution of producing capacity in the direction 
of an equilibrium. We can reasonably hope, by mate- 
rially diminishing this capacity and suitably controlling 
and inspecting it, to obtain international disarmament; 
but in one particular, in chemical warfare, for which 
the means of production is organic chemical capacity, 
the final situation is just as i-emote from any equilibrium 
as it was before the war. Now we cannot, for the 
reasons already given, urge the complete destruction 
of the German producing capacity. On the other hand, 
disarmament in all other weapons will leave the war 
importance of chemical warfare greatly enhanced. 

The conclusion is obvious. The world must have 
organic chemical producing capacity, but it cannot tol- 
erate a monopoly of that capacity, especially if that 
monopoly be held by those who so drastically abused 
its possession. There must be a redistribution of 
organic chemical producing capacity throughout the 
world before we can claim to have even approached 



disarmament. It would be farcical to proceed with gen- 
eral disarmament schemes and to leave untouched this 
monopoly in chemical armament. It can, therefore, be 
claimed without any exaggeration that the chief ques- 
tion before those who wish to see the world on a peace 
footing is the redistribution of this capacity throughout 
the world. In other words — and to ignore this issue is 
dangerous — we must break the German organic chem- 
ical monopoly. 

How can this be achieved? There are two main 
avenues of approach. The new-born dye industries of 
France, America and England, and if you wish, other 
countries, must be supported nationally through legis- 
lation, and internationally through some such organiza- 
tion as the League of Nations ; or, for those who oppose 
the latter, support must come on the common grounds 
of disarmament toward stable world peace. 

International Measures Needed to Regulate 
Chemical Disarmament 

In America and England legislation designed to pro- 
tect the dye industry is before both countries. The 
issue is likely to be fought out on purely national 
grounds. This alone is entirely unsatisfactory. It 
must be realized by all concerned that they are legislat- 
ing on a matter which has infinitely more than com- 
mercial significance. They are legislating on world 
peace. If that be so, they deserve the active support 
of those whose chief business is the promotion of this 
peace by definite international measures. From this 
point of view it is imperative that in France and Eng- 
land the League of Nations representatives should bring 
the matter strongly to the notice of the League of Na- 
tions, where it should be dealt with by their special 
Disarmament Commission. America can be a strong 
factor in this connection. A recent request has been 
made by the League for the appointment of an Amer- 
ican representative to attend the disarmament confer- 
ences at Geneva. Although America is not a member 
of the League, and even if she be hostile to it, this 
representative will have great weight in these confer- 
ences. 

Chemical disarmament is a matter which, unfor- 
tunately, non-technical people do not fully understand. 
They think it sufficient to issue an edict against the 
use of poison gas, not realizing that this alone is abso- 
lutely futile as an effective measure. You cannot pre- 
vent any discoveries in chemical warfare, because, 
unlike the development of mechanical invention, such 
chemical discoveries can occur, when directed by a 
trained mind, with the mere use of a few pots, pans, 
beakers, in any unguarded and unsuspected locality. 
The redistribution of producing capacity is therefore 
critical. It is, therefore, very important from the point 
of view of disarmament that any American represent- 
ative proceeding to Geneva should have a clear view 
of the fu'idamental principles of chemical disarmament 
and make strong representations on this matter. 

A League of Nations Ought to Study the 
Redistribution of the World Dye Industry 

The present League or any league cannot fairly 
demand and expect a satisfactory answer to its request 
that governments should cease to support chemical war- 
fare research and chemical military establishments 
unless that league be ready to support in its turn the 
essential chemical disarmament measure — that is, the 
redistribution of the world dye industry and the break- 



Janttary 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



ing of the German monopoly. From another point of 
view, essential action has been neglected on this matter 
and should be taken up again by the League of Nations, 
by those making representations to it or having any 
weight with it, by those responsible for the execution 
of the Treaty of Versailles and by America in any new 
treaty which she may make with Germany. 

Articles 168 and 169 of the Treaty of Versailles are 
specially concerned. The former provides for the re- 
striction by the Allied and Associated Powers of the 
manufacture of war material and of the approval of 
those Powers for the continued existence of factories 
and works for such production in Germany. On these 
grounds it is logically possible to limit seriously that 
capacity of the German dye industry which produced 
poison gases during the war and may continue to do so. 
Article 169 provides for the surrender to the Allied and 
Associated Powers of any special plant intended for the 
manufacture of military material, except such as may 
be recognized as necessary for equipping the authorized 



strength of the German army. The execution of this 
clause, if a proper interpretation of chemical armament 
be used, would imply the closing down of many of 
the German dye plants which produced those huge quan- 
tities of poison gases during the war. 

We repeat that the crux of all disarmament is the 
redistribution of organic chemical capacity throughout 
the world, and that, interpreted into action, this implies 
the serious reduction of the producing capacity of the 
German dye monopoly and the international support 
by the League of Nations, or any other similar bodies 
which may be established, of the legislative measures 
about to be brought before such coun-tries as America 
and England for the protection of the growing dye in- 
dustries, replacing the reduced German dye-producing 
capacity in those two countries. This is, without any 
doubt, one of the most important measures now before 
the world and in addition one of the few measures with 
regard to which immediate action can be taken toward 
the stabilization of world peace. 



Election of Officers and Directors of the Allied Chemical & 

Dye Corporation and Subsidiaries 

Personnel of the Allied Board — New Interlocking Directorate Elected by Barrett and National Aniline 

Companies — Changes to Make Boards of Active Executives 



A 



T THE organization meeting of the Allied Chemical 
& Dye Corporation, Dec. 21, the following direc- 
tors were elected: 
Chairman of Board, Dr. W. H. Nichols of General Chemical 
President, 0. F. Weber, National Aniline 
Vice-presidents, H. H. S. Handy, Semet-Solvay 
W. H. Childs, Barrett 
E. L. Pierce, Solvay Process 
W. H. Nichols, Jr., General Chemical 
Secretary-treasurer, C. S. Lutkins, General Chemical 
Assistant secretary-treasurer, T. E. Casey, Barrett 

The Barrett Trail for January comments as follows 
on the chief executives of the Allied corporation and the 
new directorate of The Barrett Company : 

"In Dr. Nichols, this great corporation has a worthy 
chairman, a man who has given fifty years of his busy 
life to service in a field in which he is still active; a 
man — it is not exaggeration to say it — who brought an 
industry into being, nursed it through infancy, endowed 
it with the dreams of boyhood, the ambition and strength 
of manhood, the foresight and wisdom of maturity, and 
who now sees the fruition of all his hopes and expecta- 
tions from his post of high honor. 

"One need not look far to realize what manner of 
man is Dr. Nichols. President of the American Chemi- 
cal Society, in which he holds charter membership; 
president of the Society of Chemical Industry, president 
of the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chem- 
istry — he has had every mark of distinction his con- 
temporaries can give him. The Allied corporation is 
indeed fortunate in having such a man as its chairman. 

"Orlando F. Weber brings to the presidency of the 
corporation every quality necessary for the successful 
conduct of its affairs. Leader in and organizer of 
America's dyestuff industry, he is peculiarly fitted to 
take up the tasks that await him. 



"The first board of directors of the Allied corporation 
consists of the following men: 

"W. H. Nichols, Sr., chairman; W. H. Nichols, Jr., 
E. L. Pierce, H. H. S. Handy, Eversley Childs, William 
Hamlin Childs, 0. F. Weber, W. J. Matheson, Rowland 
Hazard, Armand Solvay, Roscoe Brunner, Emanuel 
Janssen. 

Directorate Changes in Barrett Co. 

"At a special meeting of the board of directors, held 
Dec. 17, Eversley Childs, chairman of our board of 
directors, and William Hamlin Childs, president of the 
company, tendered their resignations, coincident with 
the incorporation and organization of the Allied Chemi- 
cal & Dye Corporation. 

"Vice-President W. N. Mcllravy was elected to suc- 
ceed Eversley Childs, and Vice-President and General 
Manager T. M. Rianhard was elected to succeed William 
Hamlin Childs, who was made chairman of the executive 
committee. 

"As was true of the retiring heads of the company, 
their successors are men who have been identified with 
the coal-tar industry — and therefore with The Barrett 
Co. or its predecessors — all their lives. Mr. Mcllravy 
was associated with Mr. Childs in the Mica Roofing Co. 
practically from the start. Mr. Rianhard came to the 
company by way of the Warren Chemical & Manufactur- 
ing Co. 

"At the same meeting, ten of the members of the 
board of directors resigned and eight men were elected 
to replace them. Those resigning were as follows: 
H. W. Croft, president Harbison-Walker Refractories 
Co., Pittsburgh; J. H. Fulton, vice-president National 
City Bank, New York; W. S. Gray, president William S. 
Gray & Co., New York; Dr. A. C. Humphreys, president 



8 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point; I. B. 
Johnson, vice-president Isaac B. Johnson & Co., New 
York; Powell Stackhouse, director Cambria Steel Co., 
Philadelphia; Hamilton Stewart, vice-president Harbi- 
son-Walker Refractories Co., Pittsburgh; J, H. Staats, 
New York; H. D. Walbridge, H. D. Walbridge & Co., 
New York, and H. S. Wilkinson, chairman Crucible 
Steel Co., Pittsburgh. 

"The new members of the board include the presidents 
of three of the merging companies and five Barrett men, 
to whom, as with Mr. Mcllravy and Mr. Rianhardt, 
their honors come as fitting recognition of years of 
loyal and efficient service. 

"E. L. Pierce, president of the Solvay Process Co.; 
W. H. Nichols, Jr., president of the General Chemical 
Co., and Orlando F. Weber, president of the National 




T. M. R1.A.NHARD 

Aniline & Chemical Co., together with H. H. S. Handy, 
president of the Semet-Solvay Co., who for som.e time 
has been a director, give representation to each of the 
other merger companies on our board. 

"Tlie five Barrett men elected to the directorate are 
well known to the Barrett organization. 

"W. B. Harris is our general sales manager. He began 
his long service in 1896, when he joined the Mica Roof- 
ing Co., and later became salesman for the National Coal 
Tar Co. He next was associated with Mr. Rianhard in 
the Warren Chemical & Manufacturing Co., finally be- 
coming its general manager. In January, 1913, Mr. 
Harris was appointed manager at Birmingham, and in 
December of the same year he became Mr. Rianhard's 
assistant in New York, later taking up his present 
duties. 

"M. H. Phillips, manager of the New York branch of 
the company, has one of the longest if not the longest 
service record among our active employees, a brief 
account of which appears elsewhere in this issue in 
connection with the occurrence of Mr. Phillips' thirtieth 
Barrett birthday, Nov. 19. 

"E. J. Steer is our secretary and treasurer. He joined 



the Barrett Manufacturing Co. in 1902 as oftice manager. 
On Feb. 10, 1903, he was elected assistant secretary 
and assistant treasurer, and on Jan. 25, 1911, became 
secretary and treasurer of the company. 

"D.. W. Jayne, manager of our chemical department, 
began his connection with our company when he joined 
the department in November, 1902, assisting the super- 
intendent at the Frankford plant. He was appointed 
assistant manager in 1907 at the time the office of the 
chemical department was moved from Grays Ferry to 
Frankford. Upon his father's death, in 1910, Mr. Jayne 
was appointed to succeed him as manager, and has con- 
tinued in that capacity to the present time. 

"Clark McKercher was a member of the United States 
Department of Justice before coming to the company in 
1913. He has been our general counsel for seven years." 




W. N. McILRAVY 

At a meeting of the board of directors of National 
Aniline & Chemical Co., Inc., held Dec. 21, Orlando F. 
Weber offered his resignation as president. J. W. 
Newlean was elected president of the company and 
Mr. Weber continues as chairman of the board of 
directors. 

F. M. Peters resigned from the board and E. L. 
Pierce, president Solvay Process Co., was elected a di- 
rector. B. A. Ludwig, C. F. Weber and Dr. L. H. Cone 
were elected vice-presidents of the company. 



Judge Gary Sees Prosperity Ahead 

Judge Elbert H. Gary, chairman of the board of the 
Steel Corporation, in a recent interview with newspaper 
men, reiterated his faith in the prosperity of the United 
States. He held the war responsible in great part for 
present economic conditions, but said that capital is also 
responsible in some measure, due to its use of "unreas- 
onably, if not unfairly" increased fortunes. 

Despite all these conditions and the alarmist views 
held by some. Judge Gary affirmed that prosperity is 
coming, just when he could not say, but surely coming. 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



tejciw3fe.t<fc^CStf»cSSS|fc:; 




'^^-•^'^llff ^-'' ^'t:-'-'^-'"^-^^=^^**^^^^ 



>;#|J,;,^ 



'JhE OvTLOOK; FoI^HE. Fk^TILIZEJ^NDVST^ 



A Broad View of Both the Consumption and the Production Side of the Fertilizer Situation — Industrial 

Agriculture and Professional Farmers — Expansion in the Western States — 

Inoculated Sulphur — Phosphate Rock — Potash and Nitrogen 



By frank K. CAMERON 



THE present status of the fertilizer industry is 
very favorable and the outlook is, on the whole, 
as alluring as for any other industry in the 
country. The fundamental needs of civilized man are 
food and clothes. Food and clothes are directly depend- 
ent on the management of the soil. In the conditions 
of society which have developed in the United States, 
cultivation of crop plants and therefore management 
of the soil imperatively must be far more intensive 
than hitherto. Of the primary instrumentations for 
these purposes, that which is most directly under man's 
control and susceptible of modification is the use of 
fertilizers; and fertilizers, to be economically used, 
must be manufactured or prepared for the user. Hence 
the industry is on a firm, sound, fundamental basis 
of universal human need. 

The industry now possesses the public confidence. 
This is its greatest asset. It is worth while to accent 
the fact, for it has not always been the case. It is 
not proposed to discuss the mistakes of the past, for 
this is not a historical retrospect, but to attempt to 
analyze and visualize the present and immediate future. 
The reasons for the present gratifying relation of the 
industry to the public are many. Only a few of the 
more salient can be recounted within reasonable limits 
for a magazine article. Undoubtedly, the services of 
the industry during the war, especially that rendered 
by many of its prominent personnel, and in turning 
over sulphuric acid and other plant equipment to muni- 
tion production, have been potent factors. But perhaps 
rather more or less consciously the industry has under- 
gone a revolution during the war years and the succeed- 
ing period. Many of the changes were initiated before 
the war, it is true, but were hastened to actualities under 
its stress. We are only concerned, however, with the 
results and not their history. 

In this day and generation, in the United States the 
old time-honored concept of farming is rapidly disap- 
pearing, being replaced by a recognition of a consid- 



erable group of agricultural industries or distinct 
businesses, some of them very highly specialized, with 
highly developed technology, served by a highly trained 
corps of professional advisers with the same type of 
cultural training called for in the engineer, lawyer or 
physician, and requiring skilled labor. In fact the 
unskilled laborer is relatively of no more value today 
in farming occupations than in the mechanical indus- 
tries or factory operations. Yokels do exist, it is true. 
So do cobblers. Both have their fields of usefulness 
as yet, but the one is of no more significance in Amer- 
ican farming than is the other in the boot and shoe 
industry. 

The fertilizer industry in the United States, now 
recognizing the average American farmer in his true 
aspect, is rapidly reorganizing to give him the service 
he requires. The older propaganda, deliberately 
founded on ignorance and prejudice and involving an 
enormous multiplicity of brand names regarded as the 
pride but really the curse of the industry, has been 
abandoned, the end hastened or forced by the inability 
of the manufacturers to obtain the necessary supplies 
of raw materials during the war. Most fortunately 
they have been replaced by a limited number of standard 
mixtures recognized by the trade as a whole and by 
state and federal agricultural authcities as well. And 
the industry has founded and supports soil improve- 
ment associations officered by highly trained specialists 
who, co-operating with other recognized authorities, 
public and private, truly and conscientiously endeavor 
to determine the needs of the individual or the com- 
munity and, so far as the industry can, to supply these 
needs. In other words, the industry recognizes that 
true service pays better than merely pushing a brand 
name, and is profiting thereby. Again, the war con- 
ditions in this country brought the farmers generally 
a command of cash credit, enabling them to escape 
from the pernicious practice of purchasing their fer- 
tilizer on deferred credits based on crops yet to be 



10 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 1 




mm^mmmmM^&mimim>m^m'^f^M^^^^'m^ 



LOADING POTASH SALTS DEPOSITED FROM BRINE AT SALDURO, UTAH 



planted, and at the same time enabled the industry 
to reorganize its selling methods so as to avoid as much 
as possible a resumption of this economically unsound 
system. 

Expansion in the Western States 

Within recent months well-founded rumors have been 
current that factories for the production of commercial 
fertilizers are to be erected in Kansas City, in Sioux 
City, perhaps in Denver and Salt Lake City, and several 
new plants are definitely planned for the Pacific Coast. 
Recent tests in the intermountain regions by dis- 
interested observers have shown that commercial 
fertilizers have markedly favorable results with 
sugar beets, canning crops and alfalfa. Even more 
remarkable, because unexpected, are preliminary reports 
on the use of fertilizers in dry land agriculture where 
the crops are small grains. Quite significant are the 
quite numerous inquiries for fertilizers during the past 
two years by farmers on Western lands, and the 
interest in them manifestly developing in the Dakotas, 
Colorado, Utah, Oregon and Washington will surely 
crystallize into active demands as soon as there is a 
reasonable prospect of the demands being met at rea- 
sonable cost figures. Credible observers in the business 
estimate that together with California they will prob- 
ably require 150,000 tons of phosphate rock the coming 
year, and potash and nitrogen carriers in proportion. 
A noteworthy development in California is the long 
staple cotton. This year there are reported to be more 
than 400,000 acres planted to this high-priced crop in 
California, Arizona and New Mexico, and experimental 
acres throughout a large part of the San Joaquin Val- 
ley have proved uniformly successful, so that a very 
largely increased acreage is to be expected next year. 
In fact, this type of cotton promises soon to rank 
with citrus fruits in importance in California, Many 
planters from the Southern States are being attracted, 
men thoroughly imbued with the knowledge of the value 
of fertilizers in cotton culture, and a large market in 
that area seems assured. Therefore a much extended use 
with other crops, as familiarity of the community with 
fertilizers increases, seems very probable. 

The supply of raw materials is the chief specter 
on the horizon, but only because of the difficulties of 
bringing them to the plant, for in amount they appear 
illimitable and of sufficiently diversified origin to pre- 



clude any long-continued stoppage. The market de- 
mands are insistent and greater than the prospective 
production. So far as anyone can now intelligently guess 
the future, this condition is to prevail, so that ready 
sales and good prices seem assured for many seasons 
ahead. 

Inoculated Sulphur 

While the most striking feature of the present situa- 
tion is the remarkable and happy reversal of public 
sentiment toward the fertilizer business, and the general 
improvement in the technology of the manufacturing 
operations is not much less striking, it must not be lost 
to sight that a third development has assumed very 
great importance in the immediate past — namely, a 
sympathetic consideration of possible new fertilizers 
and new forms of older established constituents. 

Of the new proposals, attention must be called to 
sulphur. That sulphur might have an importance as a 
fertilizer has often been suggested, but these sugges- 
tions have been sporadic and commanded no general 
attention until Lipman's experiments with sulphuric acid 
in California. O'Gara's observations in connection with 
his investigations of the effects of smelter fumes on 
soils and vegetation and those of the Oregon State 
Experiment Station served to excite interest in the value 
of different forms of sulphur carriers and to prepare 
the public mind for the announcements of the elder 
Lipman at New Brunswick, who has shown what others 
had suspected but left for him to find the proof — 
that the value of elemental sulphur and presumably of 
combined sulphur is probably dependent upon the pres- 
ence of particular bacterial organisms, and that these 
organisms are most efficient when other particular sub- 
stances are present in desirable amounts such as organic 
debris an^^. basic phosphates of lime. 

These investigations have led to patented processes, 
and it is reported that one of the large sulphur pro- 
ducers in the Gulf fields expects to put on the market 
in the near future a mixture of elemental sulphur, 
phosphate rock and suitable organic matter impregnated 
by special strains of bacteria artificially bred to extraor- 
dinary efficiency in making effective the mixture when 
applied to the soil. There has been accumulated a 
sufficient body of apparently irrefutable evidence in the 
near past to make it appear that sulphur in various 
forms is sometimes verv valuable as fertilizer on some 



II 
1 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



11 



soils and with certain crops. As to how generally it 
may profitably be used probably no one knows today. 
Serious and capable technical studies are under way, 
supported by adequate commercial backing, and the 
interested public will in due time be properly advised 
as to the value of the new fertilizer. 

Concentrated Fertilizer 

For years, particularly by the Federal Bureau of 
Soils, attention was called to the necessity of consider- 
ing the use of more condensed forms of fertilizers than 
those in common use. The continued rise in freight 
rates and in the costs of farm labor were the potent 
arguments, although, there were others which appealed 
but little less strongly to the technically minded man. 
Uniformly, the foremost manufacturers of "complete 
fertilizers" took the ground that they favored higher 
grade goods than were then on the market, although 
their actual output did not lend much credit to this 
statement. But quite uniformly they always opposed 
putting mixtures of pure salts on the market by the 
statement that the farmer wished only the goods diluted 
with "filler" because he possessed neither the machinery 
nor the wits to devise means of distributing the very 
high-grade or pure salt mixes. 

Times have changed. At least they are changing. 
Double superphosphates are on the market and are 
bought eagerly. A long step further, ammonium phos- 
phates are in the fertilizer market and it is not a 
wild surmise that a few years hence will see most of 
the phosphorus marketed in this form. Eighty or 90 
per cent potassium chloride is eagerly absorbed by the 
fertilizer trade when it can be obtained. Two of the 
largest chemical manufacturers in the country, it is 
reported, have made a combination which will put on 
the market during the coming year an enormous ton- 
nage of ammonium chlorides, which they expect to be 
absorbed by the fertilizer trade on the ground that it 
contains a higher percentage of "available" nitrogen 
than any other compound made in sufficient quantity 
to use as a fertilizer. 

Sulphuric Acid 

The aggregate production of sulphuric acid is prob- 
ably now greater than 6,000,000 tons, calculated to a 
50-deg. Be. basis. If one is to credit all the current 
reports, this production will be greatly increased in 
1921, for war stock accumulations will have totally 
disappeared by then, and there is to be a much increased 
production of phosphate rock, which will call for an 
increased production of acid to convert it into more 
soluble phosphates. 

Certainly there have been erected some new and large 
sized plants, and others are more or less definitely 
promised in the near future, especially on the Pacific 
Coast. There are several large plants, notably those 
connected with the zinc smelters of the Middle West, 
which were practically completed when the armistice 
brought a sudden halt to munition manufacture, but 
which have not yet been put in operation. 

The development of the Louisiana and Texas sulphur 
mines has been followed by an increasing use of this 
material in making sulphuric acid. Just what propor- 
tion of the acid produced in the country is from, this 
origin is not definitely known as yet, but it is certainly 
large and probably will remain large. The domestic 
consumption of sulphur is approximately 875,000 tons. 
How much is used for making insecticides and products 



other than sulphuric acid seems not to be known def- 
initely, but the bulk of the production goes into the 
manufacture of the acid. Probably 50 to 60 per cent 
of the sulphuric acid now going on the market is made 
wholly or in part from elemental sulphur. On the 
average the acid now produced is better than hitherto. 
Another feature of the present development is that 
a very much larger proportion of the acid made now 
is in the form of 60 deg. Be. or stronger, because it 
must be shipped in tank cars to the mixing plant. 
Increased skill in the handling and mixing with rock 
has resulted. 

Phosphate Rock 

In the United States the use of bones, basic slag, 
etc., is too limited to have any particular significance 
for the industry as a whole. The chief sources of sup- 
ply for the phosphate of fertilizers are the rock deposits 
of Florida, Tennessee, the Western field and perhaps 
Charleston. 

Florida easily holds the first place. It produced about 
a million and a half tons in 1919, or less than half the 
tonnage for 1913. The production was considerably 
curtailed by strikes and transportation difficulties, and 
of course exports were greatly reduced. If more rock 
could have been produced, the domestic market would 
have absorbed it. It is confidently expected that returns 
for the present year will show a considerable increase 
and that the industry will soon resume its former 
proportions. A noteworthy fact is that the restricted 
exports have sent much of the highest grade rock to 
the domestic manufacturers and these latter will prob- 
ably insist on using it iil the future. 

Like Florida, the Tennessee field has had its labor 
difficulties, and claims to have suffered particularly 
from inadequate transportation facilities. Its produc- 
tion in 1919 was about 460,000 tons and it is expected 
to show an increase for the present year. 

The Charleston field, which appeared about to be 
abandoned because of mounting costs of operation and 
low grade of rock recovered, showed an increased 
production in 1919. About 100,000 tons of 60 per cent 
b.p.l. rock was marketed. Because of continued shortage 
in the Florida supplies it is expected that Charleston 
may do as well the current year. 

Developments in the Western Field 

The important developments have been in the Western 
field. The Anaconda Copper Co. is now producing 
double superphosphate, making sulphuric acid from 
smelter fume in a Larison packed cell plant, and obtain- 
ing the rock from the company operating at Paris, 
Idaho. The Anaconda company has added to its phos- 
phate rock holdings at Melrose and Garrison, Mont., 
a large deposit in Soda Springs Cunyon, Idaho, and is 
assembling a large mine and milling equipment, and a 
railroad is being built from the main line of the Oregon 
Short Line at Soda Springs to its proposed workings. 

The Western Phosphate Co.'s mine, about three miles 
from Paris, Idaho, is connected by rail with the Oregon 
Short Line main line at Montpelier. The rock taken 
from this mine is white or light gray in color and 
appears to be very uniform in composition, the dried 
rock analyzing better than 72 b.p.l. It is claimed that 
the vein from which this rock is taken is 6 ft. in width 
and it has been traced for nine miles on land owned 
or controlled by the company. The other rock in the 
Western field is brown or black in color, usually harder 



12 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



than the Paris rock and lower in phosphorus content, 
although there are some very large veins much higher 
in DhosDhorus content. 

The Western Phosphate Co.'s main tunnel has now 
been driven about 2,000 ft. on this vein. The company 
has established a camp with large mining facilities, has 
a mill for crushing and drying with a daily capacity 
of 350 tons, another under construction with a daily 
capacity of 400 tons and a fine grinding mill with a 
capacity of eighty tons daily. The company has been 
shipping continuously since April of the current year 
to the Middle Western States, to the Pacific Coast and 
to the Orient. For the latter trade large loading bins 
have been constructed at Portland, which has handled 
the bulk of the export trade. The Western Phosphate 
Co. is associated with the interests controlling the large 
high-grade deposits near Border, Wyo., and in the Craw- 
ford Mountains, Utah, the largest reserves of high- 
grade rock in the world. The American Phosphate 
Co. is working a deposit about five miles from Mont- 
pelier and is reported to be producing about sixty 
tons a day with an augmented production promised 
at an early date, and there are several other shippers 
of small tonnages in the area. The total shipped 
from this area in 1919 was about 16,000 tons. The 
current year will probably see this figure quadrupled, 
the bulk of the material being taken from the mine at 
Paris, and as the black rock is rapidly winning friends 
as its merits become known to the trade, a steadily 
increasing production from this field can be expected. 
The long delayed but apparently now assured future 
of this industry will be a potent factor in developing 
the early manufacture and greatly increased use of 
mixed fertilizers in the Western States. 

Exports of Phosphate Rock 

The export of phosphate rock, which approximated 
1,500,000 tons in 1913, gradually fell to less than a 
tenth of this during the war, but commenced to pick 
up as vessels for its transport became available, being 
143,455 tons in 1918, about 380,000 tons in 1919, and 
will undoubtedly show a substantial increase for the 
current year. The bulk of the exports are from Florida, 
and go at present mainly to northern European ports. 
Japan has become a large buyer, and promises to 
increase its demands, especially upon the Western field. 

The continued high price of sulphuric acid has served 
to direct more attention during the past year to other 
possible means of producing phosphoric acid. Volatili- 
zation of the pentoxide from the electric furnace, it 
is now pretty generally accepted, is technically simple 
and efficient, but not commercially practicable without 
much cheaper power than is now available. Wagga- 
man's experiments at the Washington laboratory of 
the Bureau of Soils, in volatilizing from a furnace 
similar to an ordinary iron blast furnace, appear to 
promise that a commercially economical process can 
be developed. While the process has been devised with 
the waste phosphatic materials of Florida in mind as 
the raw material, it would seem to lend itself partic- 
ularly well to the phosphates of the Western field and 
the conditions there encountered. 

There has been a very considerable interest in more 
concentrated forms than the ordinary superphosphate 
containing 16 to 18 per cent soluble phosphoric acid. 
Several organizations are now marketing "double" 
supers containing as much as 50 per cent soluble phos- 



phoric acid (P.OJ and approximating pretty nearly the 
composition of pure monocalciiim phosphate. Some 
confusion has arisen because certain interested parties 
have described these more highly concentrated phos- 
phates as "treble" superphosphates because they contain 
three times as much "available" phosphoric acid (P.OJ 
as do ordinary superphosphates. 

Ammonium Phosphates 

There is a growing interest in ammonium phosphates. 
The American Cyanamid Co.'s several grades of "amo- 
phos" have proved that such compounds are very valu- 
able from technical considerations, but the relative 
scarcity and high price of ammonia since the armistice 
has checked the developments in this direction. It 
would appear to be far more advantageous to market 
ammonia as phosphate rather than as a sulphate. 
Naturally, the coke-oven installations, which are the 
principal producers of ammonium sulphate, hesitate to 
make the change, largely because they fear that it 
would involve a more or less complete scrapping of their 
present equipment. The writer's own experiments have 
convinced him, however, that only very slight modifica- 
tions would be desirable and that it will be but a short 
time before much of the phosphoric acid used as a 
fertilizer will be supplied the trade in the form of 
ammonium phosphates. 

The Potash Supplies 

Supplies of potash are yet far below the demand, and 
at the present writing there is a tendency toward higher 
prices, although there is a prospect of improvement in 
the quantity coming from abroad and produced from 
domestic sources. During 1919 about 112,000 tons of 
potash salts was imported, practically all of it in the 
second half of the year, and the importations for the 
present year will undoubtedly show a very considerable 
increase. But in the writer's opinion it will be some 
years yet before imports can be expected to reach pre- 
war figures, or before prices will be materially lowered. 
He does not expect that prices will approach pre-war 
levels for many years, if ever. 

Neither France nor Germany has any interest in 
furnishing potash to the United States, other than the 
money return or its equivalent in commodities. They 
are likely to recognize no other inducement than a large 
money return. The money value of the total potash 
imports of the United States in 1913 was just about 
$15,000,000. At present prices this importation would 
be worth just about $50,000,000. But present prices 
would certainly not exist if such quantities were actually 
available. Probably $30,000,000 would be a liberal esti- 
mate of the value of the importation to the United 
States, and it would cost more than half this figure 
to mine and land the salts in the United States. To 
one who hr.s kept in touch with the actual operations 
in the French and German fields it seems quite unlikely 
that either could command much more than half the 
American market if the other chose to compete. 

The total probable realizable return from the Amer- 
ican market is not, therefore, particularly attractive 
to either the French or the German authorities, and 
under the internal conditions in both countries it is 
more desirable, from their viewpoints, to maintain high 
prices and furnish a much restricted tonnage. France 
desires above all things in an industrial way to become 
Europe's master producer of iron and iron products, 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



13 




3. 



Fig-. 1. Plant Lake, Standard Potash Co. Note spiral draw-to 
and solar evaporation by slow, flow of water. 
National Potash Co. 
Rotary kilns in operation. 
Evaporators, Standard Potash Co. 
Nebraska Potash Co. 



Fig:. 
Fig. 5. 
Fig. 7. 
Fie. 9. 



Fig. 2. 
Fig. 4. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



6. 



10. 



Typical lake, sand dunes in foreground. 
Western Potash Co. Antioch works. 
American Potash Works. 
Evaporators, Hord Co. 
The Hord Co. Lakeside plant. 



14 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 




WESTERN PHOSPHATE CO., PARIS, IDAHO 



Fig-. 11. Snow shed, mine portal to mill. 
Fig. 13. Mill and bins. 

and she is woefully short of man labor. She does not, 
therefore, look with favor on permitting any miner to 
work in the potash mines of Alsace who can be em- 
ployed in the iron mines of the Briey, Lorraine or the 
Saar, or the coal mines of Lens. At the same time 
she is not going to permit Germany to build up the 
potash export trade at her expense. On the other hand, 
Germany has troubles of her own. The potash mines 
are now largely in the control of the laborers them- 
selves. Production is not particularly remunerative or 
attractive. Repairs and renewals have not been kept 
up. Transportation facilities are wretched. Labor 
appears more necessary to other industries and the 
other industries appear more attractive and remu- 
nerative. The old trained crews are broken up. 

On the whole, it seems probable that for years to 
come both countries will produce their own require- 
ments and small surpluses for export, but that Amer- 
ica's hopes of obtaining any large part of this surplus 
is only by paying what appears to us as exorbitant 
prices. Consequently, we shall have to develop our own 
resources or remain content to use much less potash 
than appears to be the plain requirements of the country. 

Domestic Production of Potash 

In 1919 our domestic production was approximately 
120,000 tons of salts containing 32,418 tons of actual 
potash (K.,0), this being less than 60 per cent of the 
production of 1918. The falling off was due mainly to 



Fig. 12. Loading bins. 

Fig. 14. Fine ground rock bagged. 

the apprehension of a great influx of foreign potash 
at cheap prices. Many enterprises were completely 
abandoned; but, as the expected flood of foreign salts 
failed to materialize, the stronger and better organized 
enterprises resumed operations and the current year 
will probably show a production equivalent to more 
than 100,000 tons of actual potash (K,0). If the 
writer's judgment continues to be confirmed by the size 
and cost of the foreign imports through the coming 
fall season, it is reasonable to predict a greatly increased 
development of domestic resources during the coming 
year, and it would not be surprising to see the 1921 
production approach an equivalent of 250,000 tons of 
actual potash, the pre-war annual requirements of the 
country. It is certainly true that the interest in Amer- 
ican "potash" is much more keen today among the 
larger fertilizer manufacturers and that the prejudice 
that formerly existed against it, largely because some 
of the Western salts contained appreciable quantities 
of borax, is fast disappearing, since the producers have 
learned how to avoid this objectionable constituent. 

Potash Salts From Salines 

The principal interest in the domestic production 
during the current year has been in the recovery of 
potash salts from salines. In Nebraska some of the 
ponds which had been pumped out and apparently 
exhausted in 1919 filled again with the snow and rains 
of the following winter and were found to contain again 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



15 



workable quantities of potash salts to an extent little 
or no less than formerly. All theories that this field 
will be exhausted within a few years have been aban- 
doned, and there is greater activity there than ever 
before. The practice in the larger plants has become 
standardized. The brine from the outlying ponds or 
lakes is pumped to a near-by "plant pond" through 
wooden pipe lines and discharged in such a way that 
there is a current produced in the pond, the surface is 
kept in motion and there is more or less spontaneous 
evaporation. Evaporation by sprays and towers is not 
attempted, as the consensus seems to be that drift 
losses would be too great. The brine is taken from the 
bottom of the plant pond, through ordinary sand points 
with ordinary iron centrifugal pumps, to multiple effect 
evaporators and is concentrated to a solution of about 
31 deg. Be. hot, when it flows or is forced into a 
revolving iron tube, countercurrent to an oil flame and 
desiccation completed. Dust losses appear to be small 
and recovery of them efficient. A serious trouble is 
the sticking of the drying salts to the shell of the rotat- 
ing tube. Rails are sometimes inserted to break the 
salts loose. Common practice is to have a workman 
walk back and forth on a platform and strike the 
rotating tube or kiln with a sledge. The desiccated 
salts are shipped as they come from the drier. They 
consist of a mixture of the sulphates, carbonates and 
chlorides of potassium and sodium with more or less 
organic and siliceous matter. Sulphate of potash is the 
predominating component, the potash content running 
generally from 27 to 30 per cent, sometimes higher. 
The operations are, it must be admitted, quite crude 
and readily susceptible of improvement. What has 
been accomplished elsewhere with American brines 
makes it reasonably certain that a phase rule study ot 
the brines would soon and easily lead to modifications 
of the process that would produce a high-grade potas- 
sium sulphate and a merchantable sodium carbonate, 
with an increased value to the plant output. 

OPERATIONS AT SALDURO, UTAH 

At Salduro, Utah, the brine is gathered in an exten- 
sive series of ditches and conducted to shallow ponds, 
where it evaporates spontaneously, depositing a crys- 
talline mass of potassium and sodium chlorides and 
leaving a concentrated mother liquor containing mag- 
nesium chloride with a very little of the chlorides of 
the other two bases. When the mother liquor has 
reached the desired concentration the deposited salts 
are harvested. A tractor pulls through the brine a 
buggy fitted with a scraping device which harrows the 
salts and draws them to the foot of an elevator. A 
second tractor draws, at the same time, a line of bug- 
gies into which the elevated salts are discharged, being 
washed and drained in the operation. The harvested 
salts are drawn to a stockpile at the near-by refinery. 
Accumulated mother liquors nearly saturated with mag- 
nesium chloride are stored in special ponds. The refin- 
ing of the potassium chloride is effected by treating 
the mixed chlorides with a hot saturated solution of 
sodium chloride, the resulting clear -liquor being then 
run into crystallizers, which are shallow iron pans fitted 
with brine pipes so that cooling can be hastened by 
artificial refrigeration. The surface of the brine pipes 
is kept clear by mechanical scrapers, which also gather 
the precipitated potassium chloride. A product of prac- 
tically any desired commercial degree of purity can 



thus be prepared. The reputed operating costs per 
unit of potash produced are low as compared with 
other enterprises in this country. 

Developments at Searles Lake, Cal. 

At Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, Cal., there 
are three operating plants and another is in early 
stages of construction. One of the operating plants is 
following a solar evaporation scheme, and treating the 
resulting salt mixture. It is offering salts to the mar- 
ket, hence one may infer that it has developed a 
successful technique. The principal producer is the 
plant of the American Trona Corporation, which appears 
to have passed successfully a long and expensive pioneer- 
ing campaign and emerged with a good economical 
process founded upon a careful, comprehensive, scien- 
tific investigation of the possible equilibria conditions 
in the brine which impregnates the twelve square miles 
of salt body in the lake. Although the level of this 
brine varies from a depth of a few inches above the 
level of the salt body in winter to a few inches below 
in summer, the brine does not vary in composition 
appreciably, if drawn from near the bottom of the salt 
body, the latter reaching a depth of 100 ft. or more in 
places. The brine contains chlorides, sulphates, car- 
bonates and borates of potassium and sodium, being 
presumably saturated with respect to these salts and 
such combinations of them as can exist at the tem- 
perature of the bottom of the lake or salt body. On 
evaporation, which is carried out countercurrent to the 
stream flow in a multiple effect, sodium chloride, with 
other salts, is precipitated. The resulting hot mother 
liquor is then cooled quickly and quietly by artificial 
refrigeration, when potassium chloride is precipitated 
as a crystal meal. This meal is then washed and dried 
in a centrifuge, yielding a salt of 90 to 95 per cent 
purity and containing not more than a trace or incon- 
sequential amount of borax. The mother liquor from 
the potassium chloride crystallization is then agitated, 
when a crystal mass is precipitated, which, when dis- 
solved in a minimum amount of water, filtered and 
cooled, deposits a crop of very high-grade borax crystals. 
This last crop is augmented by passing air containing 
carbon dioxide through the liquor. It is possible that 
high-grade carbonates of soda will be added to the 
regular output of the plant. At present the grade of 
potassium chloride produced by this plant is so high 
that the entire output is absorbed in the alkali indus- 
try. Its output will shortly be tripled following plant 
readjustments now in progress, and it will then prob- 
ably be an important factor in the fertilizer industry. 

Operations Elsewhere 

The production of potassium sulphate of a ver>' high 
grade by the plant of the Armour Fertilizer Works at 
Marysvale, Utah, where the mineral alunite is roasted 
and leached, is now reported to be about fifty tons 
daily following enlargements and improvements of 
plant equipment. There is a renewed activity in alunite' 
projects the past few months, but no other development 
worth recording. 

Aside from cement mill operations, there is little to 
note in the production of potash salts from silicate 
rocks. The great hopes of last year that this one would 
see a large production of soluble potash salts from 
leucite have not materialized. The process tried out 
on a large scale at Green River, Wyo., was found to 



16 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



be unsuited to plant operations as planned, although 
a number of carloads of a high-grade muriate were 
produced and shipped before an accumulating deficit in 
their financial resources forced its backers to suspend 
further efforts to modify it to meet equipment limita- 
tions. New methods for utilizing this source of potash 
are known to be under investigation by at least two 
large commercial organizations. Kelp as a source of 
potash is of vanishing importance at present, but not 
necessarily permanently. Other domestic sources of 
potash are not at present of Gufficient relative impor- 
tance to call for special notice cr comment. 

The Nitrogen Supn.Y 

The nitrogen supply will, in the main, continue to be 
cottonseed meal for some time to come, but it seems to 
be inevitable that this material will more and more 
be consumed as an animal food as feeders learn better 
ways of so using it. The same thing will be true of 
blood, tankage and fish scrap. Base goods or that 
indefinite conglomeration produced by treating organic 
waste such as leather scrap, feathers, etc., with sul- 
phuric acid, will, however, continue to be used to greater 
and greater extent. Such ingredients are now fre- 
quently incorporated directly with superphosphate as 
the rock is mixed with the acid. There are prospects 
of an increased production of ammonia from byproduct 
coke ovens and it seems reasonably certain that there 
will be a much increased importation of nitrates from 
South America. But the greatest interest is and will 
continue to be in the artificial production of fixed 
nitrogen from the illimitable stores in the atmosphere. 
It may be frankly admitted that the high hopes devel- 
oped during the war have not been realized by a wide 
margin. It would be foolish to assume that they will 
not be so realized sooner or later, and it seems only 
reasonable to expect that means will be found to con- 
tinue the investigations of the last few years until it 
can be determined which of the various processes can 
properly survive under ordinary peace conditions in the 
United States. 

To discuss satisfactorily the recent work on the vari- 
ous processes for fixing atmospheric nitrogen and the 
apparent merits or demerits would require a separate 
article and will not be attempted here. So far as the 
immediate interest of the fertilizer trade is concerned, 
two instances are apparently of dominating importance. 
A way must be found to proceed with actual production 
at M,uscle Shoals, Ala., which will not involve unjust 
or injurious competition between the Government and 
established private enterprises. It should not be diffi- 
cult for reasonable men to devise a plan which would 
ultimately redound to the interests of all concerned. 

Work on Manufacture of Ammonium Chloride 

Perhaps the most striking announcement of the year 
is that the General Chemical and the Solvay companies 
have united to build a large plant for the production 
of ammonia by the Haber process, a desirable and eco- 
nomical adjustment of products of the Solvay and Haber 
processes having been worked out. As a result a very 
large tonnage of ammonium chloride will soon be on 
the market, which will readily be absorbed, it is 
expected, by the fertilizer manufacturers. A similar 
development is going on in England, where the Mond 
and Solvay interests are united for the purpose. It 
is reported that in France, where the scheme of adjust- 



ing the two processes to each other's needs was first 
worked out, the problem of disposing of the large pro- 
duction of ammonium chloride as a fertilizer was care- 
fully studied with pot and plot tests, with quite 
satisfactory results. 

Possibilities for Use of Ammonium Chloride 

Possibly there are some crops with which it would be 
inadvisable to use ammonium chloride. Tobacco is a 
case where one would be suspicious until actual tests 
are made. But for crops in general there seems to be 
no reasonable doubt that ammonium chloride would 
serve as well as any other salt as a carrier of nitrogen. 
An advantage is claimed for ammonium chloride, that 
it is the most concentrated form of ammoniacal nitro- 
gen that can possibly be made commercially available. 
Of course ammonium nitrate contains an even higher 
percentage of nitrogen, all available for plant nutrition, 
but there is no prospect of this salt coming into use 
extensively in this country until there is much cheaper 
power than is now available, or ocean freights from 
Norway far lower than now seems probable. Whether 
the new salt will delay the development of plans to 
put ammonium phosphates on the domestic market is 
also an interesting question which can not be answered 
immediately. 

Summary 

The most important developments of the current year, 
for the fertilizer industries, are: 

The very great gain in public confidence. 

An increased use of fertilizers in the Western States. 

The opening of the Western phosphate deposits. 

The revival of domestic production of potash. 

The preparation for an early production of fixed 
nitrogen on a large scale as a byproduct of the soda 
industry. 

The resumption of an export business. 

The trials and tribulations of a reconstruction period 
have been met satisfactorily, on the whole, and the in- 
dustries will be the stronger in the future for the les- 
sons forced upon them. 



Development of Egg-Products Industry in China 

Perhaps no single industry has developed more rapidly 
in China than has the production of egg products during 
the war period. The eggs were collected in small fac- 
tories formerly, but now these have become larger and 
are situated in the commercial centers, to which places 
the raw egg is brought in very large quantities. In 1913 
there were exported from all of China 20,796,400 lb. of 
albumen and yolk and 30,266,845 dozen eggs, while in 
1919 there were exported 80,824,267 lb. of albumen and 
yolk, 28,843,416 dozen eggs and 25,094,133 lb. of frozen 
eggs. These exports were valued at $4,350,290 in 1913 
and $33,883,259 in 1919. 

Many factories with the most modern equipment have 
been located in the various parts of China, Shanghai 
being the most important point, and Nanking, Hankow, 
Suchow and other places having manufacturing plants 
of considerable consequence. The exportation of frozen 
eggs is going forward in increasing quantities, and this 
article reaches the American as well as the European 
market. It cannot be shipped to the American market 
in the quantities that the desiccated egg can be, as it 
requires refrigerating vessels, which are not frequently 
run on the Pacific. 



Janimry 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



17 



Notes on Nickel 



Brief Notes on the Metallurgy of Nickel, and Data on the Uses and Applications 

of Various Grades — Information on the Limitations in Rolling, 

Annealing, Welding and Electrodeposition 



By PAUL D. MERICA* 



FOR the past two years the author has been inter- 
ested in the collection of accurate information and 
data concerning nickel and its alloys and in view 
of the increasing importance of this metal both in the 
pure form and as an alloying element in the composi- 
tion of many interesting alloys has deemed it of suffi- 
cient value to present some of this material in a series 
of articles. Although certain phases of this subject 
have previously been presented in a very satisfactory 
manner/ much information which should be very useful 
is still in such scattered form as to be rather unavail- 
able. It has been the attempt to pay particular atten- 
tion to those chapters of which this was true as well as 
to include a great deal of data particularly on nickel and 
its alloys other than nickel steel which has hitherto 
been unpublished. 

Much assistance has been had in the collection of this 
material, for which the author wishes to make grateful 
acknowledgment: to A. J. Wadhams and J. F. Thompson 
of the International Nickel Co., to W. H. Bassett of the 
American Brass Co., to W. B. Price of the Scovill Manu- 
facturing Co., to W. Blum of the Bureau of Standards, 
and to the Driver-Harris Co., the Electrical Alloys Co, 
and the Hoskins Manufacturing Co. 

Sources 

The ores from which commercial nickel is obtained 
are of three classes: (1) Sulphides, represented by the 
pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite ores of Sudbury, Canada, and 
of Norway, and which contain from 1 to 3 per cent 
each of copper and nickel, with the mineral pentlandite 
as the nickel carrier. (2) Silicates and oxidized ores, 
which are found principally in New Caledonia and 
contain from 5 to 6 per cent of nickel (plus cobalt), 
with garnierite as the principal nickel carrier. (3) 
Arsenical ores, which are found in Canada and on the 
Continent, in Saxony, and elsewhere. Of these, the first 
two classes only are of much commercial importance, 
and the first class furnishes by far the greater propor- 
tion of the present output of this metal. In addition 
to the metal produced from these ores, a small amount 
of nickel is recovered annually from blister copper. 

Smelting 

Sulphide ores are first roasted and then smelted in 
blast furnaces to a matte containing approximately 24 
per cent of nickel plus copper, 45 per cent of iron. 



Published by permission of the Director of the Bureau of 
Standards. 

* Superintendent of Research, International Nickel Co. 

^"Physical Properties of Nickel," by D. H. Browne and J. F. 
Thompson, Bulletin, A.I.M.E., August, 1919. Report and Appendix 
of the Royal Ontario Nickel Commission, A. T. Wilgress, Toronto, 
1917. "Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels," by H. D. Hibbard ; 
John Wilev & Sons, N. Y., 1920. "Die Spezialstahle," by G. 
Mars; Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart, 1912. "Steel and Its Heat 
Treatment," by D. K. Bullens ; John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 1918. 



and the remainder sulphur. This matte is then blown in 
a converter to a mixture essentially of nickel and cop- 
per sulphides, which is ready for the refining. 

Although the smelting practice of the companies oper- 
ating with sulphide ore of the Sudbury t>'pe is essen- 
tially the same, as well as the product (which is usually 
known as bessemer matte), the refining of this matte 
to metal and the separation of the nickel and copper are 
accomplished by quite widely different processes, of 
which the following three are the most important: 

Refining 

(1) The Hybinette process, which is in operation in 
Norway, is essentially an electrolytic one. The matte is 
roasted to remove the bulk of the sulphur and leached 
with 10 per cent sulphuric acid, whereby a large pro- 
portion of the copper with very little nickel is dissolved 
out. The residue is melted and cast into anodes, con- 
taining about 65 per cent nickel and from 3 to 8 per 
cent sulphur. These anodes are then treated by elec- 
trolysis, with cementation of the contained copper by 
anode scrap. In this manner nickel cathodes and both 
cement and cathode copper are obtained. 

(2) In the Mond process (which is operated in Eng- 
land) the bessemer matte is first roasted and the copper 
removed in part by leaching with sulphuric acid with 
the formation of a solution of copper sulphate. The 
residue, containing nickel oxide with some copper oxide 
and iron, is reduced at a low heat to a finely divided 
metallic powder. This is carefully protected from con- 
tact with the air, and carbon monoxide is passed over 
it at from 50 to 80 deg. C. At these temperatures 
nickel-carbonyl vapor is formed, later to be decomposed 
by passing it through a tower containing shot nickel 
heated to about 200 deg. C. A layer of nickel is formed 
on the shot and the carbon monoxide is regenerated 
and returned to the volatilizing towers. The nickel 
shot is alternately exposed to and withdrawn from the 
action of this gas and in this way a series of concentric 
layers of nickel are built up around the original nucleus, 
like the coats of an onion, a means of ready distinguish- 
ment. 

(3) The Orford process, which is the oldest process 
for the separation of copper and nickel, is being oper- 
ated in this country. The bessemer matte is melted 
with salt cake, or niter cake, together with coke in 
the blast furnace. The sodium sulphide formed by the 
reduction of the sodium sulphate by the coke together 
with the copper sulphide forms a matte of low specific 
gravity. The product of the blast furnace is allowed 
to cool in pots, in which a separation occurs, the upper 
portion or "tops" containing the greater part of the 
copper sulphide together with the sodium sulphide, the 
lower portion or "bottoms" containing the greater part 



18 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



of the nickel sulphide. The "tops" and "bottoms" are 
readily split apart when cold. Several treatments are 
required to effect a sufficiently complete separation. The 
"tops" go to the copper cupola and converter, where 
they are blown to blister copper. The "bottoms," con- 
sisting essentially of nickel sulphide or matte, are 
roasted and leached alternately until they have been 
completely changed to nickel oxide. This is reduced 
with charcoal in crucibles or reverberatory furnaces to 
metallic nickel at a temperature above its melting point 
such that the resulting product may be cast into ingots 
or blocks or poured into water to form shot. Electro- 
lytic nickel is also produced by casting this reduced 
metal at once into anodes, and obtaining pure nickel 
cathodes from them by electrolysis with an electrolyte 
of nickel sulphate. 

The silicate ores of New Caledonia, which contain 
no sulphur, are first mixed with sulphur-bearing mate- 
rials such as gypsum or pyrites and smelted in the blast 
furnace to a matte, which is shipped for refining, which 
in this case, in the absence of copper, consists merely 
of roasting the nickel matte to oxide and reducing the 
oxide with charcoal. 

Commercial Grades 

Nickel appears on the market in the following forms: 
(a) Grains, cubes, rondelles or powder reduced at 

a low temperature from nickel oxide and not fused 

in the process of manufacture. 

(6) Nickel deposited in concentric layers from nickel 

carbonyl and not fused in the process of manufacture. 

(c) Nickel deposited electrolytically in the form of 
cathode sheets. 

(d) Nickel in the form of blocks or shot made by 
reducing nickel oxide above the melting point of nickel 
and casting the resulting molten metal or pouring it 
into water. 



(e) Malleable nickel made in the same manner as 
(d) but treated with some deoxidizer before pouring 
into ingots. This nickel appears in the usual com- 
mercial forms — i.e., rods, sheet, wire, etc. 

Most of the commercial production of nickel falls in 
class (d). 

The International Nickel Co. has described the grades 
of material which it produces and contributes the aver- 
age analyses of these materials found in Table I. 

"A" shot nickel is a high-carbon nickel used by manu- 
facturers of anodes for nickel plating. 

"X" shot nickel is a purer material used by the manu- 
facturers of crucible nickel steel and of nickel silver. 

Ingot or block nickel is almost identical in composi- 
tion with "X" shot. It is sold in 25- and 50-lb. blocks 
or ingots and is used in the manufacture of open-hearth 
and electric steel. 

Electrolytic nickel in the form of cathodes 24 x 36 
in., weighing about 100 lb., or in smaller squares, is 
used in the manufacture of high-grade nickel silver and 
cupro-nickel alloys. 

Malleable nickel intended for rolling into sheets or 
rods or for drawing into wire is made in various grades 
according to the purpose for which it is destined. All 
malleable nickel is treated before casting into ingots 
with some deoxidizer, generally magnesium, for the 
purpose of removing the nickel oxide present and making 
the metal suitable for rolling or forging. Manganese 
is also added both for the purpose of cleaning the metal 
and as an alloying element. Nickel cannot in general 
be rolled or forged without this preliminary treat- 
ment with a deoxidizer. 

Grades A and C malleable nickel ingots are produced 
by the International Nickel Co. for rolling into rods 
and sheets and drawing into wire. 

Grade D malleable nickel is high-manganese nickel 
having practically the same analysis as grade C 



' — 


TABLE I. 


COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS GRADES OF COMMERCIAL NICKEL 




Name 
Nickel rod 


Source 

. . H. Boker & Co 

. . International Nick- 
el Co 

. Int'l Nickel Co. . . 


Form Cu 
Rods 18 

Rods 

Rods 

Rods 

Castings 

Sheet 0.12 

Sheet 

No. 1 0.12 

0001 

xl2in. 12 

Coin 0.083 

Coin 0.089 

Wire rod 0.10 

iin. 

wire 23 

081 in. 

wire 

Wire 

Various 05 

. . . . . 50 


Ni 
and 

Co Co 
97.58 

99.00 

98.75 

96.75 

98.95 

99.37 

99.26 

97.99 0.88 
99.26 1.36 

99.23 

99.20 54 

99.13 62 

98.47 

98.60 trace 
99.02 12 
99,29 nil 

98.00 

97.87 1 45 
98 00 1 60 
99,52 89 
99.84 

98 75 

98.98 1 01 

99 36 06 
99.80 None 

98 65 80 
99.05 80 
99.16 .... 

99 41 .... 
99 17 ... 
99.57 .... 

99.38 .... 
99.01 .... 
99 09 32 

by the Roya 
r cent cobalt, 


Fe S Si 
0.38 0.012 13 

0.55 0.025 0.10 
50 025 20 
75 0.03 0.20 
50 0.035 

0.40 0.024 17 

49 

4.05 0.05 07 

0.31 

0.40 01 02 

30 022 06 

80 06 16 

1.22 

21 025 0.21 

48 025 042 

1 60 13 

45 05 19 

75 

36 


C 
19 

0.15 
0.15 
0.15 
0.16 

019 

045 

6! 042 
6!67' 
16 
13 

6^39 
nil 


Mn 
1.60 

0.15 
1.75 
1.75 


As 


Sn 

and 

Sb 


Insol. 


Remarks 


Malleable i ickel A 

Malleable nickel B 








Typical analyses Orford Works 
Typical analyses Orford Works 


Malleable nickel C 


Int'l Nickel Co 








Typical analyses ' 'rford Works 


Nickel castings 

Nickel sheet 


.. Int'lNicke'Co. . . . 
. . Flcitmann Witte & 

Co 

. . Krupp (Germany) . 

. . Boker and Co 

. . France 

... Italy 

. . Bcrndorf Austria. . 
. . England 

. . Driver-Harris 

. . Flcitmann Witte & 

Co 

.. U.S. Nickel Co.... 
. . Kalnuis & Harper. . 


Typical analyses Orford Works 


Malleable nickel 


trace 

1.32 
trace 
0.17 
0.22 

66 

30 

16 










Rolled nickel sheet 










French 25 centimes 

20 centisimi piece 


0.018 


021 






Arthur Krupp 










Nickel rod 










Electro malleable nickel.. 










Malleable nickel 








Royal Ontario Nickel Com's'n 


Metallic nickel 


trace 








Pure nickel 

Nickel 






Royal Ontario Nickel Com's'n 
Royal Ontario Nickel Com's'n 


Nickel 




10 

05 

Electro 06 
Electro 01 
Electro 0.10 
Shot 06 
Shot 03 
.Shot None 
A shot 0.15 
XShot 0.15 
Cubes 065 

Cubes 

Grain 0.13 
Grain 014 

Grain 

RondellcO.112 
Ingoto 0.11 

mplcs mentionec 
tins about 0.4 pe 


vface 










Royal Ontario Nickel Com's'n 


Nickel 

Norway nickel 


. . Deloro Mining 

. . V. Hvbinette 

. . Intcrntl. Nickel Co. 

. . llyhincUc iiroccss. 

1' S Nickel Co 










Royal Ontario Nickel Com's'n 


Orford nickel 

Electrolytic nickel 


005 

50 01 


0.005 




0.01 


01 


0.003 


Analyzed by Orford ( 1 908) 
Royal Ontario Nickel Com's'n 


Nickel sliot. 


58 006 19 
39 002 Oil 

006 None 
50 06 15 
0.47 0.04 0,10 

0.32 

015 0.04 

51 


16 
II 
05 
45 
0.18 
0.41 
176 


6!09 


trace 


003 






Mond nickel 


. . L. Moiul (Kngland) 
AIoiul Niokri ( 'o 




Mond nickel.. . . 


o'ois 

015 


oois 

0.015 




Aualvied bv Hadfield ( 1 899) 


Nickel shot 


Intcrn'l Nickel Co 


.Vnalvzed by Orford (1914) 


Nickel shot 

Nickel culies 


. . Intern'l Nickel Co. 
.. U.S. Nickel Co.... 

. . Le Nickel 

. . .\m. .Mickel Works 


Analyzed by Orford ( 1 91 4t 


Metallic nickel 












Grain nickel 








1.06 
0.03 




Mond nickel 

Metallic nickel 


. . . I.udwick Mond. . . 

. . . T,c Nickel 

. .. Lc Nickel 

. . Intcrn'l Nickel Co. 
values of some of the .sa 
1 Nickel Co. metal conti 


0.133 003 0.23 

.... 010 109 048 

0.43 024 . .. 037 

0.65 04 0.01 0.04 

Ontario Nickel Comniissic 

which is usually included ii 


6!6i' 


trace 


trace 




French nickel 










Nickel ingots 

NOTE.— The nickel 
plus cobalt. Internationa 


0.02 0.02 

n include nickel only 
1 the copper analysis. 


while 


Analysed by Le Nickel (1905) 
in other caees they include nickd 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEFRING 



19 



(Table I) except manganese varies from 2 to 5 per cent. 
This is used principally for spark plug wire to resist 
the action of high temperatures and combustion gases. 

Table I gives the results of a number of chemical 
analyses of samples of commercial nickel, including that 
of foreign manufacture. 

Besides the commercial forms of nickel described 
above, the metal is on the market in the form of anodes 
for the metal-plating industry. These cast anodes are 
quite variable in composition and contain from 88 to 95 
per cent nickel together with iron, aluminum, tin, sil- 
icon, sulphur, and carbon. A typical analysis of a 
commercial anode is the following: 

Graphitic carbon .... 1 . 70 Copper 0.15 

Silicon . 50 Aluminum . 03 

Iron 0.80 Nickel 96.82 

Uses of Nickel 

The principal commercial application of nickel is in 
the manufacture of nickel steel, and this industry 
absorbed fully 75 per cent of the total nickel production 
during the war and probably 65 per cent normally. 
Nickel steels will be .discussed briefly later. 

Besides its use in steel nickel is used quite exten- 
sively as an alloying element with non-ferrous metals, 
principally copper; many of these alloys will be dis- 
cussed in more detail. About 15 per cent of the pro- 
duction is utilized in the manufacture of alloys of nickel, 
such as cupro-nickel and especially nickel silver, the 
former series of alloys having come into prominence 
during the war. Nickel coinage and the electroplating 
industries may each absorb from 3 to 5 per cent of 
the production, the latter requiring the metal both in 
the metallic form and in the form of nickel salts ; 
the single salts NiS0,.7H,0 and the double salt 
NiS0,.(NH,),S0,.6H,0. 

The production of malleable nickel, although never 
relatively large, has amounted to about 5 per cent of the 
total production and is steadily growing in volume as 
the properties of the metal in this form because bet- 
ter known. Malleable nickel is produced in all com- 
mercial forms and is used principally for coinage, cook- 
ing utensils (chiefly abroad in Germany and Austria) 
and other ornamental and household stampings and 
fittings. In the form of wire it is much used for motor 
ignition spark plug points, for the suspension wires in 
electric light bulbs, for electrical resistance pyrometers, 
electrical instruments, and recently in the construction 
of the audion amplifier. 

Some malleable nickel is produced in the form of cast- 
ings for apparatus such as digesters and evaporators 
for the chemical industry, for which its resistance to 
corrosion in sulphuric and other acids make it peculiarly 
suitable. 

The Edison storage cell contains nickel both in the 
form of nickel oxide and as nickel anodes. Finely 
divided nickel is much used as a catalytic agent in the 
hydrogenation or hardening of oils, following the dis- 
covery of this property by Sabatier and Senderens. 
Nickel oxide is used in the ceramic industries for the 
production of under- or holding-coats of enamel on steel 
and also for coloring glazes on pottery. 

Nickel castings have been used with much success as 
rabble shoes by the International Nickel Co., in calcin- 
ing furnaces roasting nickel matte. The shoes are 
exposed to oxidizing and to sulphurizing gases at tem- 
perature from 600 to 1,000 deg. C. and to severe mechan- 



ical abrasion; they have stood up in this severe service 
for nine months, whereas iron shoes would last no 
more than from six to eight weeks. 

Casting Practice 

Nickel is cast from the furnace into open molds to 
produce blocks for remelting, into ingot molds after 
deoxidation with manganese and magnesium for the 
production of malleable nickel and into sand molds for 
nickel castings. It is also poured directly into water 
to form nickel shot. 

For the production of castings, the metal in the form 
of blocks or shot may be remelted in crucibles or in 
an oil-fired or electric furnace with the addition of 
charcoal to reduce the oxide which 's present and which 
is formed during remelting. When at the proper tem- 
perature, it is poured into a ladle and deoxidized in 
the same manner as for the production of malleable 
ingots and poured into molds. The chief difficulty in 
the remelting of nickel is in the proper adjustment of 
carbon and oxide content of the molten metal prior to 
deoxidation, and which is known as bringing the metal 
to pitch. 

Platers' anodes are melted with carbon and may be 
poured at a much lower temperature than malleable 
nickel and do not require deoxidation of any kind; they 
are consequently much easier to handle in the foundry' 
than low-carbon metal. 

The molding of nickel castings follows the practice 
used for steel castings, generally speaking, an allow- 
ance of 4 in. to the foot being made for shrinkage. 

Other than the process of deoxidation, which is 
absolutely essential, the production of malleable nickel 
ingots requires no novel operations not known, for 
instance, in the steel industry. Deoxidized nickel solidi- 
fies without blowholes but with a pronounced pipe, which 
renders necessary the use of proper risers or hot-tops 
and properly designed molds. 

Rolling, Forging, Annealing 

In the hot-working of nickel, both the temperature 
and the condition of the heating flame should be subject 
to careful control. The temperature for preheating and 
rolling should be from 1,100 to 1,180 deg. C. Ingots 
should not be subjected to temperatures much in excess 
of this, as they then become somewhat hot-short. Below 
this temperature the metal may be too hard to roll 
satisfactorily. The flarne used for heating should be as 
nearly neutral as possible and a low-sulphur fuel (oil) 
is essential for successful heating. 

For hot-rolling bars and rods of the usual cross- 
sections, the same designs of rolls as are used for steel 
may be and are employed with success. Pure nickel and 
nickel alloys of high nickel content are very easily 
guide-marked when hot. 

The remarks of the first paragraph above appfy also 
to the forging of nickel. Nickel is much more success- 
fully forged under the hammer than under a press; in 
fact, the metal has a pronounced tendency to crack 
under the slow action of the press, which may be due 
to the fact that the surface cools more readily than 
under the quick blows and short contact of the hammer. 

In order to soften nickel which has been worked cold 
it must be heated to at least 750 deg. C, the minimum 
temperature of the annealing range, and allowed to 
remain in the furnace until thoroughly heated through- 
out. It may be cooled rapidly or slowly, as desired, as 
there is no alteration in the properties of the metal 



20 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 1 



produced by cooling after annealing. For the commer- 
cial annealing of nickel a temperature of 900 deg. C. 

should be used, as this will insure a more thorough and 

homogeneous anneal. 

Price and Davidson' have studied the annealing of 

nickel of commercial pure grade (A) and their results 

are shown in the accompanying figure. The annealing 

range for the metal is from 600 to 800 deg. C; com- 
mercially the metal is usually annealed at 900 deg. C. 
Whenever possible the metal should be annealed in 

tight boxes to prevent the formation of oxide, and any 

oxide formed may be reduced by the creation of a 

reducing atmosphere in the box, either by the presence 

3f a small amount of charcoal or by the admission of 

some reducing gas. When annealing is done in this 

manner no pickling is required and on account of the 

difficulty and expense pickling should be adopted only 

as a last resort. 

If necessary, pickling may be accomplished by the 

use of sulphuric acid with some oxidizing agent, such as 

ferric sulphate or chromic acid, at a temperature around electrotyping are nickel sulphate and nickel ammonium 

sulphate (known commercially as "single" and "double" 
salts respectively). The nickel-ammonium sulphate has 
the advantage of better conductivity but the disadvan- 



for protection against corrosion but primarily for the 
improvement of appearance. Its chief value for this 
purpose lies in its relative hardness and its resistance 
to abrasion and atmospheric corrosion. Nickel is used to 
a limited extent in electrotyping, in which case it may 
be deposited directly upon the wax or lead mold, pro- 
ducing a true nickel electrotype; or it may be deposited 
upon the face of a finished copper plate, making a nickel 
plated electrotype. In general, the function of the nickel 
upon electrotypes is to give a harder wearing surface; 
which is also more resistant than copper to the action 
of the colored inks frequently employed. The produc- 
tion of nickel articles such as tubes by deposition upon 
wax or other fusible molds has never been commercially 
successful, though processes recently devised for this 
purpose appear promising. 

Principal Salts of Nickel Used in Plating 
AND Electrotyping 

The principal salts of nickel used in plating and 



60 to 70 deg. C, but it is a slow and tedious process. 
Welding and Soldering 

Nickel cannot be smith-welded owing to the forma- 
tion of a coating of nickel oxide which cannot be fluxed 
and which prevents the adherence of the two surfaces to 
be welded. On the other hand, under a reducing atmos- 
phere the metal may be 
welded, such as by the use 
of the oxy-acetylene torch, 
or by electric-resistance 
welding. It is by the lat- 
ter process that nickel 
wire is welded to iron 
wire to form tips or points 
for spark plugs. 

Under suitable reducing 
conditions nickel may be 
plastically welded to steel, 
and an interesting process, 
invented by Dr. Fleitman 
about thirty-five years 
ago, of producing nickel- 
coated steel sheets is 
based upon this possibil- 
ity. A steel sheet bar, 
about I in. thick, is 
cleaned and pickled and 
placed between two thin- 
ner plates of clean nickel. 
Around the whole is 
wrapped a thin steel sheet, 
which protects the nickel 
against oxidation and is 



tage of lower solubility. Mixtures of the two are 
frequently used. In 1878 Weston patented the use of 
boric acid in nickel baths, which has come into quite 
general use. Boric acid appears to favor more uniform 




o 2 s g 
t.a g" S 30 

|i2|^ 20 

D ^ 3 



C«ld Boiled from 
J4"U. .134 



350 450 550 650 750 

Annealing Temperatures in Degrees Ceutigrade 



1050 



dissolved off by later pickling. The compound sheet bar 
is heated in a reducing atmosphere and then rolled and 
crossrolled into a solid, compound sheet. Needless to say, 
the nickel coating so produced is thicker and more dur- 
able than electrolytically deposited metal. 

Electrodeposition 

Outside of the production of electrolytic nickel, the 
chief chemical application of nickel deposition is in the 
nickel plating of steel, brass, zinc and numerous alloys, 
generally in the form of castings or stampings, partly 

■•"Discussion of paper by Browne & Thompson, Transactions, 
A.I.M.K.. 1010. 



operation of the baths, and to produce brighter deposits. 
Experiments of L. D. Hammond' indicates that the 
essential function of boric acid is the maintenance of a 
uniformly small hydrogen-ion concentration in the solu- 
tion. He found that good deposits can be obtained from 
solutions slightly acidified with strong or weak acids, 
none of which, however, is so suitable as boric acid for 
continued service. 

Pure nickel exhibits in a marked degree the phenome- 
non of passivity when it is made the anode in most acids 
or salts. In consequence the use of pure nickel anodes 



'"Electrodeposition of Nickel," Trans.. Am. Electrochem, Soc, 
vol. 30. p. 201 (1014). 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



21 



in nickel sulphate solutions would soon bring about an 
impoverishment in nickel and the liberation of free 
sulphuric acid. It has hence been customary to add to 
nickel anodes appreciable amounts of iron, carbon and 
tin, which by local action increase the solution tension 
of the nickel. Incidentally they lower the fusing point, 
and thereby facilitate the casting of the nickel anodes, 
and contaminate the solution with an accumulation of 
slimes. This may be prevented to a large extent by the 
addition of chlorides, or more recently of fluorides, to 
nickel baths, both of which reduce anode passivity and 
increase the corrosion of purer metal. Chlorides of 
sodium, ammonium, nickel or magnesium are frequently 
added. The fluorine is usually added in the form of 
hydrofluoric acid, though it is preferable first to neutral- 
ize this acid with nickel carbonate, thus forming nickel 
fluoride. 

In addition to aiding in anode corrosion, the presence 
of sodium or ammonium chloride increases the conduc- 
tivity of the solutions. Other salts are sometimes added 
to nickel solutions to increase the conductivity — e.g., 
ammonium sulphate (in the form of or in addition to 
nickel ammonium sulphate) and magnesium sulphate. 
Salts of organic acids, such as tartrates, citrates, etc., 
which have also been added, may serve, (1) to regulate 
the acidity, (2) to dissolve basic compounds, especially 
of iron, and (3) to reduce the rate of chemical deposi- 
tion of nickel by more positive metals. The latter 
function is especially useful in the nickel plating of 
zinc and zinc alloys. 

In general, nickel plating has been conducted at low 
temperatures, but Watts* has shown that in solutions 
containing nickel chloride and sulphate, and boric acid, 
hot solutions may be employed to advantage, and may 
permit the use of much higher current densities. 

Formulas of Various Types of Nickel Baths 
IN Commercial Use 

The following formulas illustrate the various types of 
nickel baths in actual commercial use. It is not implied, 
however, that these formulas will always be satisfactory, 
much less that they are the best for a given class of 
work. 

Grams per Ounces per 

Liter Gallon 
Nickel Electrotyping 

Nickel ammonium sulphate... 45 6 

Nickel sulphate 15 2 

Sodium chloride 7.5 1 

Nickel Plating — Double Salt Solution 

Nickel ammonium sulphate. . . 90 12 

Ammonium chloride 22.5 3 

Boric acid 15 2 

Nickel Plating — Single Salt Solution 

Nickel sulphate 120 16 

Ammonium chloride 22 . 5 3 

Boric acid 15 2 

Nickel Plating (Wattsy — For High Current Density, 
or in Hot Solutions 

Nickel sulphate 240 32 

Nickel chloride 15 2 

Boric acid 30 4 

Nickel Plating on Zinc (Hammond)^ 

Nickel sulphate 240 32 

Nickel chloride 15 2 

Boric acid 30 4 

Sodium citrate 175 23 



*Trans., Am. Electrocliem. Soc. vol. 29, p. 395 (1916) and vol. 
23, p. 99 (1913). 

""Electrodeposition of Nickel," Trans., Am. Electrochem. Soc, 
vol. 30. p. 201. 



The Chemical Industry of 
Switzerland 

By Dr. A. Landoll* 

SWITZERLAND is exceedingly poor in raw materials 
and has to import practically everything (with but 
few exceptions) from abroad. 

Switzerland's wealth of water power and the favor- 
able position of the waterfalls made conditions some- 
what easier for the chemical industry of the country 
after the problem of the transportation of electric power 
had been solved in the '80s and large power stations 
had been built on the Rhine, the Aar, the Doubs, the 
Rhone, etc. In particular a foundation was laid for 
electrochemistry and electrometallurgy which led to an 
enormous development, so that the condition of rela- 
tively cheap motor power could be fulfilled. 

The second condition — namely, the existence of 
trained and skilled chemists, together with technical and 
commercial staffs — the chemical industry owes in the 
first instance to the high development of our federal and 
cantonal educational establishments, particularly the 
Federal University and Polytechnicum, and above all, 
the chemical institutions, which have always understood 
how to keep up an active and intimate contact between 
science and technics. All these factors have enabled the 
chemical industry of Switzerland to attain great pros- 
perity in spite of the difficult circumstances in which it 
is placed. 

The most important export branches of the Swiss 
chemical industry are the Basel aniline dye factories 
and the electrochemical and electrometallurgical works. 

This comprises all the Swiss concerns which are oc- 
cupied with the manufacture of artificial organic dye- 
stuffs (aniline dyes) and the preparation of dyestuff 
extracts. 

The Chemical-Pharmaceutical Industry 

Closely connected with the dyestuffs industry is the 
chemical-pharmaceutical industry, in which the Basel 
concern also participates. This branch made extraor- 
dinary progress during the war. 

The chemical-pharmaceutical industry of Switzerland 
was established at a time when a number of chemical- 
pharmaceutical enterprises were already in existence 
abroad, especially in Germany. A great deal of courage 
and a keen spirit of enterprise were necessary in order 
to take up competition with the foreign industry, the 
reputation of which was already established. The plan 
thus tenaciously grasped and carried out with far-seeing 
vision prospered exceedingly, and today we may look 
with pride and happiness on the rapid and successful 
development of our native chemical-pharmaceutical 
industry. The factories were soon in a position to ven- 
ture on independent labor in certain domains of phar- 
maceutical chemistry, and the preparations they have 
turned out have acquired a good name all over the world. 

The export figure for pharmaceutical articles and 
drugs, which was 17,687,385 fr. in 1913, went up to 
26,533,000 in 1919. 

Tar Dyes 

The production of tar dyes increased from year to 
year and the Basel firms were keen competitors on the 
international markets. Since 1911 the Society for 
Chemical Industry, Basel, has taken up the manufacture 

♦President of the Swiss Society for Chemical Industry. 



22 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 1 



of artificial indigo and thus become a competitor of 
Germany. In order to be able to keep their place on 
the world's markets during the transition period and to 
compete successfully with Germany in future, the three 
leading Basel factories, the Society for Chemical In- 
dustry, the Chemical Works, formerly Sandoz, and the 
firm of J. R. Geigy, Ltd., formed an amalgamation in 
1918 similar to that of the German factories, which pro- 
vides for a community of interests for a period of fifty 
years. About 90 per cent of the total production of 
these firms goes abroad. 

Founded in 1864 and transformed into a limited lia- 
bility company in 1885, the Society of Chemical Industry 
at Basel now has a capital of 20,000,000 fr. and gives 
employment to more than 2,700 hands and 530 commer- 
cial and technical employees. Hence it occupies a not 
unimportant rank in the chemical industry of this coun- 
try both as regards the manufacture of dyes and the 
preparation of pharmaceutical and photographical 
products. 

During the last few years (from 1913 to 1919) the ex- 
ports of aniline dyes went up from 25 to 123.6 million 
fr. The export value of artificial indigo rose in the 
same time from 3.9 to 12.2 million fr. 

. Synthetic Perfumery 

The synthetic perfumery industry was introduced into 
Switzerland in 1895, at first only on a small scale. The 
industry made rapid progress, however, and flowered in 
a comparatively short time. The six important firms 
which make these articles turn out natural perfumes by 
synthetic methods. The main business is done in expor- 
tation. The exports of perfumes and soaps totalled 16.1 
million fr. in 1919. 

The extension of the use of water power in Switzer- 
land during the last two decades has contributed enor- 
mously to the development of the electrochemical and 
electrometallurgical industries. The oldest and at pres- 
ent the largest is the Aluminium Industry Co., Ltd., 
Neuhausen, with works on the Rhine Waterfall and at 
Chippis (established in 1888), which was the first in the 
world to produce pure electrolytic aluminum according 
to its own process. Nearly all electrochemical manu- 
factures produced abroad are turned out in Switzer- 
land too. The old methods based on chemical proc- 
esses have been replaced by the electrolytic process, such 
as the manufacture of metallic sodium, caustic soda and 
chlorine, chloride of calcium, together with a number of 
other inorganic and organic derivatives of chlorine. We 
may further mention the manufacture of oxygen, hydro- 
gen, nitric acid, hydrocyanic acid, nitrate of urea and 
their derivatives, then the persulphates, perchlorates, 
calcium metal, silicon, ferrosilicon, ferrochrome, etc. 

Exports 

Thanks to the enormous demands on the part of for- 
eign countries during the war for electrochemical and 
electrometallurgical products, the exports of these 
articles from Switzerland increased considerably, as 
may be seen from the following table: 

1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 
In 1,000 Tons 

Calcium carbide.. 32 36 55 58 59 76 37 

Ferro-alloys 16 17 19 23 2? 16 10 

Raw aluminum... 7 7 9 11 11 10 5 



1919 after the demands of the belligerent countries had 
ceased. At the present time there are about eighteen 
electrochemical works in Switzerland. The manufacture 
of varnishes and paints, mineral and pigment dyes, 
printing and lithographing colors, glue, etc., has also 
taken a remarkably strong development. — Siviss Ex- 
porter, Special Edition for North America, j.. 25. 



The Removal of Nitrates by Means of Alcohol 

By R. Schneidewind 

Many analytic procedures demand the absence of 
nitrates. For instance, most methods for the electrolytic 
determination of nickel require that all nitric acid be 
expelled; in the determination of zinc in brasses, copper 
must be removed either by metallic aluminum or by 
sodium thiosulphate. Nitrates in the first case seriously 
affect the completeness of the separation; in the second 
case they oxidize the sulphur, hinder the copper pre- 
cipitation, and if precipitation is completed there is a 
large quantity of colloidal sulphur that is very incon- 
venient to work with. In the separation of Zn and Al 
by means of H,S in acid solution, in some electrolytic 
methods for determining Co, Fe, Cd and in many other 
cases nitrates must not be present. 

Common practice is to add 10 to 15 c.c. of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid and boil down until white fumes 
of SO^ are evolved. This method gives rise to various 
objections. Considerable time is required to concen- 
trate a solution of, say, 200 to 250 c.c. ; there is always 
danger of bumping and spattering when a quantity of 
salts crystallize out; and as in the case of nickel, for 
instance, under some conditions complex sulphates are 
formed which are soluble only with difficulty. 

The writer has used ethyl alcohol to remove nitrates 
in routine work — none remaining to interfere with any 
succeeding operation which would be incomplete in the 
presence of nitric acid. To a solution containing 20 c.c. 
concentrated HNO^ and about 150 c.c. H^O, 15 c.c. con- 
centrated H.SO^ is added and then heated. When nearly 
boiling, 5 c.c. ethyl alcohol is added, taking care not to 
pour in too rapidly so that the solution boils over. From 
time to time 3 to 5 c.c. C,H,OH is cautiously added until 
further addition no longer causes an evolution of NO, 
fumes. It is then boiled five minutes longer to expel the 
excess alcohol. This will not give a positive test for 
nitrate with the usual brown ring reagent and does not 
oxidize the S in H_,S. The writer has found copper only 
to be affected when treated in this manner, some being 
precipitated as a cuprous compound. 

About twenty minutes is required for the whole opera- 
tion, including the time for boiling off the excess alcohol, 
thus effecting a great saving of time over the concen- 
trating to SO3 fumes method and without the danger of 
loss through spattering. 

Laboratory, Studebaker Corp. 



55 60 83 92 93 102 52 
The exports of these three articles reached their maxi- 
mum in 1918, but they went down to almost half in 



Sulphur Refinery to Be Erected in Portland 

The Stauffer Chemical Co. has purchased a site in 
Portland, Ore., upon which to erect a plant for refining 
sulphur. Because of the increased railroad freight rates, 
great quantities of sulphur are moving from the Gulf of 
Mexico to Portland by the all-water route. Three full 
cargoes of crude sulphur in bulk have already been dis- 
charged at Portland for the Texas Gulf and Union 
Sulphur companies, and two more steamers have been 
booked to move sulphur cargoes from Sabine and Galves- 
ton, Tex., to Portland. 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



23 



Survey of the Physics and Chemistry of Colloids 



Physical and Chemical Properties of the Colloidal Phase — Formation by Condensation and Dispersion- 
Symmetrical Structure — Resistance to Displacement in Solution — Viscosity 
and Colloidality — Aggregation and Other Structural Changes 

By THEODORE SVEDBERG 



THE science of colloids is a science of the micro- 
structure of matter. In it is reflected the tendency 
of modern natural science to deal more and more 
intensely with the problem of structure in its full extent. 
In the great science of the structure of matter, the 
science of colloids forms the domain that lies above 
molecular dimensions and beneath microscopic dimen- 
sions. In this domain we have a great number of those 
systems which are the basis of our material culture and 
the basis of life as a whole. All living beings are built 
up of colloids — almost all our food, our articles of cloth- 
ing, our building materials, are colloids. Or, to men- 
tion some special systems, protoplasm, proteins, glue, 
starch, all kinds of fibers, wood, brick, mortar, cement, 
certain kinds of glass, rubber, celluloid, etc. The im- 
portance of colloid science for many industrial questions 
is, therefore, beyond all doubt. 

The science of colloids is a rather young one. The 
field of study which it concerns has for a long time 
been disregarded. In order to be able to treat with 
success all the questions presented to us by industry, 
there is still much to be carried out in the department of 
pure colloid science. In what follows, I will try to give 
a short review of the scientific results so far obtained 
and of the problems which, in my opinion, need especial 
attention. 

The various branches of colloid science are connected 
to such an extent that it is very difficult to treat the 
different questions separately. We will try to fix our 
attention on two principal problems: (1) The forma- 
tion of colloids, and (2) the changes of structure in 
colloid systems. Connected with both these is the prob- 
lem of the properties of colloids and the changes in 
these properties during the processes mentioned 
under problem 2. 

The formation of a colloid may be effected in two 
ways, different in principle — viz., by condensation and 
by dispersion, according as one tries to obtain a micro- 
structural system, a colloid, from a molecular structural 
or a macrostructural system. 

Formation by Condensation 

In the case of a condensation process, the degree of 
"graininess" or the degree of dispersion will become 
higher as the degree of supersaturation increases, which 
must, of course, always precede condensation. This is 
the case when fogs are formed by adiabatic expansion 
of gases — e.g., cloud-formation in the atmosphere — when 
metal colloids are prepared by condensation of the 
vapors of metals from the electric arc, or when a slightly 
soluble substance — e.g., barium sulphate — is precipitated 
by means of a reaction between ions. The condensation 



•Read before the Faraday Society and the Physical Society, 
London, Oct. 25. 1920. 



always proceeds from certain heterogeneities in the 
medium's condensation centers or nuclei. As such 
nuclei, we may have particles of the substance which is 
to be formed by the condensation — e.g., precipitation of 
gold on small gold particles when preparing gold hydro- 
.sols or gold ruby glass — or gas ions — e.g., fog forma- 
tions in cases at low degrees of supersaturation — or 
complex molecules — e.g., fog formations in gases at high 
degrees of supersaturation. The manner in which these 
nuclei are introduced into the system under condensa- 
sation is of great importance for the degree of disper- 
sion of the colloid resultant. If the nuclei are not 
introduced into the system all at once, but gradually in 
the course of the condensation process, the particles will 
be very unequal in size. 

The biologically important colloids — e.g., the proteins 
— are evidently all formed by condensation, but no de- 
tails of this process are known. The tendency toward 
condensation manifests itself in the fact that even the 
protein molecules are, from a purely chemical point of 
view, condensation products. 

Formation by Dispersion 

In case of a dispersion process, there is always work 
to be performed against the surface tension or the 
cohesion force. Accordingly, such a process is, in con- 
tradistinction to a condensation process, a forced and 
not a spontaneous one. We know very little as to the 
relation between degree of dispersion and experimental 
conditions. When emulsifying fats and hydrocarbons, 
the surface tension may be lowered by the addition of 
small quantities of alkalis or soaps. Grinding, in gen- 
eral, does not lead to a very high degree of subdivision ; 
but it is possible to increase the latter by adding an 
indifferent solid diluent which can easily be dissolved 
and removed, leaving the disperse phase suspended in 
the solvent used. Thus, colloid sulphur has been pre- 
pared by grinding sulphur with urea and putting the 
substance in water. A combination of grinding and 
chemical effects on the material may also be used. It 
seems that, in many cases, a prevention of the aggre- 
gation of the particles by means ot suitable additions 
ought to render possible the preparation of high disperse 
systems by pure grinding. 

Bubbles and foam might be regarded as a kind of 
colloids formed by dispersion. On spontaneously break- 
ing up they form new disperse systems in which the 
phase that was previously the continuous one becomes 
the non-continuous one, and vice versa. The system 
"soap foam — air," with the soap solution as the con- 
tinuous and the air as the non-continuous phase, is 
transferred on account of surface reduction — i.e., con- 
densation — into the system "soap solution drops — air," 
with the air as the continuous phase. Mercury foam 



24 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



in water (produced by means of pumping water through 
mercury) breaks up into a mercury hydrosol partly very 
fine-grained. 

Changes in Structure 

A newly-formed colloid may, immediately after its 
formation, undergo changes of structure of a more or 
less profound nature. On the other hand, it is nearly 
always possible to prevent the occurrence of such changes 
and therefore we have a right to distinguish and investi- 
gate the primary structure as the direct result of the 
colloid-forming process. Colloids with primary struc- 
ture may conveniently be called primary colloids. 

We have at our disposal several methods for the 
closer study of the structure. Almost every property 
of a colloid depends on the structure, and therefore, 
conversely, from the study of the properties of colloids 
we may draw conclusions as to their structure. 

The most important and most obvious means is the 
microscope and the ultramicroscope. With their aid it 
is often possible to settle whether the colloid under 
investigation is of a grainy structure — e.g., a colloid 
gold solution in water — a gold hydrosol, or of a foamy 
structure — e.g., high disperse soap foam — or of a fibrous 
structure — e.g., soap solutions of a certain concentra- 
tion. The number and approximate size of the discon- 
tinuities — e.g., the particles — may also be determined in 
this way. One may, for instance, count in the ultra- 
microscope the number of particles observed in a certain 
volume of gold hydrosol, and by means of analysis 
determine the content of gold present in the sol. From 
these figures we get the mass and approximate size if, 
for instance, we make the assumption that they are 
spherical. On the other hand, the ultramicroscope gives 
little or no information about the form or structure of 
the particles. 

Symmetry 

A means of deciding whether the particles are sym- 
metrical is to be found in the study of the behavior of 
the colloids in magnetic or electric fields. Non-symmet- 
rical particles are oriented by such fields and thereby 
impart to the colloid a certain, though in general very 
slight, degree of double refraction, which may easily 
be measured with great accuracy. In this way we have 
been able to settle that the particles in common sulphur 
hydrosols, prepared by oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, 
are spherical ; but sulphur hydrosols, prepared by grind- 
ing sulphur with urea, are dissymmetrical. The par- 
ticles in gold hydrosols prepared by reduction are dis- 
symmetrical to a high degree. 

Optical Properties 

Two other optical properties, viz., the light absorption 
and its accompanying phenomena, the scattering and 
polarization of light — the Tyndall phenomenon — may 
also in certain cases be used for structure studies. 
Theory, as well as practice, proves that these phenomena 
are, for instance, dependent to a great extent on the 
degree of dispersion of the sol. The form and structure 
of the particles also influence the said properties, but 
in a manner hitherto unknown. The emission of light 
from illuminated particles especially — the Tyndall light 
cone — varies to a great extent with the size of the par- 
ticles or the degree of dispersion. Colloid solutions that 
contain very small particles — e.g., Faraday's gold hydro- 
sol — give only a slight emission; the light cone is 
scarcely visible. Those with large particles — e.g., gold 



sols made from Faraday's gold sols by allowing the par- 
ticles to grow in a reduction-mixture — emit very much 
light; the Tyndall cone is very prominent. The optical 
properties of the particles also play a great part. Thus 
metal particles emit much light, particles of silicic acid 
or of gelatine only a little. 

Resistance to Displacement in Solution 

The resistance exerted on the particles by the sur- 
rounding medium when they move under the influence 
of a force is a means of investigation that is now often 
used for the determination of the size of the particles. 
In some cases — e.g., when a sol is filtered through a 
membrane of collodion or gelatine (ultrafiltration) — the 
connection between the resistance and the size of the 
particles is not known in detail, but we are justified in 
assuming that the resistance rises with the size of par- 
ticles. The small particles are more rapidly pressed 
through the filter than the large ones. Certain kinds of 
filters transmit molecularly dissolved substances, but 
not colloids; an important method of separation, es- 
pecially in biochemistry. If a colloid is separated from 
a great quantity of dispersion medium by such a mem- 
brane, the molecularly dissolved substances — the crystal- 
loids — diffuse through the membrane, leaving a colloid 
of a purer state — Graham's dialysis. If the particles are 
spherical and move through a liquid, the resistance is 
67tT,rv, where t] is the viscosity, r the radius and v 
the velocity. If the force that causes the movement is 
known — e.g., gravity — the radius may be calculated. 

Thus, by measuring the velocity of sedimentation, the 
radius can be found. We have 



-4 



9 7,t; 



2(si — S2)g 



where Sj is the specific gravity of the particle, s^ that 
of the liquid, and g the gravity constant. 

Even when no exterior forces are acting, the particles 
in a colloid solution are in movement because of the 
impacts from the surrounding molecules. This is the 
so-called Brownian movement, which has attracted so 
much attention of late. According to the kinetic theory 
of the Brownian movement, which has been fully con- 
firmed experimentally, each particle, whatever its size 
and nature, has the same translatory energy as a mole- 
cule — i.e., -oTT, vv'here R is the gas constant, T the 

absolute temperature, and N the Avogadro constant. 
Because of the resistance of the surrounding medium, 
the mean value of the quadrate of the distance traversed 
in the time t by the particle is 2Dt, where D, the dif- 

RT 1 

fusion constant of the particles, has the value -jj- . g — -. 

Thus, if the displacement of the particle is measured 
the radius may be found. In certain cases it is more 
convenient to measure D directly and then calculate r 
by means of this experimental value. 

Owing to the fact that the size of the particles is 
rather great in comparison with that of the molecules, 
colloids diffuse very slowly compared with crystalloids. 
As a matter of fact, Graham, the founder of colloid 
chemistry, regarded this property as the fundamental 
difference between colloids and crystalloids. We know 
now that between colloids and crystalloids — so very dif- 
ferent in their extremes — there exist all degrees of tran- 
sition forms and therefore all degrees of diffusibility. 



Janiiary 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



25 



The size of particles may also be determined by meas- of that, are of great interest in judging of the structure 
uring the sedimentation equilibrium — i.e., the distribu- of colloids, viz., the viscosity on the one hand, and, on 
tion of the number of particles per c.c. under the joint the other, the adsorption and the accompanying pheno 
influence of gravity and the Brownian movement. In 
this equilibrium, the concentration of the colloid dimin- 
ishes, exponentially with increasing height, as is the 



mena, viz., the cataphoresis and the electric endosmose. 
Relation of Viscosity to Colloidality 



case with the atmosphere surrounding the earth. 
Hence 



r =■ 



\RT 

N "4 



In 



n2 



IT (Si — Si) g (X2 — Xi) 



The osmotic pressure of a colloid solution is deter- 
mined, as far as the colloid in it is concerned, only by 
the number of particles per cubic centimeter (w). 

We have 

RT 

V 



N 



n 



Consequently, the osmotic pressure is a measure of 
the degree of dispersion. The osmotic pressure of a 
colloid is often determined by means of a common 
osmometer, provided with a membrane permeable to 
crystalloids, but impermeable to the colloid particles. 
Now, however, owing to ion absorption, the particles 
are, in most cases, surrounded by an electric double- 
layer of ions, and the colloid thus acts as an electrolyte, 
one ion of which is able to penetrate the membrane, but 
not the other. This causes complications. A so-called 
membrane equilibrium is formed, and the osmotic pres- 
sure found is not a real measure of the structure of the 
colloid. 

Owing to the Brownian movement, the number of par- 
ticles in every small volume of a sol undergoes spon- 
taneous and incessant fluctuations. Hence the value of 
every property of the colloid in the small volume 
fluctuates. 

This phenomenon, predicted by the kinetic theory 
for colloidal as well as for molecular solutions, has been 
the subject of extensive investigations. The results 
are of importance because they show that Boyle's law 
holds good very exactly for dilute colloid solutions, and 
because of the light they have thrown on the applica- 
bility of the probability calculus to a natural phenome- 
non. From these studies we have also obtained a deeper 
comprehension of the conception of entropy. For they 
have shown, in a direct and experimental way, that the 
law of the incessant growth of entropy only holds for 
macroscopic systems. 

It often occurs that the particles of a colloid are too 
small to be measured directly — e.g., by means of the 
ultramicroscope or by determining the velocity of sedi- 
mentation. In some of these cases one can overcome 
the difficulty by depositing gold on the particles, thus 
increasing their size. This method has already been 
applied to sols of almost all the metals, and to sols of 
some sulphides. If the quantity of gold on a particle is 
known, it is easy to calculate the radius in the usual 
manner. 

In most colloid solutions and precipitates there are 
particles of various sizes, and the investigator should, 
of course, be able to determine not only the mean size, 
but also the real structure of the sol — e.g., the law gov- 
erning the distribution of the various sizes of particles. 

Finally, we will consider two phenomena, the study 
of which does not, it is true, enable us to carry out 
direct measurements of the structure, but which, in spite 



The viscosity of a sol depends, in a manner not yet 
known, on the size of the particles, the concentration, 
etc., but above all on the nature of the particles. Some 
sols — e.g., metal hydrosol, suspensions of barium sul- 
phate (case 1) — have a viscosity only slightly greater 
than that of water, but others — e.g., silicic acid hydrosol, 
oil emulsion gelatine solution (case 2) — have a viscosity 
many times greater than that of water. From the fact 
that suspensions with undoubtedly solid particles come 
under case 1, and emulsions with undoubtedly fluid 
particles come under case 2, the conclusion has been 
drawn that the fine-grained colloids under case 1 also 
contain solid particles and those under case 2 fluid ones. 
If this be the case, measurements of the viscosity would 
be a capital means of ascertaining the state of aggrega- 
tion of the substance of the particles. Recent investiga- 
tions indicate, however, that the case is far more com- 
plicated. Small particles probably have relatively 
thicker water coverings than greater particles, and, 
accordingly, the viscosity is higher in a fine-grained 
colloid than in a coarser one, provided the two sols 
have particles of the same material and are of the same 
concentration by weight (e.g., sulphur hydrosols). 
When the potential difference between particles and 
fluid is altered the thickness of the water-coverings 
should alter and, as a matter of fact, the viscosity is 
altered too. As the water-covering increases, the par- 
ticle will act more and more like a drop of fluid in 
relation to the surrounding medium and will, therefore, 
as far as the viscosity is concerned, approach more and 
more to the limiting case which is represented by an oil 
emulsion. 

Adsorption 

The phases — two or more in number — in a disperse 
system have a contact surface very largely relative to 
the volume of the system. It is obvious that in such 
circumstances, adsorption differs in strength. If an 
electrolytically-dissociated salt is adsorbed, cations and 
anions are, of course, brought together at the contact 
surface in equal numbers, but the adsorption of the 
particles in relation to cations and anions is most often 
unequal, inasmuch as one is present in excess nearest 
to the surface of contact and the other in excess some 
way out of the liquid. The result is the formation of 
an electrical potential difference, a so-called adsorption 
potential difference or an electrical double-layer. Be- 
cause of this the disperse phase, when exposed to the 
influence of an electric field, will migrate toward one of 
the poles, provided it is freely movable, as in the case of 
a colloid solution (cataphoresis). If the disperse phase 
is immovable the liquid will move in the opposite direc- 
tion (electrical endosmose). By measuring the veloc- 
ity of migration of the particles or the liquid under 
various conditions we are able to study the changes in 
the difference of potential and thereby in the adsorption. 
At least at low concentrations the adsorption may be 
expressed by the formula 

y = a. . e^ 

where y is the amount of substance adsorbed per grain 
adsorbent, e the concentration in the solution of the 
substance adsorbed, and a and 3 constants depending 



26 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



on the nature of both. Now, as a rule, it happens that 
for the two ions of a salt both a and ^ have different 
values — e.g., 

a cation < a anion 

p cation > p anion 

In the example chosen the disperse phase will with in- 
creasing adsorption become more and more negative 
in relation to the dispersion medium. This charge 
reaches a maximum and decreases to zero, at the point 
where the adsorption isotherms intersect, then becomes 
positive and increases again. 

Colloidal Transition 

The changes of state which may occur on a disperse 
system, a colloid, are essentially changes of structure. 
Of course, purely chemical reactions, too, are to be taken 
into consideration, but they do not play such a prominent 
part here as in the molecular structural systems. The 
greater number of the disperse systems, and those of 
greatest importance, too, are the ones whose disperse 
phase is embedded in the other phase in the form of 
particles ; in the sequel we will only mention the changes 
of state in such systems. The most important change 
of state is the uniting together of the single particles 
(primary particles) into aggregates (secondary par- 
ticles). Such an aggregation often occurs directly after 
the formation of the particles. It may stop for various 
reasons after the aggregates have reached a certain 
size. The result is a colloid with complex particles — a 
secondary colloid. If the aggregation goes on further 
we may have two extreme possibilities — with many 
transition forms. 

Factors Dominating in Colloidal Transition 

First Case. — One or more of the following factors 
dominate — viz., (1) low hydration of the particles; (2) 
low number of particles per unit volume; (3) great 
difference in specific gravity between particles and 
liquid; (4) violent stirring of the system. 

The characteristic of this case is that no bridges are 
formed between the aggregates and that, in consequence 
of this, they fall to the bottom after having grown suf- 
ficiently; the colloid is precipitated (e.g., coagulation of 
a gold hydrosol by the addition of hydrochloric acid). 

Second Case. — One or more of the following factors 
dominate — viz., (1) high hydration of the particles; 
(2) high number of particles per unit volume; (3) small 
difference in specific gravity between particles and 
liquid; (4) no stirring of the system. 

In this case bridges are formed between the aggre- 
gates, and the particles arrange themselves into a three- 
dimensional network throughout the system; the colloid 
gelatinizes (e.g., the coagulation of a sol of silicic 
acid by the addition of hydrochloric acid, the setting of 
a warm gelatine solution when cooling) . Owing to capil- 
lary forces the liquid is kept in the network with great 
strength. Measurements have shown that the liquid 
is under a pressure of several hundred atmospheres. In 
many respects, therefore, the gelatinized colloid acts as 
a solid. 

Numerous Transition Forms Between the 
Extreme Cases 

There exist numerous transition forms between these 
two extreme cases. If the particles are not bound to- 
gether by bridges into a solid, but still reach macro- 
scopical size and possess a certain loose structure, one 



speaks of flocculation of the colloid (e.g., coagulation 
of ferric hydroxide by addition of ammonia). It may 
be doubted, however, if such flocculent suspensions are 
not to be regarded as fragments of a gel of little me- 
chanical resistance shattered by the stirring of the 
liquid. In case 1 the Brownian movements alone of the 
particles should suffice. 

Cause of Aggregation 

The most important cause of the aggregation of the 
particles is the decrease or the disappearance of the 
difference of potential between particle and liquid. This 
may be effected by altering the ion adsorption. Hence 
one of the most important means of bringing about 
aggregation or disaggregation is addition or removal 
of ions. Because of the opposite electric and coagulat- 
ing action of anion and cation and their difference of 
adsorption there will always exist, for certain electro- 
lytes in relation to a certain colloid, a domain of con- 
centration within which they have a disaggregating 
action. If a solely aggregating electrolyte is added to 
a colloid in increasing doses (e.g., hydrochloric acid to 
a gold hydrosol), the velocity of aggregation first rises 
rapidly with concentration, then more slowly and reaches 
a constant maximum value. Let us make the assump- 
tion that within the latter region every mutual approach 
of two particles to a certain limit leads to aggregation, 
but within the former region only a certain fraction of 
those approaches. Then it is possible to develop, on the 
basis of the laws of the Brownian movements alone, a 
mathematical theory for the kinetic of aggregation. 

With regard to the aggregation by electrolytes it 
has, in addition, been found that inorganic ions of the 
same valency generally aggregate equally strongly if 
added in equivalent amounts. This is due to some extent 
to their being nearly equally strongly adsorbed. When 
the valency of the aggregating ion increases, the aggre- 
gating effect rises very rapidly. The concentrations of 
the ions K + Ba++ Al-r + + required to aggregate par- 
ticles of As.,S3 to the same degree show the mutual 
relations: 1,1/20,1/1000. Thus the three-valentAl+ + + 
has an aggregating power 1,000 times greater than the 
monovalent K+. These circumstances are closely related 
to the course of the adsorption isotherm, but are not yet 
quite clear. 

The aggregation may be reversible or irreversible — 
i.e., in certain cases disaggregation may be effected — 
in others not. Some colloids (e.g., metal hydrosols) are 
difficult to disaggregate, others (e.g., sulphur hydrosols) 
are easy. Certain ions nearly always bring about irre- 
versible, others reversible aggregation. The question of 
irreversible or reversible coagulation is probably closely 
connected with that of the hydration of the particles. 
Thus particles which hold much water around them are 
easily disaggregated. The water-covering prevents the 
particles from uniting too closely together. 

Protective Colloids 

The aggregating effect of an electrolyte may often 
be reduced to a very great extent by the addition of a 
small quantity of a suitable colloid of another kind only 
slightly sensitive to electrolytes, a so-called protective 
colloid — e.g., gelatine to a gold hydrosol. As a rule the 
electric charge of the protective colloid should be of the 
same sign as that of the colloid to be protected. The 
mechanism of this protecting action is still but very 
incompletely known. Most probably the particles of 
the protective colloid become attached to the particles 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Zl 



of the other colloid and the aggregate resulting from 
this obtains a good deal of the stability toward elec- 
trolyte which characterizes the protective colloid. Col- 
loids of opposite electric charge precipitate each other 
mutually (e.g., the negative Sb,S„ and the positive 
Fe,,OJ provided there is not too great an excess of either 
of them, in which case no precipitation will occur. This 
is obviously entirely analogous to the action of the ions. 
Such mutual colloidal reactions are of great importance 
in the economy of nature and in industry. 

In the preparation of easily aggregated colloids a 
protective colloid is often added in order to maintain 
the primary structure. Thus the particles of a metal 
hydrosol, if formed in the presence of a small quantity 
of a protective colloid, are kept apart even when the 
sol is evaporated to dryness. The dry substance can 
be redissolved in water without any perceptible change 
of structure taking place (e.g., commercial colloid 
silver) . 

Other Structure Changes 

A change of structure that plays a part, formerly 
a little over-rated, in colloid solutions with compara- 
tively easily soluble particles is the growth of the larger 
particles at the expense of the smaller ones. In a 
suspension of calcium sulphate this change of structure 
is clearly visible, but in the more sparingly soluble 
barium sulphate the process goes on at an extremely 
slow rate. Formerly, aggregation, especially the irre- 
versible process, was often interpreted as a recrystalli- 
zatidn. In irreversible aggregates as well as in com- 
pressed powders there gradually take place association 
and crystallization phenomena which may greatly change 
the structure of the system (e,g., silver crystals in sedi- 
ments from silver colloids). 

Processes of the latter kind play a prominent part, 
especially in gelatinized colloids. On the whole, a great 
variety of changes in structure and accompanying proc- 
esses may occur in gels. When gradually deprived of 
water the gel of silicic acid, for instance, goes through 
a series of states, some of which differ rather decidedly 
from others. The nature of these processes is not yet 
known. A gelatine gel probably consists of particles 
with a high percentage of "dry substance," and a liquid 
with a low percentage. In sol-formation water is sup- 
posed to pass over from the liquid to the particles, the 
particle-associations being thereby disintegrated; in the 
gel-formation the particles lose water. 

The study of the structure of gels is a rather difficult 
one. The particles of most gels do not contrast optically 
to any great extent with the surrounding medium, and 
consequently the ultramicroscope is not able, as a rule, 
to make their primary particles visible. Moreover, these 
are often packed together so closely that they cannot be 
distinguished from one another optically. On the other 
hand, we have been able to study with more success the 
macroscopic properties of the gels in chemical and physi- 
cal respects. The elastic gels, especially gelatine, col- 
lodion, celluloid, rubber, etc., play a prominent part in 
industry, and their investigation is, therefore, a matter 
of great importance. 

University of Upsala, Sweden. 



Legal Notes 



Leather Industry Establishes Research Laboratory 

Under the auspices of the Tanners' Council of the 
United States the American Leather Research Labora- 
tories will be established at the University of Cincinnati. 
G. D. McLaughlin will be in charge. 



By Wellington Gustin 

Vessel of Paper United by Fused Cement Not 

Patentable 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals at Detroit 
has held that the Harbeck patent, No. 1,062,002, claim 
1, for a vessel having walls made of layers of paper 
united to each other by a fused cement, was void for 
anticipation, the claim of invention being old in the art 
at the time Harbeck claimed he made the discovery. 

The claim of the patent was on the use of a fused 
cement to unite sheets of paper into duplex board, 
practically impervious to moisture, grease and aroma. 
The court found that the use of fused cement for 
the purpose of uniting sheets of paper into duplex board 
was old in the art, having been used for similar pur- 
poses and known commercially for more than two years 
prior to the date Harbeck's application for patent was 
filed, and therefore the use of this material by a can 
company in the manufacture of its cans was not inven- 
tion, but a matter of mechanical skill and judgment. 

Salesmanager of Chemical Company May Not Alter 
Contract of Company Without Authority 

A new trial has been awarded by the Court of Errors 
and Appeals of New Jersey to the Interstate Chemical 
Co. in its action against the James Leo Co. The 
chemical company brought this suit to recover for 
breach of contract, in writing, by which the seller, the 
James Leo Co., agreed to deliver 10,000 folding boxes, 
as per sample submitted. The buyer, the chemical 
company, claimed that by reason of the failure of the 
seller to deliver the boxes, as per the order, it was 
obliged to go elsewhere in the public market to pur- 
chase the boxes at a far greater price than that fixed 
in the contract, and that it sustained a further loss 
by reason of the failure of the seller to carry out its 
contract and make delivery of the boxes. 

The seller claimed a set-off for the value of the labor 
performed and materials furnished in and about the 
boxes, and charged that the contract had been modified 
by the buyer agreeing to take boxes in one color instead 
of two, and that the buyer had refused to accept the 
boxes under the modified contract. 

Upon trial judgment was given for the seller on its 
counterclaim, and the Supreme Court of New Jersey 
affirmed this judgment. On appeal to the Court of 
Errors and Appeals the first question presented was 
whether the salesmanager of the chemical company had 
any authority to alter the terms of a written contract 
made by his principal, the chemical company. The court 
said there was no attempt to prove he was so expressly 
authorized, and that the mere fact of his being the 
salesmanager gave him no such authority. 

The second question was whether the salesmanager 
was held out by the chemical company as authorized to 
make this change in the original contract. Now the 
rule is that where one holds out another as his agent 
one is bound the same as if express authority has been 
given. It did not appear that the salesmanager had 
ever before attempted to change any original contract 
for the company. 



28 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 1 



Again it was urged that the chemical company had 
by its actions subsequently ratified the contract as 
modified by its salesmanager. The court found that it 
had no knowledge of the change in the contract until 
an attempt was made by the James Leo Co. to deliver 
the boxes all in one color. Ratification by principal of 
acts of an agent implies that the principal had knowl- 
edge of the facts and acquiesced in them. 

Court Holds Seller Under the Contract Could Have 
Others Manufacture the Products 

The Court of Errors and Appeals of New Jersey has 
affirmed the judgment in the action brought by the Na- 
tional Metal Stamping & Manufacturing Co. against 
the Associated Rolling Mills, Ltd., appealed from the 
Supreme Court. 

The action arose out of a sales contract. The rolling 
mills contended that at the time of the execution of the 
agreement it was not in the contemplation of the par- 
ties that the National company would have the products 
called for made by other manufacturers and thus obtain 
the advantage of their cheaper method. And because 
nothing on this question appeared in the contract the 
rolling mills contended that the company was bound 
to manufacture the articles itself, though it might cost 
more than they were to receive from the buyer. 

The court comments that the buyer must have been 
extraordinarily ignorant of human nature if it did not 
in fact contemplate that the seller would seek the cheap- 
est possible way of fulfilling its contract. And if it 
did not contemplate such when the contract was made, 
the court said that it must be held bound under the law 
to contemplate that the seller would pursue the course 
usual with prudent business men. 

United States Supreme Court Holds Virginia Tax 
Unconstitutional 

The United States Supreme Court has reversed the 
judgment obtained by the State of Virginia against the 
F. S. Royster Guano Co. of Norfolk. The latter oper- 
ates a fertilizer plant in Norfolk County, Va., and 
several plants in other states. During 1916, the com- 
pany made net profits from the operation of its plant 
in Virginia amounting in round figures to $260,000; 
and from its plants in other states the net profits 
were about $270,000. Under the revenue law of the 
state the guano company returned for taxation as 
income the former amount, omitting the latter. Under 
appropriate provisions of the state law, the state officials 
added the latter amount, and assessed an income tax 
against the company upon the total. 

The company then asked the court at Norfolk for 
relief from the tax on the $270,000 for the reason that 
the state law, in taxing that part of its business which 
was transacted outside of the limits of Virginia, imposed 
upon it a burden not placed upon domestic corporations 
doing no part of their business in Virginia but trans- 
acting business beyond the limits thereof, such corpora- 
tions being expressly exempted from a tax on income 
derived from business done without the state limits; 
the state laws thus denying to the company the equal 
protection of the laws, in violation of the Fourteenth 
Amendment of the U. S. Constitution. 

The court at Norfolk sustained the tax law and this 
judgment was affirmed by the Virginia Supreme Court 
of Appeals. The guano company then appealed to the 
Supreme Court of the United States. This court has 
said the imposition of tax on income from sources out- 



side the state is invalid, where corporations doing no 
business within the state are not taxed. It says the 
Virginia law (Acts Va. 1916, ch. 472) in so far as it 
imposes on a domestic corporation doing business both 
within and outside the state a tax with respect to its 
income derived from sources outside the state, denied 
such corporation the equal protection of the laws, in 
violation of the Fourteenth Amendment, in view of the 
statute (Acts Va. 1916, ch. 495) exempting domestic 
corporations doing no part of their business within the 
state from any tax on their income ; the classification of 
the property taxed not being reasonable, but arbitrary, 
not resting upon any ground of difference having a fair 
and substantial relation to the object of the legislation, 
so that all persons similarly circumstanced shall be 
treated alike. 

While the latitude of discretion is wide in the classifi- 
cation of property for purposes of taxation, a discrim- 
inatory tax cannot be sustained against the complaint of 
a party aggrieved, if the classification is altogether 
illusory, said the court. 

Manufacturer Must Account for Royalties 

An appeal from an order to render an accounting by 
the Belmont Packing & Rubber Co., formerly known as 
the Clement Restein Co., unto Norman B. Miller has 
been dismissed in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. 
It appears that Miller sued the company and recovered 
a verdict, upon which the order for an accounting was 
entered, and the appeal was taken. 

Plaintiff alleged that he contracted orally with the 
corporation by which the latter was to pay him 3c. 
a lb. on all "piston rod packings manufactured and sold 
by defendant" under certain patent rights which plain- 
tiff had assigned to it, until the expiration of such 
patents; that the assignments were made, first, for a 
square hole piston rod packing, and next, for a round 
hole piston rod, relying upon the oral promise of pay- 
ment in royalties; that large quantities of the patent 
article have been sold by the company without an 
accounting for the royalties due. 

The company admitted the assignment of the patent 
rights, but denied having made any oral or written 
promise to pay compensation therefor. Mr. Restein, 
president of the company, testified that both he and 
Miller worked on the inventions "for the benefit of 
the company," but it appeared that Miller was the 
inventor of the patented articles. The rule of law as 
stated is that one who accepts and continues to take 
and retain the benefits of an agreement cannot be heard 
to deny the authority of the agent who acted for him 
in making the agreement. Restein was thus held to 
have authority to make the royalty contract as alleged, 
and the company receiving the benefits from the assign- 
ment is liable for the royalties, and the obligation to 
pay the royalty subsisted so long as the company con- 
tinued to sell the articles. 

In the absence of a contractual stipulation to the 
contrary, the obligation to pay the royalty would con- 
tinue, and, after a reasonable time, on demand, the 
company would be bound to account to the inventor for 
the sales made by it, the reasonableness of the time 
being a question to be determined by court or jury. 

The assignment contract mentions the sum of $1 as 
the consideration for the assignment of the patents, 
but the court held that such did not prevent the inven- 
tor or assignor from showing the real consideration for 
the patent rights. 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



29 



Engineering Problems in Dust Explosion Prevention 



Causes and Factors Affecting Dust Explosions — Types of Industrial Plants Affected — Ignition 
Temperatures — Propagation and Velocity of Flame — Pressures Developed 

— Relation of Humidity — Prevention 

By DAVID J. PRICE* 



A T THE present time the prevention of dust explo- 
/-k sions is commanding the earnest attention of 
-i- Jl engineers of all classes both in the United States 
and abroad. This is quite natural, since many engineer- 
ing problems have been developed in the study of dust 
explosions, their causes and prevention. Before these 
explosions can be prevented, it is necessary to under- 
stand fully their nature and behavior. This means a 
determination of the various causes and circumstances 
under which dusts may be ignited ; the manner in which 
the explosion spreads or propagates; the ignition tem- 
perature of the various dusts ; the pressure that will be 
developed during the explosion, and also the effectiveness 
of any methods which may be designed for prevention. 

It is not the intention to consider in this article the 
simple causes that have been established since the study 
of grain dust explosions was undertaken by the Federal 
Government. It is well known that disastrous explo- 
sions have resulted from the ignition of flammable' 
dusts by matches, open flames, lanterns or torches. The 
attention of engineers at the present time should rather 
be directed particularly to the mechanical causes, es- 
pecially those which occur during the handling of 
organic materials. 

Types of Industrial Plants 
In order to understand the nature and extent of dust 
explosions it is essential that consideration be given to 
the kind of industrial plants in which these explosions 
are occurring.^ Dust explosions have occurred most 
frequently in plants where grain or grain products are 
either milled or handled, such as grain elevators, flour 
mills, feed and cereal mills and starch factories. Dis- 
astrous explosions have occurred also in sugar refineries, 
cocoa and chocolate plants, candy factories, spice works, 
wood-working establishments, paper mills and printing 
plants, shoe factories, fertilizer works, cork-grinding 
plants, drug and herb works and similar types of indus- 
trial plants where dusts are created. Explosions of 
aluminum and magnesium dusts have also taken place. 
Many disastrous smut and grain dust explosions have 
occurred in threshing machines in the Pacific North- 
west, while a large number of fires have also occurred 
in cotton gins during the ginning process. 

Since May, 1919, a series of very disastrous explo- 



* Engineer in charge Grain Dust Explosion Investigations. Bu- 
reau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. 

'The National Fire Protection Association, the National Safety 
Council and similar organizations are now using the word "flam- 
mable" instead of the old word "inflammable." Some persons have 
misinterpreted inflammable, thinking of the first two letters of 
tliis word as the prefix in whose meaning is not, as in inactive 
(not active), or incombustible (not combustible). Flammable is 
shorter, more definite and cannot be misunderstood. The nega- 
tive of flammable is non-flammable. 

^The study of the cause and prevention of coal dust explosions 
is being undertaken by the Bureau of Mines, United States De- 
partment of Interior, while the work pertaining to the cause and 
prevention of dust explosions in industrial plants is being car- 
lied on in the Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of Ac^'i- 
•culture. 



sions have occurred in the United States and Canada, 
resulting in the death of over eighty-eight persons, 
injury to a large number, and property damage in excess 
of $7,000,000. Three of these explosions have occurred 
in grain elevators, one in a feed mill, one in a starch 
factory and two in flour mills. In the starch factory 
explosion forty-three lives were lost and over $3,000,000 
damage was done. Fourteen lives were lost in one grain 
elevator explosion and ten in another, both explosions 
being very violent and doing extensive damage to prop- 
erty. In an explosion of "aluminum dust'"" in a North- 
western factory six girls lost their lives and as many 
others were injured. A recent explosion of "hard rub- 
ber" dust in a Michigan plant resulted in the death of 
eight workmen and has attracted considerable attention. 

Ignition Temperatures of Gases and Dusts 

From the experimental work which has already been 
conducted it appears that a dust explosion is very sim- 
ilar to a gas explosion. Although particles in a dust 
cloud are larger than the minute molecules in a gas 
mixture, yet the nature and behavior of a dust explosion 
appears to be very much the same as a gas explosion. 
To produce a gas explosion it is necessary that a proper 
mixture of gas and air and a source of ignition be 
present. The same condition exists in connection with 
producing a dust explosion. It is as impossible to pro- 
duce a "spontaneous" explosion with dust as it is with 
gas. In both cases the explosive mixture must be 
ignited by some external source of heat or flame. 

In order to obtain some idea as to the relation between 
dust explosions and gas explosions it will be of interest 
to note the ignition temperatures of the more common 
flammable gases in air as determined by Dixon and 
Coward.' 

Ignition 
Temperature 
Gas Deg. C. 

Carbon monoxide 644 to 658 

Hydrogen , 580 to 590 

Ethylene 542 to 547 

Methane 650 to 750 

Ethane 520 to 630 

A series of experiments was conducted by R. V. 
Wheeler, chemist attached to the Explosions in Coal 
Mines Committee of England. In the first series of tests 
an effort was made to determine the temperature at 
which the dust would ignite and propagate flame. A 
second series of tests was conducted to determine the 
lowest temperature at which ignition could be effected. 
The following results were obtained: 

Ignition Temperature 

Temperature, of Flame Propa 

Kind of Dust Deg. C. gation, Deg. 

Dextrine 540 940 

Sugar 540 805 

Starch 640 960 to 1 035 

Flour 650 1060 

Grain.'.'.!.!.!.!'.... 630 995 to 1050 

^Chem. & Met. Eng., vol. 23, No. 19, Nov. 10, 1920, p. 915. 
*Trans. Chem. Soc, vol. 95, p. 517. 



30 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 




Fig. 1. A large grain elevator in New York harbor being de- 
stroyed by fire following dust explosion. Sufficient grain was 
lost to supply bread rations for 200,000 men for one year. 

Pig. 3. Grain elevator, Port Colborne, Canada, at entrance to 
Welland Canal, badly damaged by grain dust explosion, resulting 
in loss of ten lives. 

Wheeler states in his report that sugar and dextrine 
appeared to be the most flammable of all the dusts, the 
temperature at which ignition could be effected being 
540 deg. C, a temperature well below red heat. It is 
interesting to contrast this low temperature with the 
ignition temperatures of the gases given above, from 
which it will be noted that the ignition temperatures of 
sugar and dextrine are lower than methane, carbon 
monoxide and hydrogen, ranging with ethane and 
ethylene. Most of the remaining dusts have practically 
the same ignition temperature, 600 to 650 deg., thereby 
ranging with the other gases. 

When the Federal Government began the study of 
dust explosions attention was directed to a determination 



TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL CONFLAGRATIONS 



Fig 2. A starch factory in Iowa completely destroyed by 
starch dust explosion. Forty-three lives were lost and $3, 000,^000 
property damage was done. 

Fig 4. A sugar refinery badly damaged by explosion of sugar 
dust. Twelve lives were lost and sugar stocks were destroyed. 

of the ignition temperatures of the various dusts and 
the methods and conditions under which these dusts 
propagated flame. With the apparatus used in the 
tests, the following results were obtained :'' 

Ignition Temperature 
Resulting in 
Kind of Dust Propagation 

Wheat elevator dust '"S C. equals 2363 F 

j,>l(jur 1265 C. equals 2300 t 

Oat and corn elevator dust'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. , „ in ^- ''''"'*1* 1 Hi Z 

Oat hull dust 020 C. equa s 868 F 

Yellow corn dust '«" C"- "^l^a'-" '"7 F 



'Preliminary Report on the Explosibdity of Grain Dust.-. Co- 
operative Investigation by Millers Co»i'"i«/.'". ^V'^'^'?'* rmvo^,. nf 
the direction of Dr. George A. Hulett, <:ln'^f ^^h*^""^*^"'^?,".^' 
Mines, U. S. Department of the Interior, by David J- fZ\^f * 
engineer in charge, and Harold H. Brown. as-^>stant clieraist. 
Giain-Dust Explosion Investigations, Bureau of . ^^|ennstry. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Copies no longer obtainawe. 



I 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



31 



From the many theories which have been advanced 
in the effort to explain the action that takes place during 
the progress of dust explosions, two appear prominently : 

(1) That a distillation of flammable gases occurs when 
the dust becomes heated, resulting in an explosion; and 

(2) that the explosion is nothing more than a rapid 
communication of flame or fire from one particle to 
another, depending to a large degree on the fineness of 
the dust. That is, the finer the dust and the lower the 
moisture content the more rapid the propagation and 
therefore the greater the violence accompanying the 
explosion. This would seem to establish very definitely 
a relation between fire and explosion. 

In connection with the investigation of a large num- 
ber of explosions and fires in grain threshing machines 
in the Pacific Northwest, the Department investigators 
made the following determinations:" In 117 cases ob- 
served 95, or about 80 per cent, were sudden, violent 
explosions, and the remaining 22, or 20 per cent, were 
merely fires. This would seem to indicate that in the 
majority of cases the explosions were accompanied by 
violence, while in the others the fire had not advanced 
to a point where it assumed the proportion of an explo- 
sion. 

In the 95 cases referred to it was felt that the explo- 
sion might be classified either as sudden and violent, 
or as slight and muffled in nature. The same phenome- 
non has developed in connection with dust explosions 
in industrial plants. In many cases a primary explo- 
sion, which is nothing more than a small puff, is fol- 
lowed by fire in which the property is extensively dam- 
aged or destroyed. In other cases a series of explosions 
follows, becoming more violent as it progresses, 
destroying both life and property. This would seem 
to indicate very definitely that if the dust is present in 
the plant to feed the original flame, an explosion fol- 
lows. In plants where little dust is in suspension and 
where "good housekeeping" is practiced, the occurrence 
merely assumes the proportions of a fire and no violent 
explosion results. Reference is made to this phenome- 
non at this time to emphasize the fact that a disastrous 
dust explosion may occur during the course of any fire 
if sufficient combustible dust is present in the plant to 
feed the flame and allow it to propogate. The dust 
that accumulates throughout the plant is thrown into 
suspension by slight concussion, with the result that 
the primary "ignition" or explosion develops into a 
secondary explosion of large proportions. 

Velocity of Flame 

Experimental work has been conducted to determine 
the velocity or rate of flame travel in dust explosions. 
It is understood that the rate of propagation or flame 
travel in a gas explosion depends upon two factors: (1) 
The flammability of the gas, and (2) the amount of gas 
present. For instance, the explosive limit of methane 
gas ranges from 54 to 14.5 per cent,' with 9.6 per cent 
as the most flammable mixture. With this latter per- 
centage the rate of flame travel is the most rapid and 
the explosion most violent. The rate of flame travel in 
dust explosions depends also on (1) the flammability of 
the dust, and (2) the amount of dust in suspension. In 
some of the early reports of the Bureau of Mines it is 
stated that the average velocity of flame in coal dust 
explosions is 2,270 ft. per second. British investigators 



report 2,114 ft. per second, while in French experiments 
3,300 ft. per second has been obtained. 

The maximum velocity of propagation of flame in 
many gaseous mixtures has been determined with 
accuracy. The following results have been obtained : 



Gaseous Mixtures 

Hydrogen, 2H2 -f- Oj 

Ethane, C2H4 + 30? 

Methane, CH4 -i- 2O2 

Carbon monoxide, 2C0 + O2. 



Velocity, Feet 
per Second 
9,250 
7,724 
7,616 
5,510 



The velocity of propagation in explosions through 
most gas mixtures is more rapid than through most 
dust clouds, although in a few case.s it has been found 
that the velocity of flame propagation in coal dust ex- 
plosions has exceeded the maximum ^or certain gases. 
In only two tests has any attempt been made to measure 
the velocity of propagation of the flame in clouds of 
materials other than coal dust. One indicated that the 
velocity through a cloud of wheat flour dust was prac- 
tically the same as through coal dust; the other that 
the propagation through a cloud of powdered starch 
was several times as rapid as through coal dust. The 
results, however, cannot be considered to be conclusive. 

Pressures Developed by Dust Explosions 

In connection with the determination of the ignition 
temperatures and the relative ease of flame propagation 
of dusts an effort has been made to determine the 
pressures developed during the progress of the explo- 
sion. In the large-scale tests that have been conducted 
the Bureau of Mines reports a pressure of 103 lb. per 
sq.in. with coal dust. British investigators report pres- 
sures ranging from 100 to 120 lb. per sq.in. Taffanel, 
a French investigator, reports pressures of 227 to 270 lb. 
per sq.in. He states that in one test at the steel gallery 
an established pressure strength of 227 to 270 lb. per 
sq.in. was maintained and that pieces of steel were 
thrown up a distance of 150 m., or 472 ft. 

Much work to determine the relative flammability of 
the various dusts has been done by both the Bureau of 
Mines and the Bureau of Chemistry. After a series of 
extensive experiments the following results, based on 
the use of 75 mg. of dust in the standard laboratory 
apparatus, were obtained:' 



Kind of Dust 

Lycopodium 

Wheat smut dust. . . . 

Yellow corn 

Dextrine 

Tanbark 

Wheat elevator dust . 

Wood dust 

Corn starch 

Sugar 

Potato flour 

Fertilizer 

Coal (Pittsburgh) . . . 

Cocoa 

Sulphur 

Cork 



Pressure Generated 
Lb. per Sq.in. 

17.5 

• 5.9 

15.2 

14.6 . 

13.3 

13.0 

12.8 

12.7 

12.2 

11.7 

10.5 

10.1 

9.1 

8.8 

7.4 



From these results it might be concluded that the 
grain dusts are more flammable than Pittsburgh stand- 
ard coal dust. This has been confirmed by large-scale 
tests which indicate that flame propagates through a 
cloud of grain dust more easily and with a more violent 
explosion than through a corresponding amount of coal 
dust. 

In very recent tests conducted in co-operation with 
the Bureau of Mines in the steel galleries at Bruceton, 
Pa., it was found that flour and coal dusts acted sim- 
ilarly. Starch dust propagated more rapidly, produced 



*U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 379, p. 5. 
'U. S. Bureau of Mines Technical Paper 150. p. 6. 



^Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 9, No. 
3, p. 269. 



32 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 1 



higher pressures, and did a great deal of damage to the 
steel galleries used in the tests. 

It has already been stated that dust must be present 
in suspension in proper proportions before an explosion 
can occur. Efforts are being made in the experimental 
work to establish these proportions, as has already been 
done in connection with the gas mixtures. In some of 
the tests conducted results were obtained when one- 
twentieth grain, or 0.00176 oz., of dust was put in sus- 
pension in 1,400 c.c, or 85.36 cu.in., of air. To obtain 
the same proportion of dust in air and render the mix- 
ture as flammable as that used in the laboratory test 
it would be necessary to have only 10 lb. of the dust in 
a closed room containing 4,466 cu.ft., or a room 10 x 
30 x 15 ft. 

The first dust explosion to attract attention in this 
country occurred at Minneapolis in 1878. Professors 
Peck and Peckham of the University of Minnesota con- 
ducted experimental work in the investigation which fol- 
lowed the explosion. In this investigation it was found 
that by blowing 2 oz. of dust upon an open flame in a box 
containing 2 cu.ft. of air sufficient pressure was de- 
veloped to lift two men standing on the cover." This 
would mean diffusion at the rate of 1 oz. of dust to 1 
cu.ft. of air space. Their report states that a sack of 
flour and 4,000 cu.ft. of air will generate force enough 
to throw 2,500 tons 100 ft. high. 

The Bureau of Mines reports that explosions could 
be produced when only 0.032 oz. of coal dust was sus- 
pended in 1 cu.ft. of air, or 1 lb. in 500 cu.ft. It was 
found in order to produce complete combustion all the 
oxygen in 1 cu.ft. of air was required to burn 0.123 oz. 
of the dust used. 

In the French experiments conducted by Taffanel an 
instance is cited when the low weight of 0.023 oz. of 
dust per cu.ft. of space was sufficient to produce an 
ignition. 

Experimental work is now in progress to determine 
definitely the smallest amount of dust in suspension per 
unit area through which an explosion can propagate. 

Relation of Humidity to Explosion Frequency 

The relation of humidity to the frequency of dust 
explosions has been markedly noticeable in the investi- 
gational work. This is especially true in connection 
with explosions where static electricity has appeared as 
a probable cause. In the large number of thresher 
explosions in the Pacific Northwest, which comprises 
the inter-mountain territory between the Cascade and 
Rocky Mountain ranges, it was found that in 128 cases 
86 explosions, or 70 per cent of the total, occurred 
between the hours of 1 and 7 p.m., when the humidity 
was extremely low. The range of humidity was usually 
from 6 to 17 per cent. These explosions have occurred 
in grain separators during the threshing of wheat con- 
taining smut dust. In 112 explosions from 1 to 35 per 
cent of the heads of wheat being threshed were smutted. 
In 108 cases the average smut percentage was 15. 

A study of fires in cotton gins in certain sections of 
the South developed the same relation. Although this 
relation has not been definitely determined in industrial 
plants it is reasonable to conclude that the dust explo- 
sion hazard is greater during periods of continued low 
humidity. 

This article has been confined largely to the theory 
of dust explosions together with the causes and factors 



affecting these explosions. An article is now in the 
course of preparation dealing with the methods of pre- 
vention that have been developed and proved effective, 
and also the chemical engineering research problems 
demanding attention. 



Wood Pipe in the Chemical Industry 

The accompanying illustration shows a system of 
towers for the collection of hydrofluoric acid from 
acid phosphate manufacture at the plant of the 
Jarecki Chemical Co., Cincinnati. This pipe was man- 
ufactured and installed by the Michigan Pipe Co., of 
Bay City, Mich. The layout is composed of three 
vertical towers of 48-in. inside diameter, the acid gas 




WOODEN TOWERS FOR HYDROFLUORIC ACID 

main being 30 in. inside diameter and the special 
wood elbows and tees also constructed of 30-in. pipe. 
The gases are drawn from the bottom of tower 1 to 
the top of tower 2 through a 32-in. specially mortised 
pipe connection. Draft is created by the exhauster at 
the bottom of tower 2. This type of construction is 
becoming general in the fertilizer industry and pipe 
may be made in any lengths desired up to 16 ft., being 
constructed of 3-in. thick Canadian white pine staves, 
double-tongued and grooved on the lateral edges and 
molded on the inner and outer faces to conform with 
the inside and outside diameter of the pipe. Each 
section of pipe is mortised and tenoned so that it may 
easily be set in place. The towers are tightened by 
the l-in. rod placed 10 in. apart, excepting at the 
joints, where the spacing is 4 in. to provide extra 
strengthening. 



oChcmical Engineer, March, April, ISIay, 1908. 



Glare vs. Light Diffusion in Industrial Lighting 

All large industrial organizations know the neces- 
sity of coating the interior of their plants with a white 
finish of some type to obtain improved light distribu- 
tion, lower power bills and maximum efficiency from 
their employees. To accomplish this it has been the 
custom to paint the walls and ceilings of the plants 
with a Gloss Mill White. This was soon found, how- 
ever, to be unsatisfactory, as the shiny surfaces acted 
as so many mirrors reflecting the light in a glaring 
manner and causing eye strain to develop among the 
employees. The Sherwin-Williams Co. spent yeai 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



33 



in research and consulted with some of the leading 
authorities on illiminating engineering and industrial 
plant maintenance in an effort to overcome this dif- 
ficulty. The research work was not confined to reflec- 
tion values alone, but much time and money were 
spent in getting the proper combination of pigments 
and vehicle to produce the desired results. Special 
mixtures were necessary to get just the right finish, 
wearing qualities and minimum absorption. As a 
result the exact point between the two extremes of 
Gloss Mill White and Flat Matte surface was deter- 
mined to give the most efficient light distribution and 
a new paint product known as Eggshell Mill White 
was evolved. This product, instead of reflecting the 
light, disperses and diffuses it uniformly through- 
out the plant, thus emitting a soft, pleasant light rest- 
ful to the eyes instead of the irritating glare of the 
high gloss surface. Another advantage of this new 
product is the fact that less coats are required to give 
the same results, thereby reducing costs for time, 
labor and material. 



Small Type Locomotive Crane for Industrial Use 

Many of the larger companies during the past few 
years have found it economical to handle a large part 
of their materials by locomotive crane. This has 
been necessary because of the large tonnage handled 
and because the crane is so much more economical 
than hand labor. Up to the present time, however, 
most of these cranes were large-capacity machines 
and too big to be economical in some of the smaller 
plants. 

The saving effected by cranes at these larger plants 
has created a demand for a smaller type which can be 
used economically where there are not so many or so 




SMALL TYPE OF STEAM LOCOMOTIVE CRANE EQUIPPED 
WITH GRAB BUCKET 

heavy loads to be handled. With the idea of filling 
the need for a smaller capacity high-grade crane for 
this work, a new Brownhoist locomotive crane has 
just been placed on the market by the Brown Hoisting 
Machinery Co. of Cleveland. This machine can be 
changed in a few minutes' time to handle grab bucket, 
bottom block or magnet. With these attachments al- 
most all kinds of materials can be handled. 

Experience with the larger type locomotive cranes 
has proved them to be well fitted to handle ore, coal, 
crushed stone, etc., by bucket. With bottom block 



all kinds of sling loads are handled. With magnet 
the cranes handle pigs, scrap, bars or castings. This 
new crane will do the same work as the larger types 
within its capacity. It is built to handle a 1-yd. bucket, 
hook loads of five tons, or a 36-in. magnet. 

In order to meet the different working conditions, 
these new Brownhoists are made to operate by steam, 
electricity or gasoline engine. They are built for use 
on railroad trucks, traction wheels or creeper trucks. 



Synopsis of Recent Chemical 
^Metallurgical Literature 



Electric Purification of Fumes and Gases. — A lengthy 
description of the Electric Purification of Fumes and 
Gases is given by A. Delasalle in the September, 1920, 
issue of Chimie et Industriej' The theory of electric 
purification is summarized : When a very small spherical 
particle of radius r suspended in a gas of viscosity a 
and possessing an electric charge e is placed in an 
electric field of intensity H, this particle will be dis- 
placed in the direction of the field with a velocity which 
depends on the intensity of the field and the mobility 
of the particle in the gas, and whose value, according 
to the author, is given by V = KH in which K is the 
coefficient of mobility. 

Prof. Pascal conducted a series of experiments to 
determine the values of K for the case of sulphuric 
acid particles. The tests were made with electrodes of 
smooth wire and with asbestos thread covered wire so 
as to increase the emissive power of the electrodes. 

He found that K varies with the temperature as shown 
in the following table: 

Temp. Deg. C. Value of A' 

24 2.4 X 10-< 

32 4.9 X 10-» 

52 13.6 X 10-^ 

55 15.1 X 10-^ 

He also found the values of the radius r of the drop- 
lets as being between 0.8 )< 10"' and 5.5 X 10"' cm. 
The conclusions reached are: 

The gradient of a convenient potential corresponding 
to the point where the intensity begins to increase 
rapidly is in the neighborhood of 4,000 volts per cm. 

The phenomenon is independent of the wave fre- 
quency ; at least the result was the same for frequencies 
between fifteen and forty-five periods per second. 

The separation of the acid in the fumes is especially 
a function of the wave amplitude. 

Asbestos-covered electrodes do not present any 
advantages, especially with liquid particles, due to the 
fact that the humidity soon nullifies the effect of the 
downy surface. 

It is advantageous to have the emissive electrodes of 
very small radius of curvature and the receptive elec- 
trodes of high radius curvature and as smooth as 
possible. 

The use of chambers of masonry is to be avoided in 
treating fumes containing acid droplets. 

After describing the apparatus used for the produc- 

*"L'Epuration electrique des fumees et des Gaz dans le sei'vlce 
des poudres pendant la guerre," A. Delasalle, Chimie et Industrie, 
September, 1920, pp. 291-316. 



34 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



tion of rectified current and the Gaillard precipitator, 
the author outlines the calculations of an appropriate 
sized apparatus and how he applies these calculations 
mathematically and graphically to compare the action of 
tubes of different diameter. He arrived at the conclu- 
sion that there is no great advantage in using very high 
potentials and cites the fact that even in America where 
potential differences as high as 250,000 volts are 
employed, in treating sulphuric acid fumes not over 
70,000 is used. (War time conditions in France limited 
the experimentation voltage to about 42,000 volts.) 

Tests were also made to determine the influence of 
the radius of curvature of the emissive electrode, and 
it was found that the precipitation increases gradually 
when the radius of curvature of the axial electrode 
decreases. 

A series of tests on the influence of the tension and 
polarity of electrodes with tubes of varying diameter 
are also described and tabulated. The reinforcement 
of the intensity of the field for a given tension by 
approaching the electrodes has also been studied so as 
to verify certain points of the Badische Anilin- and 
Soda-Fabrik and G. A. Krause patents. 

Tests were made with precipitation tubes having 
electrodes of small diameter (30/10 mm.) at the 
entrance of the gas and then 80 mm. tube concentric 
in one of 200 mm. 

The reinforcing of the axial electrode was obtained by 
a cylinder having a rounded form at both extremities 
sliding on the 30/10 wire. This arrangement wate 
decided upon in order to determine the length giving 
the maximum of precipitation and to find out whether it 
was possible to diminish the length of the receiving 
tube. 
With a receiving tube of 3 m., 42,000 volts and with 
the same velocity of the gases the results obtained are 
shown in the following table: 



Length of the Wire 
30/10 mm. 

3.0 
2.7 
2.5 
2.0 
1.0 
0.5 



Length of 80 mm. 
Cylinder Concentric 
to the 200 mm. 
Cylinder 

0,00 
0.30 
0,50 
1,00 
2,00 
2.50 



Visual 

Percentage 

of 

Precipitation 

90 
95 
97 
95 
90 
80 



Tests with stoneware receiving cylinders were made 
with a 150 mm. diameter tube constituted of five sections 
each of which was 0.65 m. high gave the following qual- 
itative results: 



Efficacious 
Rectified 
Potential 
Volts 

28,200 
29,200 
32,200 



High Tension Approximate Velocity Visual Per- 

Intensity of the Gas Meters centagepf 

Amperes per Second 

4.5 X 10-» 4.6 

4.5 X 10-» 3.0 

4.5 X 10-» 3 



Precipitation 

55 
85 
90 



The apparatus used for the experimentation and their 
modifications are fully described and illustrated, and 
the results of fifteen general tests tabulated. The 
author then describes the research work as applied to 
the purification of the sulphurous gases in roasting 
pyrites, giving the apparatus used, the testing condi- 
tions and the tabulated results. He concludes with the 
statement that the coeflicient of mobility of the dust is 
about 40 X 10" at 230 deg. C. and 57 X 10" at 310 deg. 
C. with a negative electrode of 20/10 mm., and that it is 
absolutely necessary to have the gases at a temperature 
as high as possible. 



Purification of Acetone. — It is known that acetone 
forms with carbon disulphide a mixture whose boiling 
point is about 39 deg. C, the boiling point of acetone 
being only 22 deg. C, and that the impurities in the 
acetone, with the exception of methylal and methanol, 
do not form such mixtures with carbon disulphide. 
J. DucLAUX and A. Lanzenberg have used this property 
for the purification of acetone. (Bulletin de la Societe 
Chimique de France, Oct. 5-20, 1920, pp. 779-782) . The 
acetone to be purified is mixed with carbon disulphide 
in the proportion of 1 vol. acetone and 1.7 vol. CS, (by 
weight 1 acetone to 2.8 CS,) . The mixture is submitted 
to fractional distillation. The elimination of methylal 
is based on the property that the boiling point of the 
mixture methylal-CS„ is 31 deg. C, whereas the boiling 
point of methylal is 42 deg. C. The fraction passing at 
about 31 deg. is the mixture methylal-CS,. The fraction 
passing between 38 and 40 deg. C. contains the mixture 
acetone-CS^ and some methanol-CS,, as the boiling point 
of this last mixture is about 37.5 deg. C. The methanol 
is separated by treating the fraction with potassium 
carbonate. A compound, probably methyl-xanthogenate, 
is formed which when dissolved in water is precipitated 
by copper sulphate. A mixture containing 90 acetone 
and 10 methanol when thus treated gave a mixture con- 
taining only 4 methanol. By repeating the operation 
the separation of the methanol can be practically com- 
plete. The remaining pure acetone-carbon disulphide 
mixture is washed well with water to extract entirely 
the acetone. The wash water is rectified and the prod- 
uct obtained is practically pure acetone. 

Contribution of Chemistry to Aeronautics. — The 

September, 1920, issue of Chimie et Industrie contains 
an excerpt of Prof. Charles Moureu's work on chem- 
istry and the war, with reference to the contribution of 
chemistry to the aeronautic industry. The author 
passes in review the production of the various materials 
used. Thus : 

Hydrogen. The hydrogen used for filling balloons 
was obtained by three methods, namely: (1) By elec- 
trolysis. The resulting 98 per cent pure hydrogen was 
passed over palladium in quartz tubes heated to 650 deg. 
C, giving a 99.97 per cent pure hydrogen. (2) By the 
action of silicon on alkaline solutions. Captain Lelarge 
has used the principle, first given by Berzelius (1823), 
that silicon is attacked by caustic soda or potash, giving 
the acid silicate NaHSiOj with liberation of hydrogen. 
The hydrogen he obtained was very pure. Although the 
cost of production by this method was higher than by 
electrolysis, it had the great advantage that it could be 
produced where needed. (3) By fermentation. In the 
biochemical process for the production of acetone great 
quantities of hydrogen and carbon dioxide are formed. 
The carbon dioxide is separated by liquefaction or 
absorbsd by an alkaline solution and the remaining 
hydrogen is ready for use. 

Helium. After passing in review the history of 
helium since its discovery during the sun eclipse in 
1868, he describes the advantages it presents for filling 
balloons and the woi'k done in the United States for the 
extraction of helium from natural gas. At present a 
French commission headed by Prof. Moureu is studying 
the thermal gases of Bourbon-Lancy, Maizieres and 
Santenay, which contain respectively 2, 6 and 10 per 
cent helium. 

Special Steels. The steel used in the construction of 
aeronautic machinery has to have special properties 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



35 



which can be realized only by the help of chemistry and 
metallur^. Among the special steels found is that of 
Colonel Grard, a self-hardening nickel-chrome steel of 
the composition of C 0.25-0.40, Mn 0.40-0.60, Si 0.20- 
0.30, Ni 3.5-5.00, Cr 1.2-2.00. He describes briefly the 
properties of this special steel as well as those of nickel 
steel, chrome steel, tungsten steel, silicon steel, man- 
gano-siliceous steel and chrome-tungsten steel. 

Aluminuvi and Its Alloys. France has the advantage 
of possessing bauxite mines located near hydro-electric 
plants so that aluminum can be produced practically 
cheaper than anywhere else. During the war the growth 
of the use of aluminum has been very marked. A num- 
ber of aluminum alloys have been used to advantage to 
replace steel in the manufacture of different parts of 
machinery. The alloy most used was duralumin of the 
composition Al 93.9, Cu 3.70, Mn 0.61, Zn 0.25, Mg 0.43, 
Si 0.58, Fe 0.53. 

Motor Fuels. Motor fuels presented many difllicult 
problems, especially when it is considered that the 
quality of the fuel is of prime importance in the efficient 
working of the motors. The fuels used were grouped 
into two classes — namely, Asiatic and American. He de- 
scribes their characteristics and the care taken to free 
them of sulphur compounds, acids and water and to 
lower the proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

Lubricating Oils. Special lubricating oils being re- 
quired for the motors, extensive chemical studies were 
made to obtain oils that maintain their lubricating 
properties even when submitted to the very great varia- 
tions in temperature encountered in aeronautics. He 
mentions that shortly before the war Prof. Hemptine of 
Liege obtained lubricating oils of very high viscosity, 
called polymerols, by circulating slowly a mixture of a 
mineral oil with a semi-drying oil between the arma- 
tures of a high-tension condenser. This product was 
used advantageously to increase the viscosity of fluid 
mineral oils. During the war the Germans confiscated 
the plant and worked this process for their needs. 

Non-Freezing Liquids for Cooling the Motors. The 
usual method of making the cooling water non-freezing 
by the addition of alcohol or glycerine was rendered 
difficult by the lack of these last products. Chemical 
work on this problem resulted in the adoption of sodium 
formate as proposed by Messrs. Simon and Darmois. 
The addition of 270 g. per liter lowers the freezing point 
to below — 20 deg. C. and the solution does not attack 
the metals used in the radiators. Calcium chloride, a 
waste byproduct of the Solvay soda process, can replace 
advantageously the sodium formate. 

Dopes. Extensive work was done to manufacture 
dopes appropriate to the needs of the aeronautic 
industry. Practically all the dopes used by the French 
were of cellulose acetate base; the Allies made partial 
use of dopes with nitrocellulose as base. Tests proved 
that cellulose dopes are far better than glue, gelatine, 
albumin, casein, bakelite, algin, alkaline glycerosilicates 
and similar products. He passes in review the manufac- 
ture of cellulose acetate and outlines the work done to 
determine the appropriate mixtures used as solvents. 
For camouflaging dopes triacetin mixed with eugenol 
was utilized. Different colors were obtained by direct 
incorporation into the ordinary dopes of a mixture of 
aluminum powder, colored lakes and mineral matter. 

Varnishes. Cellulose acetate being hygroscopic, the 
dried doped fabrics have to be varnished to protect them 
against atmospheric humidity. The two groups of 



varnishes used were nitrocellulose varnishes and fat 
varnishes. Varnishes with synthetic resins as base have 
been developed but not used industrially. Inert or 
organic coloring matter was incorporated in the var- 
nishes used for camouflaging. 

Fabrics for Balloons. The material used in France 
was cotton fabric (seldom of silk) covered with rubber, 
generally two layers of cotton fabric alternating with 
rubber layers. Vulcanizing was done with sulphur 
chloride at 35 deg. C. The problem of the influence of 
light on the fabrics had to be solved. The best solution 
found was the use in France of a lead chromate dye; 
Italy and Great Britain used dopes in which aluminum 
powder was incorporated. Tests were made to use 
rubber substitutes and by the end of the war France 
was experimenting with cotton fabrics treated with 
dopes having cellulose acetate as base. Even now the 
problem of a good material for balloons has not been 
solved. This problem deserves to be still further studied, 
especially when it is considered that helium, which is 
bound to become of general use for filling balloons, is 
too expensive a product to be wasted through the use of 
fabrics which are not sufficiently impermeable. 



Recent Gbemical 
a Metallmgical Patents 



American Patents 

Complete specifications of any United States patent may be 
obtained by remitting 10c. to the Commissioner of Patents, 
Washington, D. C. 

Synthetic Anthraquinone Derivative. — Anthraqui- 
none derivatives such as alizarine may be made from 
phthalic anhydride by first preparing p-chlorbenzoyl-o- 
benzoic acid, and condensing this with concentrated 
sulphuric acid to form chloranthraquinone, from which 
alizarine may be made by treatment with caustic alkali 
in the presence of an oxidizing agent. John M. Weiss 
of New York, George C. Bailey of Woodcliff-on-Hudson, 
and Ralph S. Potter of Grantwood, N. J., suggest the 
following method for making the chlorbenzoyl benzoic 
acid: A mixture of 100 parts of finely ground phthalic 
anhydride with 180 parts of coarse freshly sublimed 
aluminum chloride is added to 1,000 parts of chlor- 
benzene at 120 deg. C. After a short time the tem- 
perature is reduced and water or ice is added prior to 
the introduction of 80 to 90 parts of 60 per cent H.SO,. 
Excess chlorbenzene may now be removed by steam 
distillation. Crude chlorbenzoyl benzoic acid is filtered 
from the cooled mass, dried and washed. The addition 
of the proper amount of H,SO, to the filtrate will give 
(upon concentration) about 230 parts of aluminum 
sulphate as a byproduct. (1,255,100; assigned to The 
Barrett Co.; Oct. 5, 1920.) 

Zinc Oxide and Hydrogen. — By vaporizing carbon- 
free metallic zinc in a suitable retort and treating the 
zinc in the vapor phase with an excess of superheated 
steam Ralph H. McKee of New York is able to produce 
zinc oxide free from blue-powder, with hydrogen as a 
byproduct, according to the reaction : 

Zn + H,0 = ZnO + H, 
The zinc oxide is recovered by cooling the reaction 



36 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 1 



product and filtering through bags. The steam : hydro- 
gen mixture is then further cooled to condense the 
steam, leaving the hydrogen in a substantially pure 
state. (1,355,904; Oct. 19, 1920.) 

Alloy for Chemical Apparatus. — An alloy of iron, 
molybdenum and chromium low in carbon and silicon 
is especially adapted to the manufacture of chemical 
apparatus, being sufficiently strong to resist accidental 
breakage and soft enough to permit being machined 
to shape. Iron may be replaced by cobalt or nickel; 
molybdenum by tungsten. Indeed, the very best alloy 
from the chemical standpoint is composed of nickel and 
tungsten, each of which is the most resistant chemically 
of the members of their respective groups, combined 
with enough chronium to constitute a mutual solvent, 
but the composition is comparatively expensive and 
somewhat more difficult to machine. Certain typical 
formulas are as follows, the proportions being by 
weight : 

ABC D 

Chromium 60 55 60 40-60 

Iron group metal 20 25 30 10-40 

Molybdenum-like metal 20 20 10 10-20 

Carbon Less than 1 per cent 

Silicon Less than 1 per cent 

Column A gives the alloy that appears to be the most 
resistant chemically of any investigated. Columns B 
and C give the compositions which are most easily 
made when the iron group metal employed is iron. 
Column D indicates the limits of favorable composition. 
(1,357,550; Frank A. Fahrenwald, of Cleveland, Ohio; 
Nov. 2, 1920.) 

Dicyandiamide as Stabilizer for Nitrocellulose. — 
The lower nitrates of cellulose, particularly pyroxylin 
soluble in ether-alcohol, may be stabilized by the addi- 
tion of 0.1 to 2 per cent of dicyandiamide, NH: C(NH,) 
NH.CN. (1,358,653; Charles L. Reese, of Wilming- 
ton, Del., assignor, by mesne assignments, to the Arling- 
ton Co.; Nov. 9, 1920.) 

Coking Process and Apparatus. — The Wallace oil- 
shale retort, which has been described in Chem. & Met. 
Eng., vol. 22, p. 809, April 28, 1920, may be used for 
the distillation of coal provided certain modifications 
are introduced. This retort is a vertical cylinder ex- 
ternally heated and provided with a central perforated 
eduction pipe through which the vapors are removed 
by suction. In treating coal, coke formation proceeds 
in vertical concentric rings from the wall toward the 
center. The passage of gases or vapors through the 
newly formed coke must be prevented, since this causes 
minute cracks which develop into fissures during the 
final shrinkage of the coke. Two methods for over- 
coming this difficulty are described. (1,358,663 and 
1,358,664; George W. Wallace, of East St. Louis, 111.; 
Nov. 9, 1920.) 

Diaphragm for Electrolytic Cells. — Mineral wool is 
mixed with paraffine oil as a binder and compressed to 
form an osmotic diaphragm — that is, one which not only 
allows the free passage of ions liberated during elec- 
trolysis but also permits the diffusion of liquids by 
osmosis. According to MiLO W. Krejci, of Chicago, and 
Gunnard E. JoriNSON, of Hammond, Ind., such a dia- 
phram is particularly adapted for use in the electrolytic 
manufacture of white lead by the Harrington process 
(U. S. P. 1.308,948; July 8. 1919). In this process it 
is essential that CO, ions should pass from the catholyte 
to the anolyte at the same rate at which lead acetate 



is formed in the anode compartment, so that the pre- 
cipitate of white lead may be formed in the solution 
away from the anode and thus settle to the bottom 
without any danger of coating the anode. (1,358,858; 
Nov. 16, 1920.) 

Chlorination Process. — Saturated hydrocarbons 
such as petroleum naphtha are treated counter-currently 
with chlorine in the absence of light, yielding a solu- 
tion of chlorine in the hydrocarbon mixture, which is 
then passed through heated coils in which chlorination 
takes place. After cooling, the liquid is recirculated 
through the chlorine absorption tower and this cycle 
is repeated until the desired degree of chlorination is 
reached. Vapors which escape during chlorination are 
treated in condensers and absorption towers for the 
recovery of valuable constituents. (1,358,851; Arthur 
E. Houlehan, of Wilmington, Del., assignor to E. I. du 
Pont de Nemours & Co.; Nov. 16, 1920.) 

Acetyl Chloride and Phosphorus Oxychloride. — 

Glacial acetic acid is mixed with phosphorus trichloride 
and the temperature maintained at about 10 deg. C. 
while sufficient cold, dry chlorine is introduced to com- 
plete the reaction : 

PCI, + CH.COOH + CI = CH3COCI + POCI3 -f- HCl 
The reaction products are easily separated by frac- 
tional distillation since acetyl chloride boils at about 
51 deg. C. and phosphorus oxychloride at 106.5 deg. C. 
The still residue consists largely of phosphoric acid. 
a,359,071; FREDERICK J. Kaufmann, of Charleston, 
W. Va.; Nov. 16, 1920.) 

Chloroform From Isopropyl Alcohol. — Isopropyl al- 
cohol gives good yields of chloroform when distilled in 
the usual manner with chloride of lime and water. The 
isopropyl alcohol may be obtained by absorbing vapors 
rich in propylene in sulphuric acid, followed by hy- 
drolysis of the propyl hydrogen sulphate to give iso- 
propyl alcohol (see Chem. & Met. Eng., vol. 23, p. 1230; 
Dec. 22, 1920). (1,359,099; Max Phillips, of Evans- 
ville, Wis.; filed under the act of March 3, 1883; Nov. 
16, 1920.) 

British Patents 

Complete speciflcations of any British patent may be obtained 
by remitting- 25c. to the Superintendent British Patent Office, 
Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, London, England. 

Treating Vegetable Fibers. — Vegetable fibers of all 
kinds and in any stage of manufacture are treated by 
fixing thereon the products of the hydrolysis of proteic 
substance to impart to the fibers the character of wool, 
both physically as to feel, appearance and calorific quali- 
ties, and chemically as regards their affinity and ab- 
sorbent capacities for dyestuffs. The treatment of the 
fibers is also a preparation for the usual printing proc- 
esses. The fibers, whether in the mass or in the state 
of lap, cops, card-ends, twistings, yarns or fabrics, are 
treated with the liquid obtained by the action of strong 
acids, alkalis or other hydrolyzing agents on proteic 
substances to which oxidizing agents may be added, and 
are then washed with water with, if desired, a prelimi- 
nary washing with a dilute acid or alkali, or a saline 
solution. The fibers may finally be treated with for- 
maldehyde, alone or with ammonia, or with phosphoric 
acid. In a modification of the process, the fibers are 
impregnated with a proteic solution, the deposit being 
treated, if desired, with formaldehyde and tannin. The 
fibers may then be dried and are subsequently treated 
with a hydrolyzing agent, with or without the addition 
of an oxidizing agent, and are finally washed with water, 
after the preliminary washing if desired. Casein, egg 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



37 



albumin, serum albumen and gelatine are mentioned as 
suitable proteic substances, and nitric, sulphuric, hydro- 
chloric, phosphoric and formic acids, zinc chloride and 
caustic soda are given as examples of suitable hydro- 
lyzing agents. (Br. Pat. 150,665, not yet accepted; SOC. 
GiLLET ET FiLS, Lyon, France, Nov. 24, 1920.) 

Pulverizing Metals. — Zinc or other metal is reduced 
to powder by heating the metal to the highest possible 
temperature it can attain without volatilization, and 
pouring it in a thin stream upon a steam jet issuing at 
high pressure in a horizontal direction from an orifice, 
elongated horizontally so as to give a flattened forma- 
tion to the jet. A convenient form of apparatus com- 
prises a small furnace with a melting pot for heating 
the metal and a chamber, inclosed except for a space in 
the top, beneath which an inch steam pipe, flattened at 
the end to an opening, ^ in. deep, enters, and long 
enough to allow the jet to expand itself in traveling its 
length. The molten metal poured by a ladle on to the 
jet a short distance from the orifice is instantly disin- 
tegrated and blown along the chamber, and may subse- 
quently be collected, dried and screened. (Br. Pat. 
150,490—1919; J. P. Miller, Uplands, Swansea, Nov. 
17, 1920.) 

Granular Calcium Cyanamide. — Granular calcium 
cyanamide is produced by treating calcium cyanamide 
with more than enough water to slake the lime, etc., 
under such conditions of temperature and pressure that 
the excess water is immediately evaporated. Tempera- 
tures of 70 to 80 deg. C. and a reduced pressure are 
mentioned. The water may contain dissolved or sus- 
pended matter which may enter into reaction with the 
calcium oxide or may have a binding effect. The sub- 
stances mentioned are sodium sulphate, ferrous sulphate, 
clay, cyanamide and potato meal, and urea. Carbonic 
acid may be introduced with a salt solution and may 
serve to spray the solution over the cyanamide. (Br. 
Pat. 150,979, not yet accepted; Akt. Ges. fur Sticks- 
TOFFDtJNGER, Knapsack, near Cologne, Nov, 24, 1920.) 

Sulphuretted Dyes. — Sulphuretted dyes, which are 
probably thriazines, are obtained by sulphurizing p-oxy- 
naphthoquinonearylamides (0 : OH : NR = 1:2:4); 
suitable sulphurizing agents are sulphur, alone or in 
presence of catalysts, solvents or diluents, disulphurdi- 
chloride, sulphur sesquioxide or alkali polysulphides, 
preferably in alcoholic solution at temperatures not ex- 
ceeding 150 deg. C. The resulting products, if they 
contain sulphonic or carboxylic acid groups, are acid 
mordant dyes, or if they are free from such groups are 
vat dyes ; the vat dyeings may be af tertreated with metal 
salts, preferably chromium salts, giving fast green to 
black shades. According to examples: (1) The con- 
densation product from p-chloraniline and 1 : 2-naphtho- 
quinone-4-sulphonic acid is heated with sulphur, naph- 
thalene and sulphur iodide or iodine, and the product is 
worked up by removing the naphthalene by solvent 
naphtha and free sulphur by sodium sulphide solution, 
then dissolving the dye in concentrated sulphuric acid, 
pouring on ice, filtering and washing; the paste gives a 
yellow hydrosulphite vat dyeing wool violet-black shades 
which turn to claret-red on treatment with acid, and 
bluish-green on treatment with chromium salts in acid 
solution; similar dyes are obtained by the above treat- 
ment from the condensation products of 1 : 2-naphtho- 
quinone-4-sulphonic acid with aniline, o-, m- or p-tolui- 
dine, p-anisidine, or 2>-phenetidine ; (2) the condensa- 
tion product from 1 : 2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid 



and p-anisidine is treated at ordinary temperature with 
disulphurdichloride and acetic acid; the product dyes 
wool in a vat violet shades becoming green on after- 
treatment with sodium bichromate in an acid bath; 
similar products are obtained by the action of disulphur- 
dichloride on the condensation products of 1 : 2-naphtho- 
quinone-4-sulphonic acid with tn- or p-toluidine; (3) 
the condensation product from p-toluidine and 1 : 2-naph- 
thoquinone-4-sulphonic acid is treated with a solution 
of sulphur in fuming sulphuric acid; the product is a 
sulphonic acid dyeing wool from an acid bath green 
shades with chrome mordants; similar green to green- 
ish-black acid mordant dyes are obtained from the con- 
densation products of aminosalicylic acid or aminocreso- 
tinic acid with 1 : 2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid by 
treatment with disulphurdichloride or sulphur sesqui- 
oxide, and a black acid mordant dye by treating vdth 
sulphur sesquioxide the condensation product from 
??-nitraniline and 1 : 2-naphthoquinone-4 : 6-disulphonic 
acid; (4) the condensation product from amino-N-ethyl- 
carbazole and 1 : 2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid is 
boiled with alcoholic sodium polysulphide ; the product 
gives a yellow hydrosulphite vat dyeing wool or cotton 
green shades which may be afterchromed. (Br. Pat. 
151,000, not yet accepted; L. Cassella & Co., Frankfurt- 
on-Main, Germany, Nov. 24, 1920.) 

Rubber Sponges. — Rubber sponges are formed so as 
to have large and small pores in different parts of the 
sponge, either by vulcanizing together superposed 
layers of two different compounds which will yield on 
vulcanization portions having large and small pores, 
or layers of the same compound one part of which has 
been masticated more than the other and forms larger 
pores on vulcanization. Alternatively, a mixture of the 
two compounds is vulcanized while supported in a shallow 
vessel of water with its lower part dipping into or just 
above the water. A compound which yields on vulcan- 
ization small pores consists of para rubber, milk of 
sulphur, lithopone, crimson sulphide of antimony or 
vermilion, ceresin wax, pine oil, together with ammo- 
nium carbonate or amyl acetate. In a compound for 
yielding large pores, larger proportions of carbonate or 
amyl acetate are used, precipitated chalk and zinc oxide 
are used in place of lithopone and turpentine may 
partially replace pine oil. (Br. Pat. 151,084. G. W. 
Beldam, London, and A. U. B. Ryall, Brentford, 
Middlesex; Dec. 1, 1920.) 

Cyanides. — In the production of cyanides by the 
reaction of free nitrogen or a mixture of an alkali or 
alkaline-earth metal or compound, carbon and a 
catalyst, the catalyst, such as iron manganese, nickel or 
copper, is introduced in the form of a compound not 
containing any element other than carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen and nitrogen, and is reduced at a temperature 
below 550 deg. C. Iron hydroxide prepared by precipi- 
tating ferrous sulphate with ammonia, and iron oxalate 
are mentioned. (Br. Pat. 151,098. C. T. Thorssell 
and H. L. R. Lunden, Gothenburg, Sweden; Dec. 1, 
1920.) 

Retting Flax.— In obtaining fibers from flax, the, 
straw, prior to retting, is treated in one stage, or in a 
number of stages extending over successively increasing 
periods of time, with an alkaline solvent to remove the 
whole or a greater portion of the gum and resin com- 
pounds, and the retting operation is carried out in an 
alkaline medium. A natural soda, such as Magadi soda, 
occurring in East Africa, may be used, and in the 



i5S 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



retting operation, which is preferably effected at 80 to 
95 deg. F., the liquid is continuously aerated and cir- 
culated. (Br. Pat. 151,143. L. A. Johnson, Uasin 
Gishu, East Africa Protectorate; Dec. 1, 1920.) 

Alumina; Basic Aluminum Nitrate. — A solution of 
aluminum nitrate is evaporated to distil off dilute nitric 
acid, and water, steam or fresh solution is added so as 
to keep the temperature constant (about 140 deg. C.) 
until the bulk of the alumina is precipitated as a 
crystalline basic nitrate which is practically free from 
iron even if the solution is ferruginous. It is advan- 
tageous to treat solutions containing calcium or sodium 
nitrate, which remains in solution in the mother liquor. 
Such solutions may be obtained by adding some base or 
salt such as limestone to the nitrate solution before 
heating. Alternatively the solution of nitrate to which 
suc'i .1 base or salt has been added or from which some 
acit' has been distilled off may be heated under pressure 
in un autoclave to effect the precipitation of the basic 
nitrate. The basic nitrate obtained as above described 
is heated to obtain alumina and nitrogen oxides which 
are converted into nitric acid. The mother liquor is 
treated with nitric acid to convert the alumina content 
to normal nitrate and the solution is evaporated until 
aluminum nitrate crystallizes out and may be returned 
to the original solution and the remaining mother liquor 
is evaporated to dryness to recover the sodium or cal- 
cium nitrate. (Br. Pat. 151,259, not yet accepted. 
NoRSKE Aktieselskab for Elektro Kemisk Industri, 
Christiania; Dec. 1, 1920.) 

Automatic Detector for Arsenic in Gases. — In appa- 
ratus for regulating production, a sample of the initial 
material is withdrawn and is passed to the testing 
apparatus which acts in such a manner that the presence 
of an undesirable substance in the sample causes a 
variation in the quantity or character of radiant energy 



32 29 




ARSENIC DETECTOR 

such as light projected through the apparatus, and the 
variation so produced is utilized to operate means con- 
trolling the process of production. The invention is 
described with reference to the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid by the contact method, the control depend- 
ing on the presence of arsenic in the reaction gases. 
Thus, a sample of the gases is passed to an electrolytic 
Marsh apparatus 5, the gases from which, after 
purification in a tube 9, are burned at the jet 11, the 
flame impinging on a quartz glass or like transparent 
screen 12 arranged between a source of light 16 and a 
light-sensitive cell 15; if arsenic is present, a mirror is 
formed on the screen 12 and serves to cut off more or 
less the light falling on the cell 15. The latter is in 
circuit with a relay 32, and the increase in resistance in 



the cell 15 consequent on the cutting off of the light 
actuates the relay to close a circuit 29 and to energize a 
solenoid 28 controlling through a valve 26 the supply of 
fluid under pi-essure in the pipe 25 ; opening of the valve 
26 actuates a piston 23, which in turn operates the 
main three-way valve 14, so that if arsenic is present 
in the gases these are bypassed back to the purifying 
apparatus 3. The screen 12 is periodically cleaned by 
a wiper 34, and if the impurity is no longer present, the 
relay 32 comes into action to open the circuit 29 and to 
de-energize the solenoid 28, and the valve 14 then 
returns to its original position to pass the gases to the 
contact apparatus 1. In other instances — for example, 
in the case of liquids — the control may be based on the 
•extent to which the plane of polarization of light is 
rotated, or on variations in the refractive index, or it 
may depend on the fact that the objectionable consti- 
tuent yields a colored product on treatment with a 
■chemical indicator, in which case a source of light of the 
complementary color would be employed. (Br. Pat. 
151,328; L. Logan, Arlington, Mass., Dec. 8, 1920.) 

Cyanamide. — Cyanamide practically free from dicy- 
andiamide is obtained in solution by supplying succes- 
sive quantities of calcium cyanamide to water or a 
cyanamide solution while supplying enough carbon 
dioxide to maintain the solution neutral or only slightly 
alkaline. By starting with a cyanamide solution very 
strong solutions can be obtained. The reaction is 
effected at a temperature not above 70 deg. C, and the 
■carbon dioxide is preferably supplied under pressure, 
being blown into the solution by nozzles; or other 
means of bringing the gas into intimate contact with the 
liquid may be employed, such as beaters; or the solu- 
tion containing calcium cyanamide may be sprayed into 
an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide 
may be pure or mixed with other gases, as, for instance, 
combustion or lime kiln. (Br. Pat. 151,583, not yet 
accepted; Wargons Aktiebolag and J. H. Lidholm, 
Wargon, Sweden; Dec. 8, 1920.) 

Alkali Silicates. — In order to obtain a soluble alkali 
silicate of high silica content, the product obtained by 
the fusion of alkali and silica is dissolved in water and 
an acid then added, whereby gelatinous silicic acid is 
thrown down, and this precipitate by continued agita- 
tion is made to re-dissolve in the solution. The acid, 
preferably sulphuric acid, may be added in the form of 
spray; and after the subsequent operation of agitation 
or grinding, the solution may be evaporated to dryness. 
Moreover, to increase the fusibility of the alkali and 
silica, a little borax may be employed in the fusion 
process. (Br. Pat. 151,339. F. J. Phillips, London, 
and E. J. Rose, Therwood ; Dec. 8, 1920. 

Calcium Phosphate. — Natural tricalcic phosphates 
are mechanically treated to obtain two fractions, one of 
rich granules containing a high percentage of phos- 
phate, ?nd the other of a mixture containing calcium 
carbonate and phosphate in so fine a state of division 
as to be assimilable by the roots of plants. The nodules 
of natural phosphate are first broken down and then 
treated in a rotary disintegrator through which a blast 
of air is directed. By this means the granules of phos- 
phate are freed from the carbonate dust which covers 
them and the mixture is carried away to chambers 
where the two fractions separate out according to 
density. (Br. Pat. 151,684. W. P. Thompson, Liver- 
pool, Compagnie des Phosphates de Constantine, Paris; 
Dec. 8, 1920.) 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



39 




Current Events 

in the Qiemical and Metallurgical Industries 



Patent Office Bill Hearings This Week 

Hearings on the Patent Office bill, with its rider au- 
thorizing the Federal Trade Commission to administer 
Government patents, will begin Jan. 5. The hearing is 
before the conference committee of the two houses of 
Congress. The Patent Office bill proper has passed 
each house. The rider was attached by the Senate. 

Representatives of chemical industries are to be heard 
as to the possible effects of extending a reward to Gov- 
ernment employees for such inventions as they may 
develop. Some are afraid that the effect of this reward 
will be detrimental to the outside inventors, in that 
the Government employee could pursue his inventive 
work while on the Government payroll and with the 
Government's facilities. It is argued that the tendency 
among Government employees would be to neglect the 
regular research work and concentrate on a device or 
a method which promised personal pecuniary reward. 
The conference committee expects to hear each side of 
the case before taking action on the bill. 



Progress of American Engineering Council 

The Executive Board of American Engineering 
Council met in New York on Dec. 17, with all members 
present excepting A. M. Greene. Two new members of 
the Board were elected, W. B. Powell, Buffalo Engineer- 
ing Society, representing District 1, New York and New 
England States, and Gardner S. Williams, Grand Rapids 
Engineering Society, representing District 2, Michigan, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

President Hoover appointed the following standing 
committees : 

Procedure. — Calvert Townley, chairman; Herbert 
Hoover, ex officio; W. E. Rolfe, D. S. Kimball, J. Parke 
Channing, L. W. Wallace, L. P. Alford. 

Constitution and Bylaws. — W. B. Powell, chairman; 
C. F. Scott, D. S. Kimball. 

Publicity and Publications. — L. P. Alford, chairman; 
H. W. Buck, H. E. Howe. 

Membership and Representation. — J. F. Oberlin, 
chairman ; L. W. Wallace, A. S. Dwight. 

Finance. — William McClellan, chairman; E, Ludlow, 
C. Townley, L. W. Wallace, ex officio. 

Public Affairs. — J. Parke Channing, chairman; Fred 
J. Miller, L. B. Stillwell. 

In discussing the immediate program of Council, Mr. 
Hoover announced that he had called together engineers 
in various cities and found that while they were favor- 
ably disposed toward the Federation, there was a strong 
trend toward territorial as distinguished from national 
organization. One of the obstacles to uniting territorial 
organizations in the Federation is the question of dues. 
Another complication is the membership of numerous 
individuals in more than one society. Deeming the 
question of territorial organization of vital im.portance, 
Mr. Hoover suggested the appointment of a committee 
to canvass the situation carefully. After considerable 
discussion the matter was referred to a special com- 
mittee which will include the six district delegates. 



Necessary action was taken to make it possible for 
certain activities of Engineering Council to be taken 
over by Lhe new organization as soon as the United 
Engineering Societies has passed officially on the pro- 
posed transfer. In this event President Hoover will 
appoint the necessary committee of American Engineer- 
ing Council to take over and continue the uncompleted 
work of Engineering Council's committees. 

Action was taken to amend section 9, paragraph 6, of 
the bylaws so that committee members can be selected 
from societies other than those now belonging to the 
Federation, thus making it possible for civil engineers 
and others not now affiliated with the Federation to co- 
operate in committee work. 

Council voted not to affiliate with the United States 
Chamber of Commerce. It also appropriated $1,000 as 
an initial fund for publicity work, and authorized the 
committee on publicity and publications to establish a 
board of engineering editors. It was voted to pay the 
expenses of members of the Executive Board for attend- 
ance at meetings. A special committee reported on 
candidates for executive secretary of the organization, 
but no action was taken. The place of the next meeting, 
which will be held Feb. 11, was left to the discretion of 
the president. 

Patents Obtained by Department of Agriculture 
Employees During 1920 

During the last fiscal year thirty-five patents were 
allowed for inventions by employees of the United States 
Department of Agriculture the benefits of which are 
dedicated to public use. Thirty applications for patents 
were prepared by the department's office of the Solicitor 
during the year, some of which were pending at the 
close of the fiscal period. 

The patents allowed cover a wide scope and some of 
them are believed by the department to be highly val- 
uable to the public. The list of those allowed during 
the year includes cane stripping comb, manufacture 
of cymene sulphonic acid, synthetic ammonia (2), pho- 
tographic sensitizing dyes (2), new insecticide, pro- 
duction of ammonia, curing tobacco, atmometer, phos- 
phorus and phosphorus acid, dextrine, process for re- 
moval of hydrofluoric acid from phosphoric acid, bleach- 
ing wood, improvement in the synthetic manufacture 
of thymol, vanillyl amine, vanillyl acyl amides and pro- 
duction thereof, and fruit grader and sizer. 

Applications for patents on the following inventions 
were pending at the close of the year : Method of manu- 
facturing decolorizing carbon, process for the manu- 
facture of naphthalene sulphonic acids, tree trimming 
and harvesting machines, panoramic camera attach- 
ment, process of sublimation, adhesive, apparatus for 
controlling reactions between gases (2), ammonium 
nitrate, insecticide and fungicide, grain samplers, malt 
sirup (2), process of extracting soluble albumen from 
whey, manufacture of furfural and volatile organic 
acids from corncobs, manufacture of furfural and vola- 
tile organic acids from corncob pentosan, preserving 



4C 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



apples, grain sampler, apparatus for sterilizing fruit 
juices, new and improved types of bread, manufacture 
of sweet potato sirup, new process for preparing sirup 
from sugar beets, protosensitizing dyes of the isocya- 
nine type, gelatine or glue free from mineral matter, 
acids, or alkalis, and a process for preparing same. 

The Government and the people of the United States 
are entitled to make use and sell the inventions disclosed 
by these patents freely and without the payment of 
royalty to the patentees. 



No Appropriation for Chemical Industries 

The Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
Representatives used the knife relentlessly on the 
requests made by the Bureau of Mines for funds for its 
work during the next fiscal year. The $125,000 asked 
for non-metallic and chemical industries research went 
out altogether, as did the $30,000 for low-temperature 
research and the $29,920 requested for aluminum 
research. For the most part, the committee allowed no 
increases over the appropriations for the current fiscal 
year. The only new item in the bill, as reported on 
Dec. 29, was $50,000 for enforcing the oil land-leasing 
regulations. The bureau had requested $132,390 for 
that work. The total appropriation carried by the bill 
for the Bureau of Mines was $1,357,300, 

In addition to the carefully written justifications pre- 
pared in support of these estimates. Dr. F. G. Cottrell, 
the director of the bureau, argued in person before 
the Committee on Appropriations. 

In support of the aluminum research, Dr. Cottrell 
pointed out to the committee the possibility of obtain- 
ing aluminum production from sources and ores not 
now being utilized. He also emphasized the need for 
better and cheaper methods of aluminum production. 

The failure of the committee to allow $30,000 for 
low-temperature research is regarded as particularly 
lamentable, since the entire installation for that work 
has been turned over to the Bureau of Mines, without 
expense, by the War Department. 

The War Department purchased complete equipment 
for the cryogenic laboratory, which was set up by the 
Bureau of Mines in its own offices. The co-operative 
agreement provided that the laboratory was to become 
the property of the Bureau of Mines after the War 
Department work had been completed. 

The committee allowed $200,000 for the operation of 
the mining experimenting stations. This is the amount 
of the current appropriation. The bureau has requested 
$270,000 for its work in this direction during the next 
fiscal year. 

Important Legislation on the Tapis 

The first week of the new year saw many chemists 
journeying to Washington. Three important matters 
of particular interest to the chemical industries have 
come up for active consideration on the part of Congress. 
The chemical schedule of the new tariff bill will be con- 
sidered at the first of the series of hearings to be held 
by the Committee on Ways and Means. The Patent 
Office bill, with its rider authorizing the Federal Trade 
Commission to administer patents granted to Govern- 
ment employees, comes up for hearings beginning Jan. 5. 
The third matter is the bill authorizing the creation 
of the United States Fixed Nitrogen Corporation. 

Since so many chemical activities come within the 
infant industry class, the need for a protective tariff is 



felt by a large number of the subdivisions of the 
industry. As a result these hearings are expected to be 
of unusual interest. 

In view of the apparent determination of some of the 
members of the conference committee on the Patent 
Office bill to force it through, rider and all, the hearings 
before that body seem to be the only hope that the 
opponents of the rider have to secure the defeat of the 
legislation. 

There is increasing hostility to the Fixed Nitrogen 
Corporation bill, especially in view of the changed 
economic situation. The manufacture of fertilizer 
materials on a large scale at this time by the Govern- 
ment is denounced very strongly in some quarters. 
Efforts are being made to stir up opposition to the 
measure in the Senate. A very little opposition aroused 
now, with the end of the short session in sight and with 
unprecedented congestion of the legislative program, 
would be all that is necessary to prevent passage of 
the bill. Should the effort in the Senate fail, there is a 
good chance to block it in the House, it is believed, 
owing to the disinclination to authorize any further 
appropriations. The present situation in the nitrate 
market is such that it is not believed to be feasible to 
finance the corporation from funds which might be 
obtained from the sale of the War Department's reserve 
of sodium nitrate. 



British Dye Bill 

The text of the British dye bill, which passed the 
House of Commons Dec. 20, is as follows : 

With a view to the safeguarding of the dye-making 
industry, the importation into the United Kingdom of 
the following goods — -that is to say, all synthetic organic 
dyestuffs, colors and coloring matters, and all organic 
intermediate products used in the manufacture of any 
such dyestuffs, colors or coloring matters — shall be 
prohibited. 

Goods prohibited to be imported by virtue of this 
act shall be deemed to be included among the goods 
enumerated and described in the table of prohibitions 
and restrictions inwards contained in section 47 of the 
customs consolidation act, 1876, and the provisions of 
that act and any act amending or extending that act 
shall apply accordingly. 

The Board of Trade have power by license to author- 
ize, either generally or in particular case, the importa- 
tion of any of the goods or any class of description of 
the goods prohibited to be imported by virtue of this act. 

For the purpose of advising them with respect to the 
granting of licenses the Board of Trade shall constitute 
a committee consisting of five persons concerned in the 
trades in which goods of the class prohibited to be im- 
poi'ted by this act are used, three persons concerned 
in the manufacture of such goods, and three other per- 
sons not directly concerned as aforesaid. Such one of 
the last-mentioned three persons as the board shall ap- 
point shall be chairman of the committee. 

For the purpose of providing for the expenses in- 
curred by the board in carrying this act into execution, 
the board may charge in respect of a license a fee not 
exceeding £5. 

Subject to compliance with such conditions as to se- 
curity for the re-exportation of the goods as the Com- 
missioners of Customs and Excise may impose, this act 
shall not apply to goods impoi*ted for exportation after 
transit through the United Kingdom or by way of trans- 
shipment. 

Anything authorized under this act to be done by the 
Boai-d of Trade may be done by the president or a sec- 
retary or assistant secretary of the board or by any 
person authorized in that behalf by the president of the 
board. 

The provisions of this act shall continue in force for 
a period of ten years from the commencement thereof 
and no longer. 

This act may be cited as the dyestuffs (import regu- 
lation) act, 1920. 



I 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



41 



Bill for Federal Manufacture of Atmospheric 
Nitrogen Expected to Pass the Senate 

The bill providing for federal manufacture of at- 
mospheric nitrogen is expected to pass the Senate, but 
strong opposition to the measure has developed in the 
House, where its course is likely to be more difficult. 
Senator Underwood of Alabama, the minority leader, 
has given notice that the minority will employ such 
methods as are available to insure its passage. 

The opposition in the House is based for the most 
part on the probability that the enterprise will call 
eventually for large appropriations. The bill provides 
for the financing of the proposed United States Fixed 
Nitrogen Corporation by the sale of a portion of the 
War Department's reserve of nitrate of soda. Now that 
the price of nitrate has declined materially since the 
bill was drafted, it is feared that it would not be wise 
to attempt to raise the $12,500,000, for which the bill 
calls, from the sale of the nitrate reserve, since at pres- 
ent prices it would deplete that reserve unduly. 



Book Reviews 



PLANTATION RUBBER AND THE TESTING OF 
RUBBER. By G. Stafford Whitby. 555 pages. New 
York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1920. Price $9.50 net. 

Although there have been extremely few contributions to 
the technology of rubber goods manufacture, the literature 
on crude rubber is rather abundant. This is due in a great 
measure to the fact that both the Dutch and the British went 
into the systematic planting of rubber trees before the be- 
ginning of this century. 

The author of this work has divided his book into two 
almost equal parts. The first part treats of such topics as 
methods for obtaining the milk from the rubber trees, col- 
lection of this latex, coagulation of the latex, conversion 
of the coagulated milk into sheets, and the process of 
"smoking" sheet rubber. In Part II of his book the author 
has presented many data on rubber from the viewpoint 
of the physical chemist. He has discussed such subjects 
as Young's modulus, Hooke's law, the stress-strain curve 
for rubber, and tensile tests. In his discussion of tensile 
strength and elongation the author passes over the Henry 
Scott testing machine with a two-line note, which is dis- 
appointing for American readers. The literature references 
are for the most part English and Dutch, although one finds 
casual references to the work of Kratz, Flower, Tuttle and 
Cranor in the United States. 

Although the rubber industry was born the day Good- 
year discovered vulcanization in 1839, it was not until 
about 1910 that serious scientific work was done in the field 
of rubber chemistry. Even the theory of vulcanization was 
not proposed before Carl Otto Weber in 1902 published his 
now historic book. The rubber industry was in fact a 
"house of mystery" until the demands made by consumers 
of rubber goods compelled the manufacturers to invite chem- 
ists into their plants. And so it comes that we find in the 
present text books such phrases as "co-efficient of vulcan- 
ization," "accelerated aging tests," "optimum cure" and 
"state of cure." 

Forty-four pages have been devoted to a bibliography in 
which the author has discovered 350 names of writers on 
rubber topics in book and periodical literature. Unfor- 
tunately he has omitted all mention of the valuable papers 
which have appeared in Chemical & Metallurgical Engi- 
neering during the past five years. All reference to syn- 
thetic rubber has been carefully deleted from the book, as 
well as from the bibliography, but a considerable number 
of unimportant publications have been noted. In spite of 
this the author has rendered a service of unusual value to 



rubber investigators who desire to find references on plan- 
tation rubber and rubber testing. 

In general the short-sentence style has been used, but 
sentences of 120 words (page 261) should be modified in 
later editions. Aside from this the text is readable, the sub- 
ject matter true, the proof carefully corrected, and a great 
deal of material on the physics and physical chemistry of 
rubber has been published in book form for the first time. 
In this country the book will probably be of greater value 
to university men than to manufacturers of rubber goods. 

Frederic Dannerth. 



Obituary 



Dr. Henry A. Bumstead, professor of physics at Yale 
University, who had been on leave of absence serving as 
chairman of the National Research Council, died on a train 
en route from Chicago to Washington on Dec. 31. He had 
just taken a very active part in the Christmas week meet- 
ings of the various scientific societies. The death of Dr. 
Bumstead comes as a shock to the scientists of the country 
and particularly to the National Research Council, where 
he was in the midst of a constructive program for the work 
of that institution. The services rendered by Dr. Bumstead 
during the war were particularly notable. As an attache 
of the American Embassy at London he was in immediate 
charge of the exchange of confidential scientific data with 
the Allies. Due to his twenty-seven years of service as an 
instructor at Yale, Dr. Bumstead has influenced the thought 
of many thousands of students. As a result of his par- 
ticularly attractive personality, these students have clung 
to him with unusual affection. The laboratory at Yale 
which was under his direction is regarded as one of the 
finest in the world. Dr. Charles Walcott, the vice-chairman 
of the National Research Council, will succeed Dr. Bumstead 
at least temporarily as the active chairman of the Council. 
Dr. Bumstead was fifty years old and was graduated from 
Johns Hopkins University in 1891, later receiving his 
doctor's degree from Yale. 



Personal 



Richard H. Catlett has resigned his position as produc- 
tion manager of the Taylor Chemical Co., Penn Yan, N. Y., 
and is now chemical engineer with the Lewis Recovery 
Corp., Boston, Mass. 

Charles A. Edwards, for many years manager of the 
Portland, Ore., office of A. O. Anderson & Co., has severed 
that connection to become head of the Portland Vegetable 
Oil Milling Co., Portland. 

Dr. Samuel Eyde, joint inventor of the Birkeland-Eyde 
arc process for nitrogen fixation, arrived in New York on 
Dec. 30. He plans to make an extensive visit in the Canadian 
nickel territory. 

Dr. Carl Hering of Philadelphia, Pa., has moved his 
office from 210 South 13th St. to 1317 Spruce St. 

Dr. J. A. Montgomery, formerly chief chemist for the 
Structural Materials Research Laboratory, has resigned to 
become chief chemist for the Borromite Company of Amei-- 
ica, 105 West Monroe St., Chicago, 111. 

H. L. MOYLER resigned his position Nov. 1 as assistant 
superintendent of acid plants. Naval Proving Grounds, 
Indian Head, Md., to become general supervisor of acid pro- 
duction, Monsanto Chemical Works, Plant B, East St. 
Louis, 111. 

Dr. M. C. Teague, formerly gas chemist at the Pitts- 
burgh station of the Bureau of Mines, is now research 
chemist with the United States Rubber Co., 561 West 58th 
St., New York City. 



, 



42 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



Current Market Reports 



The Chemical and Allied Industrial Markets 

New York, Jan. 3, 1921. 

Reflections of the holiday week were apparent in the 
chemical market and trading in most quarters was reported 
quiet. However, the tone of the general market is steady. 
The trade is looking forward to the new year with confi- 
dence, although it is generally conceded that business will 
probably be slow during the next few weeks. Opinions of 
the dealers and manufacturers show a feeling more hopeful 
for a resumption of activity. Those close to the inside 
workings of the market stated that sellers are plucking 
up more nerve and that buyers have been turned down on 
several occasions because they refused to meet an advance 
in lately prevailing prices. 

The extent of business has not improved much on the 
surface of the market and it is not expected to improve 
materially until the holiday excitement and inventory 
periods are out of the way. There is no denying that 
buyers have shown more interest in the market than for 
several weeks and sales have been freer although of small 
individual volume. 

Solid caustic soda displayed a firmer tendency in the open 
market and offerings of standard material were not much 
in evidence. Buying was considered good in several quar- 
ters and rumors were current of large interests operating. 
Spot prices ranged from $3.75 to $3.85 per 100 lb. for car- 
lots. Occasional odd lots moved at a shade under this figure 
through brokers. Makers were still holding contract prices 
at 3ric. per lb., basis 60 per cent, f .o.b. works, over next year. 

Producers reported quiet trading in yellow prussiate of 
soda. Large manufacturers were willing to book contracts 
at 18c. per lb., but stated that consumers were not taking 
much interest in futures. Second hands are doing business 
in small lots at prices ranging from 17c. to 172C. per lb. 
Makers of silicate of soda quote $2.90@$3 per 100 lb. for 
the 60 deg. Be. in large lots and up to 32C. per lb. for 
small lots. Business was reported quiet, with sales mostly 
moderate for home and abroad. The 40 deg. test is offered 
at $1.15@$1.25 per 100 lb. in carload lots and up to 
$1.50@$1.75 in small quantities. Single bags of soda ash 
were held at $1.90@$2 per 100 lb. at the works for prompt 
shipment. Offerings continued limited and the market 
showed a steady tendency. Resale lots for export were 
quoted at $1.85@$1.90 with scattered transactions reported. 
Barrels ranged about 5c. per 100 lb. advance. Contracts 
continued to be quoted by producers for 1921 shipment at 
$1.82l@$1.90, basis 48 per cent, f.o.b. works. 

Manufacturers of sodium sulphide are trying to keep the 
price of the 60-62 per cent at 7c. per lb. for drums in car- 
load lots. Resale material was evident on the market at 
lower prices and sales were made down to 6c. per lb. Resale 
bleaching poivder in large drums was on the market at 23c. 
per lb. and it seemed possible that some interests would 
shade this figure on firm business. The supply could not 
be called heavy, but the demand gave the market an easy 
appearance. Producers of glaubers salt reported prices at 
13c. per lb. in bags. Barrels were held at $2.05 per 100 lb. 
for carlots and $2.35 in smaller quantities. Some foreign 
oxalic acid was offered on the market as low as 17Jc. per lb., 
but most dealers gave IShc. as the prevailing price for prime 
American material and prices extend all the way up to 20c. 
per lb. depending entirely upon brand, quantity and seller. 
"Trading has remained quiet in this commodity, as prices are 
somewhat above the views of buyers. 

Resale formaldehyde is commanding 18ic. per lb. in bar- 
rels on the spot market and business was known to have 
been placed at this level. Round lots are very scarce and 
in some quarters 19c. is the best offering for goods ex ware- 
house. The undertone was reported very steady. White 
f/ramdar sal am.moniac was offered on the open inarket at 
10J(«^llc. per lb., with little trading reported at these low 



figures. Odd lots of the gray material were available at 
9J@10c. 

Sodium Production 

According to a recent report by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, the production of sodium compounds in the 
United States was slightly less during 1919 than it was in 
1918, the total for 1919 being 9,393,749 short tons, as com- 
pared with 10,199,493 for the preceding year. The total 
value of these products declined from about $143,000,000 in 
1918 to slightly more than $121,000,000 in 1919. This total 
includes the production of common salt, which accounts for 
practically 7,000,000 short tons of the total for both years. 
About 500,000 tons of sodium chloride was imported in 1919. 

During 1919, exports of many of the sodium compounds 
were heavier than in 1918. The use of sodium products 
instead of potassium is being continued and has been mate- 
rially increased because of sodium compounds being cheaper. 

The following is a table of various important sodium 
compounds produced during 1918-1919: 

1918, 1919, 

Tons Tons 

Acetate goda 2,622 2,426 

Bicarbonate soda 118,535 134,962 

Bichromate soda 26,526 28,334 

Sodaash 981,054 1,390,628 

Yellow prussiate soda 3,437 4,525 

Causticsoda 355,466 513.363 

Coal-Tar Products 

Despite the holiday recessions, offerings and inquiries were 
more in evidence. This showed a renewal of interest was 
taking the place of a long period of dullness. There were 
no inquiries of large enough volume to mention. Operations 
in some markets are beginning to show a little life and 
sharp-sighted merchants see that the curtailment of produc- 
tion and low prices have gone pretty near the limit. They 
also believe that stocks of many kinds have reached a level 
where buying now is a safer proposition. 

The crude market was also a dull affair with little trad- 
ing in any quarter. Naphthalene flakes and balls showed a 
firmer tendency, although trading was of a light nature. 
Only very small lots of orthotoluidine were in demand and 
supplies were easy, with prices ranging from 30c. to 35c. 
per lb. Recent trading in paranitrophenol has been lim- 
ited to small lots on a basis of 75@80c. per lb. Producers 
of beta naphthol reported a fair volume of supplies available 
at 40@45c. per lb. Second hands are still offering goods 
and 38c. seems possible on distressed lots. Diethylaniline 
was offered in very small quantities among second hands 
and producers reported conditions quiet. Supplies were 
fairly easy at $1.35@$1.45 per lb. 

Vexjetable Oils 

The market on vegetable oils remained quiet and uninter- 
esting during the holiday week. Prices in most cases were 
nominal, with no large business consummated. Crushers of 
linseed oil reported that the inquii'y was almost at a stand- 
still so far as round lots were concerned. Operators were 
reluctant to name 78c. per gal. without any real bids to 
v/ork upon. Consumers were offered raw linseed at less than 
78c. for January-April shipment. Producers of No. 1 U.S. P. 
castor oil quoted the market at 12c. per lb. in barrels. The 
technical grade has been revised to llic. per lb. The outside 
market has sold the No. 3 type as low as 95c. Crvde com 
oil was unsettled due to the drop in cottonseed oil, and the 
market closed nominal at 62c. per lb., sellers' tanks, for im- 
mediate shipment from Chicago. No business was reported 
in coconut oil in carlots during the week. Prices held on 
an even basis, both here and on the Coast. Domestic Ceylon 
type oil held at 9c. per lb. sellers' tanks, f.o.b. Coast, with 
the Manila at 95c. for January-March shipment. 

The market on palm oil was unsettled, with lower prices 
in evidence in some directions for future. Lagos for ship- 
ment closed nominally at 73c. per lb. Niger closed at 7ic. 
for prompt shipment from abroad. Offerings for soya bean 
oil appeared more plentiful and slightly easier prices for 
prompt shipment oil were noted. Inquiry was dull. Soya 
bean oil for December shipment from the Coast was offered 
at 55c. per lb., sellers' tanks, while there were sellers of 
January-March at 53c. 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



43 



Chemical Market for 1920 

During the latter half of 1920 the chemical industry 
underwent the most radical change in its history. Liquida- 
tion and all that goes with it exerted full force on the 
chemical market and prices yielded in almost every impor- 
tant item. Tight collections, efforts to ship goods prior to 
the advanced freight rates that became effective Aug. 26, 
1920, and the influx of surplus stocks held by large consum- 
ing plants have been factors all working against the main- 
tenance of a steady market. Reports from New England 
noted a state of acute quietness among most of the dye and 
bleaching plants. This condition was also reflected all 
through the textile industry. Finished textile products were 
not in demand and factories had to close their doors to 
thousands of employees. Several of these plants offered 
bichromate, prussiate and caustic soda for resale in the 
open market through various dealers. Arrivals were often 
considerably under the market to facilitate a quick sale. 

The American export trade during the first six months 
of 1920, helped by Europe and Japan, established the 
United States as the leading chemical center of the world. 
Prices were reflected by the persistent demand and for 
several months speculators who had contracted long before 
were reaping the benefit of a soaring market. Spot stocks 
were partly wiped out and with the shortage of fuel, rail- 
road entanglements and general existing abnormal condi- 
tions large producers were forced to shut down their plants. 
Germany's future after the war was another situation that 
kept foreign buyers on edge. When it was clearly evident 
that the German industry was not in a position to supply 
the rest of the civilized world, those who had been holding 
off flooded the American market with voluminous orders for 
miscellaneous chemicals and dyestuffs. This delicate situ- 
ation brought speculation to its highest point and commodi- 
ties were known to have advanced 10 to 15c. per lb. within 
twenty-four hours. Japanese buyers in their over-enthusiasm 
joined in the procession and played the speculative game 
harder than any of their neighbors. It was Japan that 
helped prices reach their highest peak and also their lowest 
level. Japan went into the market as a blind buyer and 
within a short period realized that she had bought enough 
for her requirements for the next three years. The surplus 
purchasing had a mortifying effect on Japanese financiers. 



COMPARATIVE PRICES OF GENERAL CHEMICALS. JANUARY TO 

DECEMBER, 1920 

Jan. 

Acetic acid, 28%, lb $0. 02J 

Acetic acid, glacial, lb .12 

Muriatic acid, 20deg., 1001b 1 .75 

Nitric acid, 40 deg., lb 06^ 

Oxalic acid, lb . 33 J 

Sulphuric acid, 66 deg.. ton 2 1 . 00 

Ac'tateof lead, lb . 12| 

Ammonia alum, lump, lb .04 

Potas.sium alum, lump . 07J 

Aluminum sulphate, iron free, lb. . . . 02^ 

Aluminum sulphate, commer., lb.. . .0I| 

Aqua ammonia, 26 deg., lb .07 

Sal ammoniac, white, lb . 14| 

Arsenic, white, lb . lOJ 

Barium chloride, ton 80 . 00 

Bleaching powder, lb . 02^ 

Carbon tetrachloride, lb .11 

Cobalt oxide, lb 1 . 50 

Copper sulphate, lb . 08i 

Cream of tartar, lb .55 

Epsom salt, U. S. P.. lb 02| 

Formaldehyde, lb .40 

Glauber salt, lb OU 

Lead arsenate, pa.ste, lb .16 

Bichromate pota.sh, lb .30 

Carbonate potash, 80-85 %,\h 23 

Caustic potash, 88-92%, lb 30 

Muriate potash, ton 1 50 . 00 

Nitrate potash, lb . 1 3i 

Permanganate potash, U. S. P., lb. . 60 

Prussiate potash, yellow, lb .37 

Acetate soda, lb . 06i 

Soda ash, light, lOOlb 2.00 

Bichromate soda, lb .19 

Caustic soda, solid, 1 00 lb 4.35 

Chlorate soda, lb .12 

Cyanide soda, lb .28 

Fluoride soda, lb .14 

Nitrate soda, lb 03 

Prussiate .soda, lb .25 

Salsoda, 1001b 1.25 

Sulphide soda, 60 7r. lb 05 

Tin oxide, lb 60 



June 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


$0,031 


$0.03i 


$0.03 


$0.03 


.16 


,IU 


■ 1H 


.101 


3.50 


2.00 


1.85 


1.85 


.071 


• 07i 


.07i 


.07 


.58 


.40 


.25 


.181 


23.00 


21.00 


21.00 


21.00 


.131 


.141 


.141 


.131 


.04i 


.04i 


.041 


.041 


.071 


.05^ 


.05^ 


.05j 


.03 


.05 


.04 


.03^ 


.02 


.04i 


.03 


.02i 


.09 


.09i 


.07^ 


.06z 


.I7i 


.14 


.12i 


.lOJ 


.14i 


.14 


.13 


lU 


150.00 


120.00 


100.00 


75.00 


.061 


.07i 


.06 


.03i 


.11 


.13^ 


.13 


.12 


2.00 


4.00 


4.00 


3.90 


.08 


.08 


■07i 


.06^ 


.56 


52 


.45 


.38 


.04^ 


.04 


.031 


.03 


.51 


.40 


.23 


.181 


.02 


.02^ 


.02 


OU 


. 16 


.16 


.15 


.13 


.42 


.30 


.22 


.171 


.21 


.19 


.15 


.12 


.28 


.25 


.17 


.14 


115.00 


105.00 


100.00 


100.00 


I3J 


.14 


■ 1H 


.1U 


.85 


.70 


.65 


.60 


.36 


.38 


.36 


.33 


.12 


.11 


.08 


.06J 


3.25 


2.50 


2.00 


1.85 


.32 


.16 


.11 


.on 


6.50 


4.00 


4.00 


3.75 


.12 


.12 


.11 


.10 


.35 


.34 


.26 


.23 


.19 


.21 


.20 


.17 


.03? 


.03 


.02i 


.021 


.26 


.24 


.19 


.17i 


1.25 


2.00 


2.00 


2.00 


.10^ 


.09 


.07i 


.06i 


.65 


.52 


.50 


.50 



Credits were immediately stopped and Japan shifted from 
the position of leading buyer to the selling end in a vain 
attempt to cover her great losses. Failures among large 
business interests and banks followed on the heels of this 
change, and it was not long after that the rest of the world 
followed suit. Cancellations on old contracts bought by 
domestic dealers and foreign orders were noted. Steamers 
docked with cargoes of returned surplus material. All this 
was dumped on the American market for resale. It is in 
this condition that the chemical market finds itself at the 
turn of the year. 

Perhaps the outstanding feature of the chemical market 
during the past year was the unique position of the dealer 
with his resale material and prices. During the latter part 
of 1919, jobbers foreshadowed a rising market and con- 
tracted heavily with manufacturers at low figures. These 
chemicals were later turned over at huge profits when the 
scarcity arose. Since June, however, prices have continually 
been on the decline and in some commodities the resale 
market has been consistently below the cost of manufactur- 
ing. Leading interests are of the opinion that the down- 
ward trend has run its course on most of the important 
items and that the first quarter of 1921 will be the impetus 
for another strong market that will once more bring out 
the American chemical industry as the guiding light for the 
rest of the world. 

The Iron and Steel Market 

Pittsburgh, Dec. 31, 1920. 
In the past week the steel market as a whole has been 
even quieter than formerly, if such a thing is possible. 
There has been no open demand to speak of, and prices 
have not been tested. The view formerly held still obtains, 
and even more strongly, that the turn of the year will wit- 
ness a mild resumption of buying. No general movement is 
expected for January, or even for several months to come, 
but it is held that complete stagnation cannot in the nature 
of things prevail for any length of time. The common atti- 
tude of buyers has been that they have no quarrel with the 
market, but simply have no interest in it. They are busy 
with year-end adjustments, unusually difficult this time, and 
will wait a more convenient season for developing a definite 
policy as to making fresh commitments. 

Operations 

The general closing of independent steel mills that was 
predicted in some quarters has not occurred. It is true the 
rate of operation of the independents as a whole has become 
very low, averaging perhaps under 25 per cent, but there is 
not a universal closing. Perhaps half the mills ai'e closed, 
with those operating running at rates from 25 to 60 per cent. 

The United States Steel Corporation is understood to be 
operating at 92 per cent, or a trifle more, measured by ingots. 
A very few finishing departments are closed for repairs, but 
on the other hand some have been working up accumulations 
of semi-finished material. 

Wages 

Wage reductions began to appear some time ago, and it 
looked as though these were forerunners of a general reduc- 
tion among the iron and steel producers, or at least among 
the independents. That impressison is now seen to be 
erroneous. Many steel producers openly express the opinion 
that the wage reductions made were ill-timed and the 
example is not being generally followed. It is not a case 
of producers holding that wages should not be reduced, but 
that the time is not ripe. It is maintained that the various 
wage advances more than kept pace with the increase in the 
cost of living, up to the latter's peak, and that with the 
decrease in the living cost that has already occurred, with 
more to follow, the iron and steel producing industry is 
eventually to be on a materially lower wage basis. 

Coke 

Additional Connellsville furnace coke contracts for the 
first half of the new year on the general basis of a 5 to 1 
ratio against basic pig iron at valley furnaces have been 
reported beyond the business noted in last review, and the 
total is now in the neighborhood of 75,000 tons a month. 



44 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



Some contracts made a couple of months ago, equivalent 
to a ratio of about 4h to 1, are still in existence, but will 
probably be modified when the furnaces involved have occa- 
sion to run. Basic pig iron is quotable nominally at $33 
valley, but the ti-ade is under the impression that at the 
beginning of January a $30 price will be recognized by some 
producers. That would make the coke on a 5 to 1 contract 
cost $6, this being regarded as a moderately fair cost in 
the circumstances, the coke operator having little control 
over his coal mining cost, which is dictated by the general 
coal scale even though the Connellsville region is technically 
non-union. Spot furnace coke can be had without difficulty 
at $5.50. 

Pig Iron 

The pig iron market remains dormant, with merchant 
furnaces continuing to go out of blast. In western Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio fully half the merchant furnaces are out, 
and others are to go out shortly. The furnaces accumulate 
no stocks before blowing out, and as consumers have been 
reducing their stocks the market situation is very sound in 
that respect, even though quoted prices almost entirely 
lack buying support. Quotations are practically nominal at 
$35 for foundry and bessemer and $33 for basic, f.o.b. 
valley furnaces. It seems safe to predict that next week 
furnace offerings will establish prices of about $32 for 
bessemer and $30 for basic, while foundry iron may merely 
sag somewhat. 

Semi-Finished Steel 

No interest whatever is manifested in billets and there 
can hardly be said to be even a nominal market price. In 
sheet bars all producers are holding firmly to $47, which is 
the Industrial Board price of $42 plus a $5 advance made 
last September by the Steel Corporation. It is the conten- 
tion of some sheet mills that the real market basis is $42 
and that the $47 price is only temporary. Some customers 
of the Steel Corporation, however, state that they have 
received no intimation of an intention to supply sheet bars 
in 1921 at any other price than $47. At any rate, some 
sheet mills are said to be "holding out" for a $42 price 
with the independents from whom they usually draw sup- 
plies, but a case is yet to be heard of a consumer making a 
firm bid for a tonnage at $42. 

Finished Products 

In the past few weeks, as already reported, the important 
finished steel products have declined in the independent mar- 
ket to the Steel Corporation level. Pipe was, and remains, 
the exception, the independents having a list from $7 to $10 
a ton above the corporation list. There is a rumor that some 
of the independents will issue a new and reduced list under 
date of Jan. 3. Pipe is exceptional among steel products 
in having shown to date an excellent demand against con- 
tracts, with pipe departments generally running full. As 
the mills should normally carry stocks, there is an oppor- 
tunity for independents to run on stocks and a reduction 
in price is not considered absolutely necessary at this time. 

Rails 

Contrary to expectations entertained in many quarters, 
the independent rail mills one by one have reduced their 
asking prices to the Steel Corporation or Industrial Board 
level, $45 per gross ton for bessemer and $47 for open- 
hearth. The distribution of rail orders for 1921 replace- 
ments will be somewhat heavier in consequence. The Penn- 
sylvania system, which for many years has had almost pre- 
cisely one-eighth the total ton-mileage of freight movement 
has distributed orders for 200,000 tons. The New York 
Central is taking 175,000 tons or more. It seems safe to 
predict that the total orders for replacement on the steam 
roads will be between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000 tons, prob- 
ably nearer the latter figure. With rails for electric line 
industrial use and export, the total output in 1921 is likely 
to be somewhat over rather than under 3,000,000 tons 
This would compare favorably with the average in recent 
years, but would leave the 4,000,000-ton record of 1906 
untouched. 



General Chemicals 

CURRENT WHOLESALE PRICES IN NEW YORK MARKET 



Acetic anhydride. lb. 

Acetone lb. 

Acid, acetic, 28 per cent 100 lbs. 

.\cetic, 56 per cent 100 lbs. 

Acetic, glacial, 99j per cent, carboys, 

100 lbs. 

Boric, crystals lb. 

Boric, powder lb. 

Citric lb. 

Hydrochloric 100 lb. 

Hydrofluoric, 52 per Cf nt lb. 

Lactic, 44 per cent tech lb. 

Lactic, 22 per cent tech lb. 

Molybdic, C P lb. 

Muriatic, 20 deg. (see hydrochloric) .... 

Nitric, 40 deg lb. 

Nitric, 42 deg .lb. 

Oxalic, crystals lb. 

Pho.sphoric, C rtho, 50 per cent solution. lb. 

Picric. . ib. 

PvTogallic, resublinicd Ib. 



Carlots 


Less Carlots 


_ 




$0.55 - 


$0 60 


$0.13 - 


$0,131 


.131- 


.14 


3.00 - 


3.25 


3.50 - 


3 75 


6.00 - 


6.25 


6.50 - 


6.75 


10.50 - 


11.00 


11.25 - 


11.50 


.14J- 


.15 


.15^- 


.16 


.15f- 


.I6i 


.17 - 


.18 






.52 - 


54 


1.85 - 


2.25 


2 75 - 


3.00 


.15 - 


.16 


.161- 


.16 


.10 - 


.11 


.lli- 


.12 


.041- 


.05^ 


.06 - 


.07 


4.00 - 


4 50 


4.50 - 


5.00 


". 07 - 


' .bih 


■ ■ . J8 - 


";68i 


.07^- 


.08 


.081- 


.091 


.18 - 


.18^ 


.19 - 


.20 


.18 - 


.181 


.18^- 


.19 


.28 - 


.35 


.40 - 


.50 


- 




2.30 - 


2.40 



Sulphuric, 60 deg. 
Sulphuric, 60 deg., 
Sulphuric, 66 deg., 
Sulphuric, 66 deg., 
Sulphuric, 66 deg., 
Sulphuric, fuming. 



till k cars ton 

diun s ton 

tank cars ton 

drun s ton 

carte s ton 

20 per cent (oleum) 

tank cars ton 

Sulphuric, fuming, 20 per cent (oleum) 

drums ton 

Sulph ric, fuming, 20 per cent (oleum) 

carboys ton 

Tannic, (T. S. P lb. 

Tannic (tech.) lb. 

Tartaric, crystals lb. 

Tungstic, per lb. of WO lb. 

Alcohol, Ethyl (nominal) . gal. 

Alcohol, Methyl (.see mcflianol) 

.Alcohol, denatured, 188 proof gal. 

Alcohol, denatured, 19C pro( f gal. 

Alum, ammonia lump lb. 

.\lum, potash lump lb. 

.\lum, chrome lun.p lb. 

."Muminum sulpliatc, conin crdal lb. 

.\lumiaum sulphate, iron free lb. 

.\ciua ammonia, 26 deg., drums (750 lb.). lb. 

.\mmonia, anhydroys, cyl. ( 100- 150 lb.). lb. 

-Ammonium carbonate, powder lb. 

.Vmmonium chloride, granular (white 
salamoniac) (nominal) lb. 

.\mmonium chloride, granular (gray sal- 
ammoniac) lb. 

Ammonium nitrate lb. 

.Ammonium sulphate lb. 

.Amylacetat'" gal. 

Am lacetate tech gal. 

Ar.senic oxide, lumps (whit" ar:(iic).. lb. 

.Arsenic, sulphide, powdered (i (d arsei icUb. 

Barium chloi idc ton 

Barium dioxide (peroxide) lb. 

Barium nitrate lb. 

Barium sulphate (precip.) (1 lane fixe).. lb. 

Bleaching powder (see calc. hypochlorite) . . 

Blue vitriol (see copper sulphate) 

Borax (see sodium borate) 

Brim.stone (see sulphur, roll) 

Bromine lb. 

Calcium acetate 100 lbs. 

Calcium carbide lb. 

Calcium chloride, fused, hm p ton 

Calcium chloride, graniihitrd lb. 

Calcium hypochlorite (blcach'g powder) lb. 

Calcium peroxide lb. 

Calcium phosphate, monobasic lb. 

Calcium sulphate, pure lb. 

Campho >• '.b. 

Carbon .".sulphide lb. 

Carbon tetrachloride, drums lb. 

Carbonyl chloride (phosgene) lb. 

Caustic potash(see potassium hydroxide). 

Caustic soda Csce .'odiiim hydroidc) 

Chlorine, gas, li<iuid-cyhnders( 100 lb.), .lb. 

Chloroform lb. 

Cobalt oxide lb. 

Copperas (see iron sulphate) 

Copper carbonate, green precipitate.. . lb. 

Copper cyanide lb. 

Copper sulphate, crystals lb. 

Cream of tartar (see potas-Muni bitartrite). 

Epsom salt (see magnesium sulpl ate) 

Ethyl .Acetate Com. 85^^ gal. 

Ethyl .Acetate pure (acetic ether ?8^ to 

l60'~r) 

Formaldehyde, 40 per cent lb. 

Fu.sel oil, ref gal. 

Fusel oil, crude gal. 

Glauber's salt (see sodium sulphate) 

( ilyccrine, C. P. drums extra lb. 

Iodine, resublimcd lb. 

Iron oxide, ri-d lb. 

Iron .sulphate (coppera.«) ICO lb. 

Lead acetate, normal lb. 

Lead arsenate (paste) lb. 

Lead nitrate, crystals lb. 

Litharge lb. 

Lithium carbonate lb. 

Magnesium carbonate, terhr ical lb. 

Magnesium sulphate, I". S. P 100 lb. 

.Magnesium sulphate, commercial.. 100 lb. 

Methanol. 95'7 gal. 

Mcth.anol, pure gal. 

Nickel salt, double lb. 

Nickel salt, single lb. 

Pho-sgene (see carbonyl chloride) 

Phosphorus, red lb . 

Phasphorus, yellow lb. 

Potassium bichromate lb. 



18.00 
21.00 



19.00 
22.00 



14.00 - 15.00 
22! 50 - 23:66 



23.00 - 24.00 
25.00 - 26.00 
32.00 - 35.00 
■ ". 50 - '".55 



26.50 - 27.00 



40.00 
1.30 



56 
33 
20 
50 



1.35 

.60 

35 

1.40 

6.00 



_ 




.82 - 


.84 


_ 




.88 - 


.90 


.04^- 


.04i 


.05 - 


.055 


.05^- 


.06 


.065- 


.07 


.13 - 


.135 


.14 - 


.145 


.025- 


.03 


.03J- 


.035 


.03^- 


.035 


.04 - 


.04 


.06- 


.07 


.075- 


.085 


.33 - 


.35 


.36 - 


.38 


.14 - 


.14i 


.145- 


.15 


.105- 


.11 


■ lU- 


ll's 


. 1 - 


lOJ 


.10^- 


.11 


.09 - 


.09i 


.10 - 


.105 


.033- 


.04 


.04 - 


.045 






4.50 - 


5.00 


_ 




3 75 - 


4 00 


lo;- 


.11 


.111- 


.115 


15 - 


.15J 


.15 - 


.15 


75.00 - 80 00 


85.00 - 


90.00 


.24 - 


.25 


.26 - 


.27 


.10 - 


m 


.105- 


.11 


.045- 


.05 


.055- 


.06 



.50 - .52 

2 00 - 2.25 

.04 - .045 

30.00 - 32.00 

.02 - .02i 

.02|- .03 



.54 - 



.56 



.04 - 

33.00 - 

.02i- 



. 08 - . 08i 
.11 - .Hi 



031 
.25 
.18 
.07 
.90 
.09 

.115 
.60 



- 1 



.05 
35.00 
.03 
.03'. 
.30 
.20 
.08 
.95 
09} 
12 
75 



.09 - .09i 



.10 

.43 

3.90 



.105 
50 
4 00 



22- .22i 

.06}- '".66: 



.24 - 


.25 


.50 - 


.60 


.07 - 


.075 



1.05- 1.10 



18}- .18: 



1.50 - 

" J3 - 

".\Q - 



1.75 

'!i4 
":i6} 



.10}- .11 
3.00- 3.25 



.35 - 

.i?}- 



.37 

:i7j 



.19 
3.50 
2.75 

■■."26 
3.85 
10 
2.00 
.13J 
.14) 
.90 
.10: 
1.50 
Ml 

iso 

1 75 

2.10 

.12 

.13 

"".'38 ■ 
.35 
.18 



.195 
3 60 
3.00 



- 2 



21 
00 
20 
25 
16 
15 
00 
11} 



12 



1 75 



80 
15 
12) 
13} 



.40 
.37 
.18) 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEFiRING 



43 



Carlots 
.. - $. 



.35 
.11 

.12 



.40 

Hi 
.13 



75 



14 - 144 
00 ~ 80.00 



Less Carlots 
$0 38-$0 40 
35 - 

.45 - 

■ IIJ- 

.I3i- 

.65 - 

.15 - 



40 
50 
12 
18 

;o 

16 



.111- 

.60"- 

.55 - 

32 - 



.12 
.63 
.57 
32'. 



$225.00 -230 00 



OO - 3 20 
.12;- .13 
.65- .70 
.58 - .60 
.33 - .33i 



90 - 
30 - 
05^- 
45 - 
09J- 
00 - 
06^- 
075- 
00 - 
10 - 
22 - 
17 - 
75 - 



2 00 
2 50 
051 
2.60 
09i 
7 50 
,07 
08 
2 25 
.lOi 
.24 
.I7J 
4.00 



2 85 - 




.06 - 


06 


.30 - 


.31 


.035- 


.041 


- 





16 



17i- 
Oli- 
.03 
75 
,06 
04 
20 
08 
00 
09 



- 2 



17 

Olf 

03J 

00 

065 

041 

.201 

.09 

20 00 



45.00 - 

1.25 - 
.43 - 

2 10 - 

2 75 - 
06 - 

2.65 - 
,091- 

8,00 - 

,07^ 

08; 

2,50 - 

lOt- 

,26 - 

.175- 

4 25 - 
03 

3,00 - 
.061- 
.32 - 
.04!- 
.33 - 
.18 - 
.02 - 
.03'- 

2.25- 
.07 - 
.041- 
.21 - 
.10 - 



50.00 

':45' 

2 30 

3 00 
.065 

3.00 

,10 

11.00 

,08 

081 

2 75 

. 11 

.29 

.181 

4 35 
.04 



.07 

.34 

.05 

.35 

.181 

.021 

.04 

,50 

.07; 

.05 

.22 

.10; 



.10 - 12 
3.70 - 4,35 
3.40 - 3 90 



18 



19 



Potassium bitartrato (cream of tartar) .... lb. 

Pota.ssium bromide, granular lb. 

Potassium carbonate, U. S. P lb' 

Potassium carbonate, crude lb. 

Potassium chlorate, ci-ystals lb. 

Porassium cyanido lb 

Potassium hydroxide (caustic p tash).. . . lb. 

Potassium muriate. Ion 

Potas.«ium iodide lb. 

Potassium nitrate lb. 

Potiissium permanganate lb. 

Potr.ssium prus^iate, red lb. 

Potassium prussiate, yellow lb. 

Potas.sium sulphate (powdered) ton 

Rochelle salts (see sodium potas tartrate) . . 

Salammoniac (see ammonium chloride) 

Sal soda (see sodium carbonate) 

Salt cake. ton 

Silver cyanide oz. 

Silver nitrate oz. 

Soda ash, light 100 lb. 

Soda ash, dense 100 lb. 

Sodium acetate lb. 

Sodium bicarbonate 1 00 lb. 

Sodium bichromate lb. 

Sodium bisulphate (nitre cake) ton 

Sodium bisulphite powdered, U.S.P lb. 

Sodium borate (borax) lb. 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 100 lb. 

Sodium chl rate lb. 

Sodium cyanide, 96-98 per cent lb. 

Sodium fluoride lb. 

Sodmm hydroxide (caustic soda) 100 lb. 

Sodium h>T)osulphite lb. 

Sodium nitrnte 1 00 lb. 

Sodium nitrite lb. 

Sodium peroxide, powdered lb. 

Sodium phosphate, dibasic lb. 

Sodium potassium tartrate (Rochelle salt*) lb. 

Sodium prussiate, ye!low lb. 

Sodium silicate, solution (40deg.) lb. 

Sodium silicate, solution (60 deg.) lb. 

Sodium sulphate, crystals(Glauber's salt) 1 00 lbs. 
Sodium sulphide,cr>'stal,60-62per cent(conc.) lb 

Sodium sulphite, crj^stals lb. 

Strontium nitrate, powdered lb. 

Sulphur chl ride, red lb. 

Sulphur, crude ton 

Sulphur dioxide, liquid, cylinders lb. 

Sulphur (.sublimed), flour 100 lb. 

Sulphur, roll (brimstone) 100 lb. 

Tin bichloride, 50 per cent lb. 

Tin oxide lb. 

Zinc carbonate, precipitate lb. 

Zinc chloride, gran lb. 

Zinc cyanide lb. 

Zinc dust lb. 

Zinc oxide, XX lb. 

Zinc sulphate lb. 



Coal-Tar Products 

NOTE — The following prices are for original packages in large quantities: 

Alpha-naphthol, crude lb. $1 , 10 — $1 15 

.Mpha-naphthol, refined lb. 1.45— 1,50 

.-Mpha-naphthylamine lb. . 40 ^ .44 

Aniline oil, drums extra lb. .22 — .26 

Aniline salts lb. . 27 — ,30 

Anthracene, SOTc in drums (100 lb.) lb. . 90 — 1 00 

Benzaldehyde (f.f .c.) lb. 2 00 — 2,10 

Benzidine, base lb. 1.00 — ■ 1.10 

Benzidine sulphate lb .85 — .90 

Benzoic acid, U.S.P lb. .70— .75 

Benzoate of soda, U.S.P lb. .75— .85 

Benzene, pure, water-white, in drum.s (100 gal.) gal. .32 — • .35 

Benzene, 90 , in drums ( 1 00 gal.) gal. .30 — • .32 

Benzyl chloride, 95-97 , , refined lb. . 35 — .40 

Benzyl chloride, tech lb. .25 — • ,35 

Beta-naphthol benzoate lb. 3, 50 — 4. 00 

Beta-naphthol, sublimed lb. .75 — .80 

Beta-naphthol, tech (nominal) lb. .40 — 45 

Beta-naphthylaniine, sublimed ; lb. 2,25 — 2 40 

Cresol, U. S. P., indrums (lOOlb.) lb. .16— ,18 

Ortho-cresol, in drums ( 1 00 lb.) lb. .23 — 25 

Cresj'lic acid, 97-99- (, straw color, in drums gal. .95 — ■ 1 . 00 

Cresylic acid, ,5-97^ , dark, in drums gal. . 90 — .95 

Cresylic acid, 50%, first quality, drums gal. .65 — .75 

Dichlorbenzene lb. 07 — • ,15 

Diethvlaniline lb. 1.35— 1 , 40 

Dimethylaniline lb. .65— .90 

Di"itrobenzene lb. .30 — • .37 

Diiiitroclorbenzene lb. .25 — .30 

Dinitronaphthalene lb. .40 — • .45 

Dinitrophenol lb. .40 — .45 

Dinitrotoluene lb. .30 — ■ .32 

Dip oil, 25%, tar acids, car lots, in drums gal. .38 — ,40 

Diphenylamine lb. .70 — • ,75 

H-acid lb. 1 , 40 — 1 55 

Meta-phenylenediamine lb. 125 — 1 , 30 

Monochlorbenzene lb. .15 — .16 

Monoethylaniline lb. 175 — ^ ■ ?„ , 

Naphthalene crushed, in bbls. (250 lb.) lb. .08 — 085 

Naphthalene, flake lb. . 08 — ,08; 

Naphthalene, balls lb. .09— .095 

Naphthionic acid, crude lb. .70 — .75 

Nitrobenzene lb. .12 — .15 

Nitro-naphthalene lb. .40 — .50 

Nitro-toluene lb. .18— .25 

Ortho-amidophenol lb. 3 . 20 — 3 . 75 

Ortho-dichlor-benzene lb. 15 — .20 

Ortho-nitro-phenol lb. .75 — .80 

Ortho-nitro-toluene lb. . 23 — .30 

Ortho-toluidine lb. -■?^ ~~ ,,? 

Para-amidophenol, ba.se lb. 2 . 20 — 2 . 25 

Para-amidophenol. HCl lb. 2.10— 2.15 



_ 




.50 - 


51 


16 - 


.18 


.19 - 


.20 


12 - 


.13 


.135- 


.14 


45 - 


,49 


.50 - 


.60 


12 - 


,13 


.131- 


.14 


10 - 


,105 


.11 


.11 


035- 


.03i 


.04 - 


.06 



Para-dichlorbenzenc lb. 10 

' aranitroanilinc ](). 93 

Para-nitrotoluppe 'K 125 

Para-phcnylenediamine !..,......! lb! 2 20 

^ara-toluidine jo | 70 

Phthalic anhydride .'.'.'.'.' |b' 60 

Phenol, U. S. P., drums (dest.), (240 lb.) ... '. . "lb. 09 

Pyridine. ^^i. 2 00 

ifesorcmol, techmcal )b 2 75 

Resordnol, pure .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.';.' lb! 3 60 

haicyic acH, tech., in bbls. (110 lb.) lb. 32 

Sa icyhc acid, U. .S. P Jb. .35 

Salol jb 85 

Solvent naphtha, water-white, in drums, 1 6(j gai. gal. ! 30 

Solvent naphtha, crude, heavy, in drums, 100 gal . gal. 19 

Sulphanilic acid, crude lb 32 

Tolidine ! ! ! ! ! lb! 135 

Toluidine, mixed ! ! lb 45 

Toluene, in tank cars gal 30 

Toluene, in drums gal. !33 — 

Aylidines, drums, 100 gal lb. 45 — 

Xylene, pure, in drums ' ' ga']. 42 — 

Ay one, pure, in tank cars gal. .45 — 

Ay ene, commercial, in drums, 100 gal gal 37 — 

Xylene, commercial, in tank cars gal. .30 — 

Waxes 

Prices based on original packages in large quantities. 

Beeswax, refined, dark lb. $3 26 

Beeswax, refined, light lb. .28 

Beeswax, white pure ! ! . ! lb! ! 35 

Carnauba, No. I !..!!! lb 85 

Carnauba, No. 2, North Country ! lb 45 — 

Carnauba, No. 3, North Country lb. .20 — 

•'apan jb. .19 

Montan, crude Jb. ! 07 

Paraffine waxes, crude match wax (white) 105-1 10 

-mP lb. .06J— 

I araffine waxes, crude, scale 124-126 m.p lb. 064 — 

ParaflSne waxes, refined, 1 18-120 m.p lb. .07 — 

Paraffine waxes, refined, 125 nip lb. 075 — 

Paraffine waxes, refined, 128-130 m.p lb. .085 — 

Paraffine waxes, refined, 133-135 m.p .. lb. IO5 — 

Paraffine waxes, refined, 135-137 m.p lb. .II5— 

Stearic acid, single pressed lb. . I4|^ 

Stearic acid, double pressed !!.!!!!!! lb! ! 1 5 ' 

Stearic acid, triple pressed !.!!!! lb! ! 1 6 ' — 



— I 



15 

,00 

40 

35 

80 

.70 

10 

50 

80 

80 

33 

.37 

.95 

35 

.22 

35 

40 

.55 

32 

.35 

,50 

45 

!38 



$0 



27 
30 
40 
.90 
.50 
.25 
.20 
.08 

.061 

.06} 

.071 

.08 

.09 

.11 

.12 

.15 

.15J 

.I6i 



Flotation Oils 

All prices are f.o.b. New York unless otherwise stated, and are 
carload lots. The oils in 50-gal. bbls., gross weight, 500 lb. 

Pine oil, steam dist., sp.gr., 0.930-0.940 gal. 

Pine oil, pure, dest. dist gal' 

Pine tar oil, ref., sp.gr. 1.025-1.035 !!!!!! gal! 

Pine tar oil, crude, sp.gr.l. 025-1. 035 tank cars fob. Jacksonville, 

Fla . . . . gal 

Pine tar oil, double ref., sp.gr. 6.965-6.990 gal 

Pine tar, ref, thin, sp.gr., 1.080-1.960 gal" 

Turpentine, crude, sp. gr., 0.900-0.970 gal. 

Hardwood oil, fob. Mich., sp.gr., 0.960-0.990 gal. 

Pinewood c.-eo3ote, ref gal. 

Naval Stores 

The foUowi ig prices are f.o.b. New York for carload lots. 

Rosin B- , bbl 280 1b. $8 75 

Rosin E-1 280 lb. 8 75 

Rosin K-N 280 lb. 8 75 

Rosin W. G.-W. W 280 lb. 9,00 

Wo()d rosin, bbl 280 lb. 9 00 

Spirits of turpentine gal. . 76 

Wood turpentine steam diH gal. .74 

Wood turpentine, dest. di;t gal. . 74 

Pine tar pitch, bbl 200 lb. 

Tar, kiln burned, bbl. (500 lb.) bbl. .... 

Retort tar, bbl 500 1b. 15 66 

Rosin oil, first run gal. .60 

Rosin oil, second run gal. . 62 

Rosin oil, third run gal. . 75 

Solvents 

73-76 deg., steel bbls. (85 lb.) gal. 

70-72 deg., steel bbls. (85 lb) gal. 

68-70 deg., steel bbls. (85 lb.) gal. 

V. M. and P. naphtha, steel bbls. (85 lb.) gal. 

Crude Rubber 

Para — Upriver fine lb. $0. 185 

Upriver coarse lb. .14 

Upriver caucho ball lb. . 1 45 

Plantation — First latex crepe ib. .17 

Ribbed smoked sheets lb. .165 

Brown crepe, thin, clean lb. .16 

Amber crepe No. 1 lb. .17 

Oils 

VEGETABLE 

The following prices are f.o.b. New York for carload lots. 

Castor oil. No. 3, in bbls lb. CO. 10 

Castor oil, A.\, in bbls lb. .12 

China wood oil, in bbls. (f.o.b. Pac. coast) lb. .09 

Cocoanut oil, Ceylon grade, in bbls lb. .13 

Cocoanut oil. Cochin grade, in bbls lb. . 1 35 

Cor > oil, crude, in bbls lb. .09 

Cottonseed oil, crude (f. o. b. mill) lb. .06 

Cottonseed oil, summer yellow lb. . 08j 

Cottonseed oil, wi ter yellow lb. .09 

Linseed oil, raw, car lots (domestic'* gal. . 77 

Linseed oil, raw, tank cars (dome ti^' gal. . 73 

Linseed oil, boiled, car Ijts (dome.ti> ) gal. . 78 



based on 

$1.90 

1 50 

.48 

.35 
.75 
.36 
1.25 
.35 
.52 



8.50 
15.00 
15.50 



$0.41 
.39 

.38 
.30 



— $0.19 

— .141 

— .141 



$0 



1^' 

091 

135 

14 

095 

07 

08 J 

091 

79 

74 

80 



46 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24. No. 1 



Olive oil, commercial ga.'- 

Palm, Lagos lb. 

Palm, Niger lb. 

Peanut oil, crude, tank cars (f .o.b. mill) lb. 

Peanut oil, refined, in bbls lb. 

Rapeseed oil, refined in bbls gal. 

Rapeseed oil, blown, in bbls. ._ gal. 

Soya bean oil (Manchurian), in bble. N. Y lb. 

Soya bean oil, tank cars, f.o.b., Pacific coast lb. 

FISH 

Lieht pressed Menhaden gal. 

Yellow bleached Menhaden gal. 

White bleached Menhaden gal. 

Blown Menhaden gal. 



Miscellaneous Materials 

All f . o. b. New York Unless Otherwise Stated 

Barytes, ground, white, f.o.b. Kings Creek, S. C. 
Barytas, ground, off color, f.o.b. Kings Creek 

Barytes, crude, 88%@94% ba.. Kings Creek 

Barytes, floated, f.o.b. St. Louis 

Barytes, crude, first grade, Missouri 

Blanc fixe, dry 

Bianc fixe, pulp 

Caseine 

Chalk, domestic, extra light 

Chalk, domestic, light 

Chalk, domestic, heavy 

Chalk, English, extra light 

Chalk, English, light 

Chalk, English, dense 

China clay, (Kaolin) crude, f.o.b. mines, Georgia 

China clay (Kaolin) washed, f.o.b. Georgia 

China clay (Kaolin) powdered, f.o.b. Georgia. . . 
China clay (Kaolin) crude f.o.b. Virginia points . 
China clay (Kaolin) ground, f.o.b. Virginia points. 

China clay (Kaolin) , imported, lump 

China clay (Kaolin), imported, powdered 

Feldspar, crude, f.o.b. Maryland and North 

Carolina points 

Feldspar, crude, f.o.b. Maine 

Feldspar, ground, f.o.b. Maine 

Feldspa'', ground, f.o. ■>. North Carolina 

Feldspa , ground, f.o.b. N. Y. State 

Feldspar, ground , f.o.b. Baltimore 

Fuller's Earth, f.o.b. New York 

Fuller's earth, granular, f.o.b. Fla., 

Fuller's earth, powdered, f.o.b. Fla., 

Fuller's earth, imoorted, powdered 

Graphite, crucible, 90*7, carbon, Ashland, Ala. . . 
Graphite, crucible. 85^, carbon, Ashland, Ala. . . 

Graphite, higher lubricating grades 

Pumice stone, irhported, lump 

Pumice stone, domestic, lump 

Pumice stone, ground 

Quartz (acid tower) fist to head, f.o.b. Baltimore 
Qtiartz (acid tower) 1i@2 in., f.o.b. Baltimore... 

Quartz (acid tower) rice, f.o.b. Baltimore 

Quartz, lump, f.o.b. North Carohna 

Shellac, orangefine 

Shellac, orange superfine 

Shellac, A. C. garnet 

Shellac, T. N 

Soapstone 

8odi\im Chloride 

Talc, paper-making grades, f.o.b. Vermont 

Talc, roofing grades, f.o.b. Vermont 

Talc, rubber grades, f.o.b. Ve mont 

Talc, powdered, Southern, f.o.b. cars 

Talc, imported 

"Tab, California Talcum Powder grade 



2.60 — 


2.70 


.07i - 


. .08 


.071 — 


.08\ 


.07 - 


.07^ 


.13 — 


.134 


1.10 — 


1.15 


1 20 — 


1.25 


.08i — 


.09 


.06 — 


.07 


$0.53 — 


$0.55 


.55 - 


.58 


57 — 


.60 


1.00 — 


.... 



net ton 


$24.00 


— 


J30.00 


net ton 


22.00 


— 


26.00 


net ton 


10.00 


— 


12.00 


net ton 


26.50 


— 


28.00 


net ton 


10.00 


— 




lb. 


.05 


— 


.051 


net ton 


60.00 


— 


65.00 


lb. 


.14 


— 


.18 


lb. 


.05 





.06 


lb. 


.04 J 


— 


.05, 


lb. 


.04 


— 


.05 


lb. 


.05 


— 


.07 


lb. 


, .05 


— 


.06 


lb. 


■-■ .04i 


— 


.05 


net ton 


8.00 


. — 


10.00 


net ton 


12.00 




15.00 


net ton 


18.00 


— 


22.00 


net ton 


8.00 


— 


12.00 


net ton 


15.00 


. — 


40.00 


net ton 


25.00 


— 


35.00 


net ton 


30.00 


— 


35.00 


gross ton 


8.00 





14.00 


net ton 


7.50 


— 


10.00 


net ton 


21.00 


— 


23.00 


net ton 


17.00 


— 


21.00 


net ton 


17.00 


— 


21.00 


net ton 


27.00 


— 


30.00 


net ton 


16.00 


— 


17.00 


net ton 


25.00 


— 




net ton 


18.00 


— 




net ton 


35.00 


— 


40. OC 


lb. 




— 


.09 


lb. 


.07 


— 


.09 


lb. 


.11 


— 


.40 


lb. 


.04 


— . 


.50 


lb. 


.06 


— 




lb. 


.04 


— 


.07 


net ton 




— 


10 00 


net ton 




— 


14.00 


net ton 




— 


17.00 


net ton 


5.00 


— 


7.50 


lb. 


1.00 


— 


1.05 


lb. 


I.OS 


— 


1.10 


lb. 


.90 


— 


.95 


lb. 


.85 


— 


.95 


ton 


15.00 


— 


25.00 


ong ton 




— 


17.50 


ton 


12.00 


_- 


22.00 


ton 


9.50 


— 


15.00 


ton 


12.00 


— 


18.00 


ton 


12.00 


— 


15.00 


ton 


60.00 


— 


70.00 


ton 


20.00 


— 


45.00 



Refractories 



Bauxite brick, 56% Al, f.o.b. Pittsburgh 1,000 

C'lirome brick, f.o.b. Eastern shipping points net ton 

Chrome cement, 40-45% CrjOs net ton 

Chrome cement, 40-45% CrjOj, sacks, in oar lots, f.o.b. 

Eastern shipping points net ton 

Fire clay brick, 1st quality, 9-in. .shapes, f.o.b. Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Kentucky works 1,000 

Fire clay brick, 2nd (juality, 9-in. shapes, f.o.b. Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Kentucky works 1,000 

Magnesite brick, 9-in. straight net ton 

Magnesite brick. 9-in. arches, wedges and keys net ton 

Magnesite brick, soaps and splits net ton 

Silica brick, 9-in. sizes, f.o.b. Chicago district 1,000 

Silica brick, 9-in. sizes, f.o.b. Birmingham district 1,000 

Silica brick, 9-in. eizes, f.o.b. Mt. Union, Pa 1,000 



Ferro-Alloys 

All f.o.b. Works 

Ferro-carbon-titanium, 15-18%, f.o.b. Niagara 

FaUs, N.V net ton $200.00 

Ferro-chrome, per lb. of Or. contained, 6-8% 

carbon, carlots lb. .16 

Ferro-chrome, per lb. of Or. contained. 4-6% 

carbon, carlots lb. .17 

Ferro-nmngancsc, 76-80% Mn, domestic gross ton 1 20 . 00 

Ferro-mangancse, 76-80% Mn, i;nglish gross ton 130 00 

Spiegclciscn, 18-22% Mn crosston 60 00 

Ferro-molybdenum, 50-60%Mo, perlb. of Mo. . lb. 2.00 

Ferro-silicon, 10-15% gross ton 55 . 00 

Ferro-silicon, 50% gross ton 78 . 00 

Ferro-silicon, 75% gross ton 

Ferro-tungsten, 70-80%, perlb. of contained W... Id. .55 

Ferro-uranium, 35-50% of V, per lb. of U content lb. 7 . 00 

Ferro-vonadium, 30-40% perlb. of contained v.... lb. 6 50 



160 
100-110 
55-60 

60-65 

55-60 

45-50 

110 

121 

134 

65-70 

56-61 

55-60 



—$225.00 
— .17 





18 


125 


00 


135 


00 


65 


00 


2 


50 


60 


00 


80 


00 


150 


00 




60 



— $11.00 
.65 

— .60 

— 7 00 

— 6 00 

— 22.00 



25.00 

65.00 
.60 



— .14 



— 4.00 



4 


25 


3 


00 


3 


00 


14 


00 





Ores and Semi-finished Products 

All f.o.b. New York, Unless Otherwise Stated 

Bauxite. 52% Al. content, less than 2% FejOi, up 

to 20% silica, not more than H4% mobture.. gross ton $10.00 
Chrome ore, Calif, concentrates, 50% min.... 

^ CrjOj unit .60 

Chrome ore, 50%, Cr,0, f.o.b. Atlantic Sea- 
board unit . 55 

Coke, foundry, f.o.b. ovens net ton ■ 

Coke, furnace, f.o.b. ovens net ton ■ 

Coke, petroleum, refinery, Atlantic Seaboard. .. . net ton 21.00 • 

Fluorspar, lump, f.o.b.'Tonuco, New Mexico .. . netton 17.50- 
Fluor spar, standard, domestic washed gravel 

Kentucky and Illinois mines net ton 22.50 • 

Ilmenite, 52%,Ti02, per lb. ore lb. .01 J 

Manganese Ore, 50% Mn, c.i.f. Atlantic seaport unit . 40 

( Manganese ore, chemical (MnO,) gross ton 60. 00 • 

^Molybdenite, 85% MoS,. per lb. of MoS„ N. Y. lb. .55 • 

Monazite,perunit of Th()j, c.i.f., Atlantic seaport unit 35.00 • 

Pyrites, Spanish, fines , c.i.f., Atlantic seaport . . . unit . 12 ■ 
Pyrites, Spanish, furnace size, c.i.f., Atlantic 

seaport unit .17- 

PjTites, domestic, fines, f.o.b. mines, Ga unit . 12 

Rutile, 95% TiOj per lb. ore lb. .15 

Tungsten, Scheelite, 60% WO, and over, per unit 

of WO, (nominal) unit 3.75 

Tungsten, Wolframite, 60% WO, and over, per 

unit of WO„ N. Y. C unit 4. 00 

Uranium Ore (Carnotite) per lb. of U3 Os lb. 2.75 

Uranium oxide, 96% per lb. contained U3 Os. . . . lb. 2. 75 

Vanadium pentoxide, 99% lb. 12. 00 

Vanadium Ore, per lb. of V j O5 contained lb. 1 . 50 

Zircon, washed, iron free lb. .05 



Non-Ferrous Metals 

New York Markets 

Cents per Lb 

Copper, electrolytic 15 00 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent 27 50 

Antimony, wholesale lots, Chinese and Japanese 5 . 25(a 5 37r 

Nickel, ordinary (ingot) 43 . 00 

Nickel, electrolytic 45 00 

Tin, 5-ton lots 34 02^ 

Lead, New York, spot 5 37^ 

Lead, E. St. Louis, spot 6.25 

Zinc, spot. New York 7.00 

Zinc, spot, E. St. Louis 6.75 

OTHER METALS 

Silver (commercial) o». $0 65| 

Cadmium lb. 1. 40® I. 50 

Bismuth (500 lb. lots) lb. 2. 40 

Cobalt lb. 6.00 

Magnesium (f.o.b. Philadelphia) lb. I 35 

Platinum oz. 75 00 

Iridium oz. 350. OOC 400. 00 

Palladium oz. 75 no 

Mercury 75 lb. 50 00 

FINISHED METAL PRODUCTS 

Warehouse Price 
Cents per Lb. 

Copper sheets, hot rolled 22 50 

Copper bottoms 34 . UO 

Copper rods 29 00 

High brass wire and sheets 20 23 

High brass rods 18 25 

Low brass wire and sheets 30 . 50 

Low brass rods 1 9 50 

Brazed brass tubing 36. 25 

Brazed bronze tubing 4150 

Seamless copper tubing 26 00 

Seamless high brass tubing 25 00 

OLD METALS — The following are the dealers' purchasing prices in cents per 
pound: 

. New York — ~^ 

One 
Current Year Ago Cleveland Chicago 

Copper, heavy and crucible 12 00 17 00 10 00 1 1 50 

Copper, heavy and wire 1150 16.00 9 50 1100 

Copper, light and bottoms 10.00 14.00 9 00 9 50 

Lead, heavy 4.00 4.75 4 00 4 50 

Lead, tea 3 00 3 75 3 00 3 50 

Brass, heavy 7.00 10.50 7 00 10 50 

Bras?, light 5.50 7.50 5 00 5 50 

No. 1 yellow b-as8 turnings 6 50 10 00 5 50 5 50 

Zino 4.50 5.00 3 00 4.50 



Structural Material 

The following base prices per 1 00 lb. are for structural shapes 3 in. by J in. and 
larger, and plates J in. and heavier, from jobbers' warehouses in the cities named: 







— \ 


ew York- 
One 


One 


. — Cleveland — 
One 


• — 


-Chi 


cago-~ 
One 




Current 


Month 


Year 


Current 


Year 


Current 


Year 








Ago 


Ago 




.■^go 






Ago 


Structural shapes. . . 


$3 


80 


$4 15 


$3.47 


$3 58 


$3.37 


$3 


58 


$3 47 


80ft steel bars 


3 


70 


4 15 


3.37 


3 34 


3.27 


3 


48 


3.37 


Soft steel bar shapes 


3 


70 


4.15 


3.37 


3 48 


3.27 


3 


48 


3.37 


Soft steel bands. . . . 


4 


65 


5 50 


4.07 


6 25 











— 7.50 Plat. 8, } to 1 in. thick 4 00 



4 15 3 67 



3 78 3 57 



3.78 3.67 



January 5, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



47 




Industrial 



Financial, Constioiction and Manuracturers' News 



Construction and 
Operation 

California 

EL CENTRO — The City Council plans 
an election in January to vote on $125,000 
to purchase and enlarge the present pri- 
vately owned gas plant. W. F. Holt, prin- 
cipal owner. 

LOS ANGELES — The Consolidated Va- 
nadium Co., 1225 Washington Bldg., has 
awarded the contract for the construction 
of a 1-story, 50x50-ft. factory for the 
manufacture of vanadium products, to the 
Union Iron Works, 5125 Santa Fe Ave., 
Estimated cost, $4,000. 

Massachusetts 

WAKEFIELD — The town plans to install 
equipment in the gas plant of the munic- 
ipal light plant. Estimated cost, $250,000. 

Colorado 

LA JUNTA — The town plans an election 
Jan. 20 to vote on $200,000 bonds to con- 
struct a high school. A chemical labora- 
tory will be installed in same. 

Georgia 

CREST — The Taylor Graphite Co. plans 
to install mining and concentrating equip- 
ment. Estimated cost, $23,000. J. E. 
Taylor, pres. 

Iowa 

CHARLES CITY — The city is having 
plans prepared for the construction of a 
sewage disposal plant. Estimated cost, 
$25,000. W. E. Buell, 228 Davidson Bldg., 
Sioux City, engr. 

DECORAH — The Bd. Educ. plans an 
election Jan. 10 to vote on $150,000 bonds 
to construct a 2- or 3-story high school. 
A chemical laboratory will be installed in 
same. C. F. Barefoot, secy. 

KEOKUK — The city plans an election 
soon to vote on $500,000 bonds to build a 
3-story high school. A chemical labora- 
tory will be installed in same. F. C. Smith, 
secy. 

Maryland 

BALTIMORE — The School Bd. of Awards 
has awarded the contract for the con- 
struction of a 3-story, 76x271-ft. high 
school on Latrobe Park and Fort Ave., to 
the Standard Constr. Co., 1713 Sansom 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. A chemical labora- 
tory will be installed in same. 

Minnesota 

NEW PRAGUE — J. E. Bruzek, city elk., 
will soon receive bids for the construction 
of a sewage disposal plant. Estimated cost, 
$50,000. J. W. Shaffer & Co., 917 New 
York Life Bldg., Minneapolis, engrs. 

NORTHFIELD — St. Olaf's College plans 
to build a 3-story, 73x18 6-ft. science hall. 
A chemical laboratory will be installed in 
same. Estimated cost, $500,000. N. E. 
Mohn, 596 Endicott Bldg., St. Paul, archt. 

RENVILLE— A. R. Holmberg, elk. of the 
Bd. Educ. will receive bids until Jan. 18 
for the construction of a 2-story, 146x273-ft. 
grade and high school. Estimated cost, 
$280,000. Croft & Boerner, 1006 Marquette 
Ave., Minneapolis, archts. 

Montana • 

MILES CITY— The Bd. Educ, c/o Olive 
Lovett, Supt. of Schools, has had plans 
prepared for the construction of a 3-story 
high school. A chemical laboratory will 
be installed in same. Estimated cost, 
$400,000. 

New Jersey 

NEWARK — The Butterworth - Judson 
Corp., Doremus Ave., has had plans pre- 
pared for the reconstruction of a 3 -story 
paranitraniline unit of its plant which was 
recently destroyed by fire. Estimated cost, 
$180,000. 



North Dakota 

BISMARCK — The city will soon award 
the contrast for the construction of a 
waterworks system to include reservoirs, 
filtration plant, pumping station, distribu- 
ting system, etc. Estimated cost, $1,300,000. 
L. R. Wolff, 1000 Guardian Life Bldg., 
St. Paul, Minn., engr. Noted June 30. 

Ohio 

HOLGATE — The town will receive bids 
until Jan. 8 for altering and building a 
2-story, 66xl55-ft. addition to the high 
school. Chemical equipment will be in- 
stalled in same. Estimated cost, $90,000. 
O. L. C. Zachsich, elk. S. P. Stewart & Son, 
Bowling Green, archts. 

Oklahoma 

VINITA — The city has had plans pre- 
pared for the construction of a purification 
plant to include liquid chlorine treatment 
and sand filters, etc. Estimated cost, $460,- 
000. H. G. Olmsted & Co., 417 Oil Exch., 
Oklahoma City, engr. Noted Nov. 24. 

South Dakota 

McINTOSH — The Bd. Educ. will receive 
bids until Jan. 24 for the construction of a 
2-story grade and high school. A chemical 
laboratory will be installed in same. Esti- 
mated cost, $150,000. E. J. Geers, elk. 
G. Issenhuth, Huron, archt. 

Virginia 

NORFOLK — The Western Junior High 
School plans to build a 4-story, 150x310-ft. 
high school. A chemical laboratory will 
be installed in same. Estimated cost, 
$700,000. 

Wisconsin 

DURAND — The Bd. Educ, c/o H. A. 
Miles, secy., is having plans prepared for 
the construction of a 2-story, 8 0x1 2 4 -ft. 
high school. A chemical laboratory will 
be installed in same. Estimated cost, 
$100,000. Oppenhamer & Obel, Wausau, 
archts. Noted Aug. 25. 

FOND DU LAC — The Bd. Educ. c/o A. 
M. Hunter, secy., has had plans prepared 
for the construction of a 3-story, 110xll5-ft. 
senior high school on Linden St. A chem- 
ical laboratory will be installed in same. 
Estimated cost, $275,000. Childs & Smith, 
64 East Van Buren St., Chicago, archts. 

HARTFORD — The city retained J. Dono- 
hue, engr., 720 New York Ave., Sheboygan, 
to prepare plans for altering the sewerage 
system, building septic tank, etc. Estimated 
cost, $50,000. W. Radke, city elk. 

KIMBERLY — The city engaged F. A. C. 
Smith, engr., Colby-Abbott Bldg., Milwau- 
kee, to prepare plans for the construction 
of a sewerage system and sewage disposal 
plant. Estimated cost, $100,000. 

MILWAUKEE — T. Rogers, chemist, c/o 
Dept. of Pub. WTcs., plans to install $15,000 
worth of special equipment in the garbage 
plant for the purpose of determining the 
practicability of making alcohol from 
garbage. 

OCONTO FALLS — ^The Bd. Educ, c/o 
G. Krohn, secy., is having plans prepared 
for the construction of a 1-story, 76xl00-ft. 
high and grade school on Main St. A 
cherhical laboratory will be installed in 
same. Estimated cost, $100,000. Juul & 
Smith, Imig Bldg., Sheboygan, archts. 

WEST ALLIS — The City Council plans 
to build an addition to the septic tank. 
Estimated cost, between $15,000 and $25,- 
000. A. Schneider, City Hall, engr. 

Ontario 

SMITHS FALLS — The town plans to 
construct a filtration plant. Estimated cost, 
$15,000. J. A. Lewis, elk. 

Quebec 

MONTREAL — The Can Welding Co., 
Amherst St. near Ontario St., plans to con- 
struct a plant, including equipment. Esti- 
mated cost, $60,000. 



Coming Meetings 
and Events 

AMERICAN Ceramic Society will hold ita 
annual meeting Feb. 21 to 24, 1921. at 
Columbus, Ohio, with headquarters at the 
Deschler Hotel. 

American Chemical Society will hold 
its sixty-first meeting at Rochester, N. Y.. 
April 26 to 29, 1921. 

American Electrochemical Society will 
hold its spring meeting at Atlantic City 
April 21 to 23 inclusive. Headquarters will 
be at the Hotel Chalfonte. 

American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers will hold its 
spring meeting Feb. 14 to 17 in New York 
City. 

Common Brick Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation OF America will hold its annual 
meeting at the Hotel Pennsylvania. New 
York City, Jan. 31 to Feb. 4. 

Compressed Gas Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation will hold its eighth annual meeting. 
Monday, Jan. 17. 1921, at 2 p.m., at the 
Hotel Astor, New York, and its eighth 
annual dinner at the same place that even- 
ing. 

New Jersey Chemical Society holds a 
meeting at Stetter's Restaurant, 842 Broad 
St., Newark, N. J., the second Monday of 
every month. 

Society of Chemical Industry holds its 
Perkin Medal Award Meeting at Rumford 
Hall, Chemists' Club, New York, on Jan. 
14, 1921. 

The following chemical societies will meet 
at Rumford Hall, Chemists' Club, New York 
City, as follows: Jan. 7, American Chemical 
Society ; Jan. 14, Society of Chemical Indus- 
try, Perkin Medal award; Feb. 11, Ameri- 
can Electrochemical Society, joint meeting 
with Society of Chemical Industry, Ameri- 
can Chemical Society and Soci6t6 de Chimie 
Industrielle ; March 11, American Chemical 
Society, Nichols Medal award ; March 25 
Society of Chemical Industry ; April 22, 
Society of Chemical Industry, joint meeting 
with American Electrochemical Society, So- 
ci6t6 de Chimie Industrielle and American 
Chemical Society ; May 6, American Chem- 
ical Society ; May 13, Soci6t6 de Chimie In- 
dustrielle, joint meeting with American 
Chemical Society, Society of Chemical In- 
dustry and American Electrochemical So- 
ciety • May 20, Society of Chemical Indus- 
try • June 10, American Chemical Society. 



Industrial Notes 

The Japanese Tissue Mills. Inc.. of 
Holyoke, Mass., which is a combination of 
the former Mt. Holyoke Tissue and Jap- 
anese Tissue Mills, has changed its name 
to the American Tissue Mills. Important 
changes are being made in the company. 

The Amherst Waxed Paper Co.^ Am- 
herst, Mass., is preparing to locate in Hol- 
voke, Mass., in a building constructed some 
time ago bv J. L. Perkins, v.-ho purchased 
the company some years back. The new 
mill ii being fitted up with waxed paper 
machinery and will employ 100 hands when 
operating to full capacity. The present 
mill is located at Amherst and will be re- 
tained for some time to come. 

The Civic and Commerci.a.l Associ.^tion 
of Denver, Col., is making a research study 
for the porcelain industry for the benefit 
of the citv ; Homer B. Vanderblu, of the 
industrial research department, is spending 
three weeks in the ceramic industries, par- 
ticularly at Liverpool, O. He will make 
arrangements for th ^ testing of Colorado 
clays bv the experts of the Ohio region and 
investigation as to the various possible uses 
in the manufacture of porcelain. Technical 
investigations will later be made in co- 
operation with the Colorado Society of En- 
gineers, which has offered to participate 
in the work. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co.. East Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
initiated a part-time employment plan, in 
order that engineering students of the Uni- 
versitv of Pittsburgh and the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology may be able to 
gain practical knowledge regarding the 
production and testing of electrical appa- 
ratus, and at the same time earn extra 
money. Students are allowed the regular 
hourly rate for work on Saturday after- 
noons, Sunday and holidays. For the most 
part the employment consists of store- 
keeping, which allows the students to be- 
come familiar with the size and character 
of the different kinds of electrical appa- 
ratus. 



48 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 1 



The Star Brass Works, 3114-28 Car- 
roll Ave., Chicago, announces that on ana 
after Jan. 1, 1921, the company name will 
be changed to Binks Spray Equipment 1 o. 
Such change of name has been made to 
conform more nearly with the nature of 
the products manufactured. Simultaneously 
announcement is also made of the comple- 
tion of a new plant and office extension on 
the west wing of the old plant in which pro- 
visions are made for new salesroom, testing 
laboratories, and greatly increased manu- 
facturing facilities on the first floor, with 
new offices and drafting rooms on the sec- 
ond floor. This company also announces 
the establishment of a Pacific Coast office 
in charge of L. M. Page, Rialto Bldg., San 
Francisco. 

The Max-Lew Chemical Co., of 20 Clin- 
ton St.. Newark, N. J., with David E. Bern- 
stein as agent, has been chartered in the 
office of the Secretary of State to operate 
in New Jersey in the manufacture and sale 
of chemicals, alkalis, etc., as some of its 
principal objects. The concern has a cap- 
italization of $100,000, which is divided into 
1,000 shares at $100 each, while the amount 
that will be devoted to the starting of 
business is $3,000. The incorporators and 
the number of shares held by each arp 
Max Lewitt, of 68 Howard St., Newark, 
N. J., 10 ; George Lewitt, of 68 Howard St., 
Newark, N. T., 10, and Abraham Lewitt, 
of 68 Howard St., Newark, N. J., 10. 

The Metal & Thermit Corp., New York, 
announces that O. E. Falls, who has had 
many years of experience in charge of 
foundrv and thermit welding work at the 
Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Va., has 
accepted a position with it. Announcement 
is also made of the opening of a branch 
office at 141 Milk St., Boston, in charge 
of Robert L. Browne. 

The Electric Furnace Co., Alliance, C, 
has just shipped two 165-kw. Baily unit.s 
to Norway, where they will be used to melt 
zinc at the Jossingfyord plant in Stavanger, 
and to melt aluminum at the Norsk Alumi- 
num Works at Christiania. Complete roll- 
ing mill brass-melting furnaces, designed 
for pouring the metal directly into the 
molds, have recently been shipped by this 
company to the Amsinck Corp. of Mexico, 
Mitsui & Co. of Japan, and Allen Everett, 
Ltd., of England. In addition to these 
units Baily electric furnaces have recently 
been installed at three Canadian plants : 
The Dominion Steel Products Co. of Brant- 
ford, Ont., the Monarch Metals Co. of 
Hamilton, Ont., and the Union Screen Plate 
Co. of Lennoxville, Que. 



Part I), published Sept. 16, 1920; I: o. 
Bauxite and Aluminum in 1919, by James 
M. Hill (Mineral Resources of the U. b.. 
1919, Part I), published Aug. 30, 1920 , 
1:6, Gold, Silver, Copper, Dead and -iinc 
in the Eastern States in 1919. , oy., J-.. ^ 
Dunlop (Mineral Resources of the Unitea 
States, 1919, Part I), published Noy^ 8, 
1920; I: 24. Gold and Silver in 1919 (Gen- 
eral Report), by J. P. Dunlop (Mineral 
Resources of the United States. 1918, Part 
I), published July 15. 1920; I:. 25. Nickel 
in 1918, by Frank D. Hess (Mineral Re- 
sources of the U. S., 1918, Part I). Pub- 
lished June 29, 1920; 11:4, Peat in 1919. 
bv K W Cottrell (Mineral Resources of 
the U. S., 1919. Part II), published Oct. 14, 
1920- 1:26, Cobalt Molybdenum, Tantalum, 
Titanium, Radium. Uranium and Vanadium 
in 1918. by Frank L. Hess (Mineral Re- 
sources of the U. S., 1918. Part I), pub- 
lished June 29. 1920 ; I: 28. Copper in 1918. 
by B. S. Butler (Mineral Resources of the 
U. S.. 1918, Part I), published Sept. 28. 
1920- 1:29. Cobalt, Molybdenum, Nickel. 
Titanium, Tungsten, Radium, Uranium and 
Vanadium in 1917, by Frank L. Hess (Min- 
eral Resources of the U. S., 1917, Part I), 
published Aug. 31. 1920; II : 1,. Thorium. 
Zirconium and Rare-Earth Minerals in 
1919, bv Waldemar T. Schaller (Mineral 
Resources of the U. S., 1919. Part II). 
published Sept. 1, 1920; 11:2. Fuel Bri- 
quetting in 1919, by F. G. Tyron (Mineral 
Resources of the U. S., 1919, Part II), pub- 
lished Aug. 13, 1920; II: 28, Lime in 1918, 
by G. F. Loughlin and Herbert Insley 
(Mineral Resources of the U. S., 19,18, 
Part II), published June 7, 1920; 11:29, 
Clay-Working Industries, Silica Brick and 
Building Operations in the Darger Cities in 
1918, by Jefferson Middleton (Mineral Re- 
sources of the U. S., 1918, Part II), pub- 
lished July 14. 1920; 11:33, Abrasive Ma- 
terials in 1918, by Frank J. Katz (Mineral 
Resources of the U. S., 1918, Part II), 
published Aug. 27, 1920; 11:34, Stone in 
1918, by G. F. Loughlin and A. T. Coons 
(Mineral Resources of the U. S., 1918, Part 
II), published Oct. 11, 1920. 



New Publications 

New Bureau of Standards Publica- 
tions: Sci. Paper 392. A Photographic 
Method of Detecting Changes in a Compli- 
cated Group of Objects, by M. H. Still- 
man ; Sci. Paper 394, Air Forces on Cir- 
cular Cylinders, Axes Normal to the Wind, 
With Special Reference to Dynamical Sim- 
ilarity : by Hugh L. Dryden ; Sci. Paper 
395, Relation of the High -Temperature 
Treatment of High-Speed Steel to Sec- 
ondary Hardening and Red-Hardness, bv 
Howard Scott; Sci. Paper 397, A Study 
of the Relation Between the Brinell Hard- 
ness and the Grain Size of Annealed Car- 
bon Steels, by Henry S. Rawdon and Emilio 
.limcno-Gill : Sci. Paper 400, Ionization and 
Resonance Potentials of Some Non-Metairc 
Elements, by F. L. Mohler and Paul D. 
Foote ; Tech. Paper 167, An Examination 
of the Munsell Color System, by Irwin G. 
Priest. K. S. Gibson and H. J. McNicholas ; 
Tech. Paper 172, Cast Iron for I^ocomotive- 
rylinder Parts, by C. H. Strand ; Tech. 
Papei- 174, Effects of Cal as an Accelerator 
of the Hardening of Portland Cement Mix- 
tures, by Roy N. Young; Tech. Paper 175. 
Pouring and Pressure Te-sts of Concrete, 
by W. A. Slater and A. T. Goldbeck ; Tech. 
7'ai)er 176, Slushing Oils, by Percy H. 
Walker and Lawrence Ij. Steele; Tech. 
Paper 176, Sulphur in Petroleum Oils, by 
C. E. Waters. 

New Bureau or Foreion and Domestic 
Commerce Pi'hlications : Scliedulc Gov- 
erning the Statistical Classification of Im- 
ports Into the United States, with rates of 
duty and regulations governing the prep- 
aration of monthly and quarterly state- 
ments of imports ; Statistical Classification 
of Domestic Commodities Exported From 
the U. S. 

New U. S. Geological Survey Pt'blica- 
tions: Natural-Gas Gasoline in 1918, by 
E. G. Sievers (Mineral Hosources of the 
U. S.. 1918, Part II), published Sent. 2'.', 
1920; 1:2, Platinum and Allied Metals In 
1919. by James M. Hill (Mineral Resource's 
of the U. S., 1919, Part I), published July 
30. 1920: 1:3, Arsenic, Bismuth, Selenlutii 
.•tnd T.llurium in 1919. by James M. Hill 
( .Min.'iiil Resources of the U. S.. 1919. 



Manufacturers' 
Catalogs 

American Terra Cotta Co., Chicago, 111., 
is now publishing a house organ entitled 
Common Clay, which deserves special men- 
tion as to reading matter and illustrations. 
W. D. Gates, president of the company 
and dean of Chicago ceramists, writes a 
department called "Button-hole Talks." 
These talks are bits of philosophy well 
worth reading. The American Terra Cotta 
Co. manufactures art and ornamental terra 
cotta and the publication is a successful 
exposition of the company's artistic devel- 
opments. 

Clarence W. Marsh, 101 Park Ave.. New 
York City, has published an instructive 
folder on the Marsh electrolytic cell for 
chloi'ine and caustic soda. 

W. S. Rockwell Co.. New York, calls 
attention to Bull. 222. In this bulletin the 
purpose is not to talk about furnaces of 
the company's manufacture, but to place 
before the furnace-using public the prin- 
ciples drawn from the company's experi- 
ence, prints of actual installations being 
used to illustrate the points raised. Such 
points include: The applicability of car- 
type and car-and-ball type furnaces to the 
heat-treatment of material that cannot be 
ad^-antageously handled in other types of 
furnaces ; factors governing selection of the 
type (car or car-and-ball) best suited to 
individual manufacturing requirements ; the 
difference in design of each typo ; influence 
of unequal cooling on the quality of finished 
product ; typical heat-treatment installa- 
tions involving the use of car-type and 
car-and-ball type furnaces. 

The Metal & Thermit Cori\. New York, 
has just issued and will distribce on re- 
quest the third edition of the Thermit Weld- 
ing pamphlet No. 17 for mill and foundry 
repairs. The new edition has been revised 
and brought up to date both as regards 
new practices recommended and illustra- 
tions showing recent interesting repairs on 
certain types of equipment since the publi- 
cation of the former edition. The pamphlet 
begins with a general discussion of the 
proper applications and fields for oxy- 
acetylene, electric and thermit welding, 
respectively. it then describes in detail 
the methods to be followed and apparatus 
used in welding Iron and steel sections in 
general. Latt'r it outlines thoroughly spe- 
cial applications of thermit welding, such 
as for crankshaft, pinion and roll repairs 
and also for cast-iron welding. Not pre- 
viously included in former editions of this 
pamphlet Is a description of a new method 
of welding teeth In pinions. Tlie pamplilet 



concludes by explaining the various appli- 
cations of thermit in foundry practice, such 
as for increasing the temperature of iron 
and steel, facilitating the introduction of 
other metals which it is desired to alloy 
for special purposes, making semi-steel in 
the ladle, keeping metal and risers liquid 
for a considerable period and making small 
steel castings. This company also an- 
nounces a revised Thermit Rail Welding 
pamphlet. No. 39, which describes the va- 
rious ways in which thermit welding can 
be advantageously used for rail welding, 
and pamphlet No. 20 on thermit carbon- 
free metals and alloys. The pamphlet, in 
addition to containing a detailed descrip- 
tion of the properties and characteristics 
of the various carbon-free metals and 
alloys manufactured by this company, in- 
cludes an explanation of the advantages 
of using Tungtabs, or tablets of pure tung- 
sten metal, in the production of high-speed 
steel and other alloys containing tung- 
sten instead of using tungsten powder and 
ferrotungsten. Metallurgical losses caused 
by oxidation in melting and by the absorp- 
tion of tungsten by the crucible and electric- 
furnace lining, particularly in the initial 
heats, are reduced because by using Tung- 
tabs the melting time is decreased and 
there is a higher recovery of the tungsten 
owing to the fact that the Tungtabs melt 
down with the charge. 

The Joseph T. Ryerson & Sons Co., 
Chicago, has issued a leaflet entitled "Do 
You Know How to Make a Chisel?" which 
contains a complete description of working, 
grinding, hardening and tempering the ordi- 
nary hand chisel, and ■will be found of 
interest to anyone who has to do with the 
use of chisels generally. 

The Booth Electric Furnace Co.. Chi- 
cago, has issued a handsomely illustrated 
catalog describing the Booth rotating fur- 
naces, giving a list of plants where these 
are installed. Tables of dimensions of the 
several sizes appended to blueprints give 
an accurate idea of the details of con- 
struction. 

The Manufacturers' Equipment Co., 
Dayton, O., has issued a new bulletin 
entitled "The Underwood Producer Gas 
System," which contains descriptions of 
apparatus and application for burning all 
kinds of clay products, for glass house 
furnaces, steel furnaces, the making of 
carbon products, the heating of enameling 
furnaces, and the heating of furnaces in 
chemical and acid plants. The pamphlet 
contains technical data interesting to those 
engaged in the above industries. 

The Cleveland Breathing Machine 
Co., Cleveland, O., has issued a 4-page 
folder on "The Lyon Breathing Machine." 

The Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co.. Milwau- 
kee. Wis., announces that in order to in- 
clude information under one cover on C-H 
products for mine applications a new 48- 
page illustrated booklet has been prepared, 
which is entitled "For the Mine." Attention 
is also called to Publication 867. entitled 
"Dictionary of Uses" of C-H Electric Space 
Heaters. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co., East Pittsburgh. Pa., has 
just received from the Press Bull. 7-A-C-l 
on "Mine Locomotive Headlights." 

OxwELD Acetylene Co., Chicago, III., is 
issuing its new "Ever-ready" instruction 
book, which is a treatise on every-day oxy- 
acetylene welding and cutting. This volume, 
which is 5x8 in., contains fifty-five printed 
pages, inclusive of illustrations and draw- 
ings. 

Plant Engineering & Equipment Co., 
New York City, calls attention to a new 
catalog on Peeco Equipment, which gives 
illustrations and descriptions of its steam 
trap gages, valve steam traps, turbo-blow- 
ers for steam boilers. Mason condensation 
meter, etc. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co., Misha- 
waka, Ind., has issued Catalog D-20-C on 
Standardized Elevators and Conveyors, 
continuous mechanical handling, which Is 
very complete and gives illustrations as 
well as descriptions. 

The Brown Hoisting Machinery Co., 
Cleveland. O.. has published .Catalog K 
19 21, on Locomotive Cranes. This attrac- 
tive 88-page catalog illustrates and de- 
scribes the many types of cranes and 
equipment. 

Blake Pump & Conde.vser Co.. Fitch- 
burg. Mass.. desires to announce Catalog 
H-40, on "High-Efficiency Pumping Ma- 
I'hlnery." The predominating feature of 
the pumping apparatus shown in this 
catiilog is the application of the Blake- 
Fitchburg high-efficiency four-bearing type 
power end to certain types of fluid ends 
which have been developed to a high effi- 
ciency for the particular service to which 
they are applU-able. Many interesting illus- 
trations are given of the different types. 



H. C. PARMELEE 
Editor 

ELLWOOD HENDRICK 
Consulting: Editor 

ERNEST E. THUM 
Associate Editor 

WAXI.ACB SAVAGE 
ALAN G. WIKOFF 
R. S. McBRIDE 
CHARLES N. HULBURT 
Assistant Editors 



CHEMICAL 

& METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERING 

A consolidation of 

ELECTROCHEMICAL & METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY and IRON & STEEL MAGAZINE 



L. W. CHAPMAN 

Western Editor 

CHESTER H. J0NE3 

CHARLES A. BLATCHLET 

Industrial Editors 

J. S. NEGBW 
Mana^ner Editor 



Volume 24 



New York, January 12, 1921 



Number 2 



New Hearings on 

The Patent Office Bill 

WHILE no new arguments against section 9 of the 
Patent Office bill were offered at the hearings 
before the joint conference committee of the House and 
Senate, reported elsewhere in this issue, industrial 
chemical concerns took advantage of their first oppor- 
tunity to apprise Congress of their views. They 
appeared in large numbers, representing the leading 
manufacturers whose interests are considered jeopard- 
ized by the proposal to patent the inventions of Govern- 
ment employees and administer these patents through 
license by the Federal Trade Commission. In our issue 
for Oct. 27, 1920, we devoted a great deal of space to 
the subject, and but little can be added here to the pros 
and cons there given. 

Viewing the matter after this lapse of time and in the 
light of the representations before the committee at 
Washington, it is still quite evident that there are some 
features of the proposal which are rightly objectionable 
to industry. Even though the measure should fail to 
function — a probability frankly advanced by unbiased 
as well as partisan witnesses — its administration 
involves principles which are repugnant to business men. 
Will the Federal Trade Commission grant exclusive or 
non-exclusive licenses? If the latter, none are likely to 
be taken; if the former, there must inevitably be pro- 
test against favoritism. Projecting ourselves into the 
future operation of the measure, it would seem as though 
exclusive licenses will be essential to its operation. Non- 
exclusive licenses will gain nothing more than is now 
obtained by dedication to the public. Again, what is the 
proper disposition of useful knowledge gained by 
Government employees occupied in official duties at 
public expense? Shall it be parceled out discriminately? 
And if so, who shall be the fortunate recipient of the 
product of a public servant's toil? The practical con- 
sequence must be confusion, criminations and re- 
criminations. 

Further, what is the legitimate field of research for 
the Government? Should it be in those lines of industry 
which will yield patentable inventions that will require 
some special method of administration in the public 
industry? Shall industry be further encouraged to con- 
duct its own research, using such media as consulting 
scientists and industrial laboratories, or shall it be dis- 
couraged from this course and led to look to the Gov- 
ernment for its progress? Admitting that there are 
now some industries so poorly developed or existing in 
large numbers of small units, so that they need a corre- 
lating agency to assist them, is not the whole idea of 
industrial research so well developed that in most in- 
stances the Government could rely on established pri- 
vate agencies to do the necessary work, and even refer 
industries to such agencies? 

While it is problematical what the joint conference 



committee will do as a result of the opposition to section 
9, we may hazard a guess that it will retain the measure 
in the bill in spite of the unanimous opposition of 
industry. The opposition will be discounted on the 
ground that it represents the selfish interest of large 
and greedy corporations that wish to stifle Government 
investigation in the interest of the people. The role of 
the corporations is unpopular, in spite of the fact that 
they have done and are doing much to advance indus- 
trial research which ultimately benefits the consuming 
public. Nor will the conference committee consent to 
separate section 9 from the bill for relief of the Patent 
Office, because thus separated it will have no chance of 
passage at this session of Congress. Full advantage 
will be taken of the opportunity of putting the section 
through as a rider to a measure which has the indorse- 
ment of all the people. 

When Will Activity 

In General Business Return? 

THE question asked in the caption to these remarks 
is one that is being heard on all hands, and a wide 
variety of answers is being given, most of them dis- 
tinctly evasive. As a rule there is a close connection 
between the character of answer and the individuality 
of the one suggesting the answer. The man who has 
been worrying for a year or two about the high wages 
the country has been paying answers that activity in 
business will be restored when wages come down. The 
man whose hobby is crops and the Western farmers says 
the farmer owes a great deal of money to the banks 
and cannot buy until he has paid off his notes, so that 
it will be a long time before we have business activity. 
The man who has always considered the railroads the 
chief source of prosperity in the country holds that 
activity will return when the railroads begin to buy. 
but has doubts whether they will do so soon, and so on 
and so on. 

As a test of the prophet's trustworthiness it would 
be very useful to find out what the man thought six 
n^onths ago. Probably in nine cases out of ten it would 
be found that the man who now sets the longest time 
for the return of activity is the man who six months 
ago was most strongly convinced that the business con- 
ditions of that time were marked for indefinite continu- 
ance. 

There are men who can be got to admit that in the 
past few weeks as they have seen prices drop more 
than they expected and more factories close than they 
had looked for, they have increased their estimate of the 
time that will elapse before the wheels of industry' are 
turning freely again. They admit that we are engaged 
in a process of readjusting. When they see readjust- 
ment proceeding rapidly and thereupon lengthen the 
time estimated for completion of the process they tacitly 
admit that they had no idea of the extent of the 



50 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



readjustment requisite, for if the readjustment had a 
fixed distance to go, the quicker it moved the sooner it 
would reach the objective. 

It seems fairly clear that the readjustment through 
which we are passing is one of mental attitudes, and 
such a process does not require a long period of time. 
Men must become willing to do a bigger day's work and 
receive only reasonable wages for the day's work. Re- 
tailers, wholesalers and manufacturers must become 
content with moderate profits. An idle workman does 
not require a long period of idleness for a change of 
mind. The retailer, particularly if his customers have 
no jobs, can change his philosophy quite suddenly. 
There are manufacturers who have closed their plants 
with the thought that they have accumulated safe re- 
serves and will not resume operations until offered their 
former profits, but it is not in human nature to enjoy 
the spectacle of an idle plant for any length of time. 
The mental reactions can occur in rather a short time. 
Then there are the buyers, who have gone on strike. 
They know what they went on strike for — lower prices 

but they do not know how nuich lower. Idleness will 

become irksome to them also and they will be willing to 
compromise. 

The idea that the readjustment is one of mental 
attitudes rather than of physical conditions is rein- 
forced by contemplation at long range of mental atti- 
tudes during and since the war. Toward the close of 
the war the majority of people thought that commodity 
prices would decline immediately after the war, but 
there were not a few who expected prices to advance 
very sharply. As a matter of fact, prices did decline 
after the armistice, and then afterward they advanced 
a great deal. Evidently there was a very unstable 
mental condition. 

A very common prediction during the war had been 
that there would be a "transitionary period" while 
things were getting changed from a war-time to a 
peace-time basis, and then a prolonged era of great 
prosperity. We have not had that era of prosperity and 
there is no proof that we cannot have it. The transi- 
tion was made difficult by men not taking hold in the 
right way. First there was fear and then there was 
inordinate greed, both mental attitudes and both very 
objectionable. Now we are booked to get into a new 
mental attitude, and the process does not necessarily 
require a long period of time. 

Beware the 

Ides of March ! 

THE present Chief of Staff, General Peyton C. 
March, apparently still continues his opposition to 
proper development of Chemical Warfare Service. In 
this he is seemingly well supported by the present 
Secretary of War. However, with the change of 
Administration we may expect a change in this, as in 
many other governmental conditions. Indeed, about 
Washington one hears the very pointed sentence, "March 
fourth, forth goes March." 

One may even believe that it is not committing Use 
rnajeste to hope that there will promptly be a selection 
of a new Chief of Staff who really appreciates and will 
support (as required by law) the Chemical Warfare 
Service. The recent report of the special commission 
headed by General Pershing to select eligibles for the 
General Staff affords ample good material for this 
purpose. 



Timeo Danaos 

Et Dona Ferentes 

HAVE you heard of the "Friends of Science, 
interested in its development"? If not you may 
yet entertain angels unawares. And if you have not 
seen the salmon-colored sheet of propaganda for German 
scientific porcelain, glassware and apparatus, issued by 
the aforesaid Friends, you have missed an amateurish 
effort at camouflage that is not very convincing. Any- 
how our anonymous Friends are solicitous for the wel- 
fare of American colleges and universities, and bemoan 
the proposed surrender of the privilege which those 
institutions have enjoyed of importing scientific 
apparatus and instruments duty free. The Friends 
would have the privilege retained because it means a 
continuance of business which German manufacturers 
have enjoyed for a long time. 

The activity of the Friends is timed to a nicety 
because Congress is now considering emergency tariff 
legislation, and the Ways and Means Committee of the 
House is holding hearings on the various schedules of 
the tariff as a basis for formulating a new law. It is 
unnecessary for us to go into details of the matter at 
this time, for we have previously reported and supported 
the efforts of the chemical and allied industries to pro- 
tect themselves from ruinous post-war competition and 
hold the strategic positions gained during the war. It 
is not Germany alone, but Japan and others, which loom 
as competitors against which the American industries 
cannot hold their own in free and unrestricted markets. 
Wherever these industries bear a vital relation to 
national welfare, we favor their reasonable protection. 

A feature of the Bacharach bill, which passed the 
House at the last session of Congress and which v^^s 
favorably reported by the Senate, is a repeal of the 
duty-free clause of the present tariff law which has long 
been a concession to our educational institutions. And 
rightly too, under past conditions. But sympathetic as 
we are with the financial needs of our schools, we cannot 
help feeling that they ought to stand on their own feet 
and pay the bill in order that vital American industries 
shall live. Most of the consumption by educational 
institutions is for student purposes, and the cost can 
be passed on to individuals. Hitherto we have published 
arguments urging that students should more nearly 
defray the actual cost of their education, and we sup- 
port that plea in this instance. 

Nor are we unmindful of the excellent arguments on 
the other side of the question, for of course there are 
two sides. Elsewhere we publish a communication from 
Prof. J. W. Richards opposing our own view and sup- 
porting the retention of the duty-free privilege. It is 
but fair to say that Prof. Richards is not alone in his 
stand, nor do we wish to connect him with the insidious 
and anonymous propaganda of the "Friends of Science, 
interested in its development." On the other hand he 
does not represent all of the colleges, for in the hearings 
before the Senate it was brought out through a ques- 
tionnaire that the heads of chemical departments in 
seventeen out of twenty institutions favored the sur- 
render of the duty-free privilege, even if about one-half 
of the scientific apparatus and instruments imported 
come in under the duty-free clause for educational in- 
stitutions. 

There is always room for an honest difference of 
opinion on questions of policy, and we welcome the 
frank expression of opinion from those who do not 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



51 



attempt to conceal their identity. But propaganda is 
abroad in the land. Naturally it is camouflaged. It 
poses. It purports to be what it is not. It takes refuge 
in anonymity, which is the resort of those who have 
neither the courage of conviction nor pride of opinion. 
It pretends friendship and unselfish devotion while 
secretly advancing its own cause. It is rightly an object 
of suspicion and merits contempt. If the "Friends of 
Science, interested in its development," had come out 
into the open, they would at least have been credited 
with business acumen and integrity. 

"I am afraid of the Greeks, even when they come 
bearing gifts." 

Corporation Dividends, 

Education and Research 

ON AUGUST 5 last at the general meeting in England 
of the corporation of Brunner, Mond & Co. a resolu- 
tion was passed "that the directors be and they hereby 
are authorized to distribute to such universities or 
other scientific institutions in the United Kingdom as 
they may select for the furtherance of scientific educa- 
tion and research, the sum of £100,000 out of the 
investment surplus reserve account." 

A stockholder named Evans brought suit to restrain 
the directors from carying out the resolution, on the 
ground that Brunner, Mond & Co. as a chemical manu- 
facturer had no business with general science; that the 
resolution was ultra vires, and not within the objects 
of the company. Mr. Justice Eves in the Chancery 
Division of the High Court dismissed the complaint. 
For the purpose of this decision the distinguished mag- 
istrate did not discriminate between the powers of the 
company and its objects, on the ground that its charter 
permitted it to do all things incidental or conducive to 
its business as a chemical manufacturer. The evidence 
showed that it would benefit the community and also 
the corporation. The objection of the plaintiff that this 
was too vague was overruled. The directors and others 
on behalf of the corporation testified that the gift would 
tend to cause universities and institutions to train 
students and others whose services would be of benefit 
to the company. The company acknowledged itself in 
great difficulty to find the right class of men necessary 
for the conduct of its business as a chemical manu- 
facturer, and his Lordship concluded that the advantage 
the corporation would gain by the better provision of 
properly trained men as a result of the aid thus rendered 
outweighed the objection raised by the plaintiff that 
some of the men trained by means of this gift might 
go to competitors. 

A very pretty little scrap, we should say, with an 
unspoken touch of humor in it. We have plenty of just 
such persons here, who cannot see what chemistry has 
to do with selling soda ash. Of course dividends are 
dividends, and when they are earned and set aside 
for the purpose it would seem that the stockholders have 
rights in them. We note here a point in bookkeeping — 
that there may be a hazard in the expression "surplus 
available for dividends," and that the term "investment 
surplus reserve account" has greater merit. Research 
has become a function of industry, research in pure 
science, at all events, is a legitimate function of uni- 
versity procedure, and that industry needs pure science 
is shown by the fact that industry needs engineering, 
and engineering is the application of pure science. 

From the record it may occur to some that it contains 



a hint to the effect that in consideration of the gift, the 
several universities will train men especially for the 
alkali industry. We think it more likely, however, that 
this was allowed to be inferred from the testimony as 
an argument to win the case than as a statement of 
conditions. The e.stablishment of Brunner, Mond & Co. 
is a great and progressive one, and as such its problems 
are doubtless very like those of great and progressive 
American organizations. And these are almost unani- 
mous in calling, not for specially trained caustic men 
or soap boilers or pulp cooks or specialists of any sort, 
so much as for men whose training in science is broad 
and general and thorough; it wants men of scholarship 
in science rather than technicians. Courses in tech- 
nology are of great value to develop the engineering 
sense of chemical engineers, but those institutions that 
give the best courses in this respect would be the last 
to offer them as a substitute for physics, for instance. 

A point that cannot be evansized or made clear to the 
evans type of mind, or even demonstrated in court, or 
explained at a stockholders' meeting, is that it is better 
for a corporation if a competitor makes an advance in 
applied science than if neither of them makes an 
advance. In the former case the backward corporation 
is usually induced to shake a leg, as the saying is, and 
make an effort to keep up with the procession. The 
only way to do this is by means of research, even though 
it takes "surplus available for dividends" to pay for it. 
In the latter case — that is, if neither the corporation 
nor its competitor makes an advance — it is bad for the 
industry as a national institution. For a reason that 
those who are most to blame are inclined to call "psy- 
chological," the industry usually moves away to some 
other state or country. 

Surveys of 

Chemical Industry 

CHEMICAL industry and the Tariff Commission, as 
well as the Ways and Means Committee of the 
House of Representatives, are to be congratulated on 
the completion and publication of technical tariff infor- 
mation with respect to the chemical industry in a way 
that surpasses all previous effort. This information is 
presented in the form of reports known as "Tariff 
Information Surveys," dealing with all phases of tariff 
policy and tariff legislation now before Congress. They 
represent an unbiased summary of extended studies by 
the chemical staff of the Tariff Commission covering a 
description of each commodity, its uses, methods pnd 
processes of manufacture, differences in American and 
foreign practice, nature and source of raw materials 
used, data concerning production, import, export, prices 
and cost of production, and other pertinent facts. In 
other words, the series is a compendium of industrial 
chemical information of tremendous value, particularly 
in tariff revision but also as a general guide to each 
industry which has been surveyed. 

Elsewhere in this issue are given details regarding 
the nineteen separate pamphlets in which are discussed 
all of the commodities covered by Schedule A of the 
tariff of 1913, which schedule relates to chemicals, oils 
and paints. Whether one is interested in citric acid, 
wood products, aluminum, chloroform or any other of 
more than two hundred commodities on which there is 
duty, or which are specifically mentioned in the "free 
list," he cannot afford to neglect this important source 
of reliable and comprehensive information. 



52 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 




Readers' "Views and Comments 



SSJ^^Ip 



Duty-Free Apparatus for Colleges 

To the Editor of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering 

Sir : — May I ask your indulgence for the presentation 
of a matter which I realize should appear in the Journal 
of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry but which I am 
prevented from publishing in that medium through the 
rather arbitrary action of its editor, Dr. Herty. I refer 
to a communication which I inserted in the November 
bulletin of the American Electrochemical Society in 
favor of duty-free importation of chemicals and labora- 
tory apparatus for colleges and universities, and which 
was subsequently the subject of an editorial attack on me 
as secretary of the American Electrochemical Society 
in the December issue of th£ Journal of Industrial and 
Engineering Chemistry. When I attempted to reply 
publicly to the criticism the privilege was denied me on 
the technical ground that the editor had attacked me as 
secretary of an organization whereas I responded as an 
individual. I feel that there are two sides to the ques- 
tion and, with your permission, would like to present the 
point of view held by some in the colleges. 

The Bacharach bill now before the Senate places an 
increased duty on chemical supplies and apparatus, and 
incidentally repeals the duty-free importation privilege 
now possessed by educational institutions. Many college 
professors, most of them members of the American 
Chemical Society, believe that such repeal will not only 
hurt the educational institutions by diminishing the 
purchasing power of their available funds, but will 
seriously hamper the efficiency of technical training and 
thus be detrimental to the progress of the country as a 
whole. 

The argument for the repeal is based principally on 
the assertion that the enterprises manufacturing these 
articles are key industries, that it is of paramount im- 
portance that our country make what it needs in this line, 
and that in order to assist such industries it is neces- 
sary and advisable that the duty-free privilege be with- 
drawn from educational institutions. It is also stated 
that the use of foreign supplies and apparatus by our 
students is detrimental to their patriotism, giving them 
the idea that the U.S.A. is unable to compete in these 
things with foreign makers, and thus depressing their 
ideas of the resources and efficiency of their country. 

It can be shown, however, that such repeal is neither 
advisable nor necessary, and for the following reasons: 

1. Educating technical men is also to be classed 
among the key industries, in fact, it is the master key. 
Just as surely as "men are more than kings," just so 
surely is the efficiency of their technical training of 
greater importance than the extension of some of our 
other key industries. If any nation had ulterior designs 
upon our progress as a nation, which would hurt us 
most: to hinder our manufactures or to hamper the 
training and education of our technical men? 

2. Duty-free importation was granted by our Govern- 
ment to increase the efficiency of education by increasing 
the purchasing power of available educational funds. 
It is certain that withdrawal of this privilege will 
decrease that purchasing power and therefore reduce the 
efficiency of the education given. 



3. The great increase in industrial control labora- 
tories and private and industrial research laboratories 
has certainly created a large demand for chemical and 
physical apparatus and supplies altogether apart from 
the educational institutions. Since the former cannot 
import duty free, they may be taxed by duties sufficient 
to keep our domestic industries going; the same tax on 
educational institutions would hamper their efficiency 
simply to make more business. 

4. Many apparatus and supplies made abroad cannot 
be obtained in this country at all, being made only 
abroad. Why make the educational institutions pay a 
high duty on what is not to be had in this country? If 
the high duty falls only on the private laboratories, they 
will certainly look for a domestic source of supply, and 
thus those who are best able to bear the expense will as- 
sist in the establishment of new domestic industries. 

5. The proposed repeal hits our allies as well as our 
former enemies. We get apparatus and supplies from 
England and France, and it seems unfortunate, to say 
the least, that we treat friend and foe alike. 

6. Concerning the effect on the students' patriotism, 
I wish to take exactly the opposite stand from that 
expressed by those favoring repeal of the duty-free 
privilege. College and university should teach students 
the truth, and if foreign apparatus and supplies are 
better or cheaper (duty-free) than the domestic, the 
students should know it ; the last thing to teach them is a 
blind pseudo-patriotism which thinks that anything 
American is necessarily the best to be had or is "good 
enough." Moreover the student who has any red blood 
in him (and most of them have) will feel a generous 
ambition to outdo the foreigner when he learns the 
facts. My experience in teaching university students 
for over thirty years leads me to state without hesita- 
tion that knowledge of the facts stimulates the men by 
putting a goal of achievement before them, and 
engenders in them the praiseworthy ambition to try to 
beat the foreigner. 

7. Finally, for purely pedagogic and efficiency 
reasons, teaching equipment should be the very best 
obtainable, irrespective of its source. If I wish to show 
a student of qualitative analysis the reaction of 
potassium, it is of first importance that I use the purest 
potassium salt I can get (and am able to buy) irrespec- 
tive of its source. If I want to show my students the 
spectra of the elements, I should have the best spectro- 
scope my funds will procure, irrespective of who makes 
it, in order to raise my teaching to its highest efficiency. 

When it comes to education and training of our 
technical men, we can very well afford to use foreign 
materials from any source when by so doing we can 
thereby increase the efficiency of the education given, 
and thereby eventually acquire the ability to beat the 
foreigner at his own business. Any other principle 
will result in hampering technical education, and 
thereby defeating the very ends that we wish to 
accomplish. I plead for a broader vision and for a 



further look ahead. 

Deiiartment of Metallurgy. 
Lehigh University, 
Bethlehem. Pa. 



J. W. Richards. 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



53 



Hearings on Patent Office Bill 



Conference Committee Reopens Hearings on Bill for Relief of the Patent 

Office in Order to Give Opponents of Section 9 Opportunity 

to Register Their Objections 



^S ANNOUNCED in our issue for Dec. 29, 1920, 
/% the joint conference committee of the House and 
X A. Senate on the Patent Office bill reopened hearings 
on that measure and listened to a large number of wit- 
nesses on Jan. 5 and 6. In convening the session Sena- 
tor Norris, presiding, called attention to the extraordi- 
nary nature of the proceedings — holding hearings on a 
measure which had passed both houses of Congress 
and which had been referred to conferees for adjust- 
ment of differences. He explained that the committee 
could listen to arguments bearing on only those matters 
on which the House and Senate were in disagreement. 
These were particularly the matter of salaries and cleri- 
cal force in the Patent Office, and section 9, relating to 
the patenting by the Government of the inventions of its 
employees and assignment of such patents to the Federal 
Trade Commission for administration through license. 

Salary Reductions Inserted by Senate 

H. R. 11984, as passed by the House for the relief 
of the Patent Office by increasing the salaries of em- 
ployees and increasing their number, was amended by 
the Senate reducing the salary recommendations of the 
House and reducing the force of employees. As brought 
out in the testimony, the effect of the bill would be to 
reduce the force 15 per cent at a time when the work of 
the office has increased 30 per cent. It was also shown 
without difficulty that salaries in this important bureau 
of the Government were woefully inadequate, being very 
much lower than those paid in private industry for 
similar service, as well as being incommensurate with 
the education and technical ability required of Patent 
Office employees. Testimony was introduced by former 
Patent Commissioner Ewing to show that the Patent 
Office had been steadily disintegrating for the past 
thirty years, due to failure to provide salaries that 
would hold competent men. He explained that the 
patent system of the United States requires examiners 
who are not only skilled in patent law but whose famil- 
iarity with conditions in the Patent Office is essential 
to the expedition of business. Deterioration of the 
force, through loss of examiners by resignation, not only 
retards prompt attention to applications but makes it 
impossible to give to applicants the careful consideration 
necessary to avoid the issuance of invalid patents. Mr. 
Ewing stated emphatically that unless prompt relief 
were granted the Patent Office would be congested with 
a volume of work that could not be transacted, and 
industry would suffer. 

Necessity for Increasing Salaries Urged 

Among others who testified regarding the inadequacy 
of the present salaries, or even those contemplated by 
the Senate amendments, was E. J. Prindle, who stated 
that resignations in the Patent Office were continuing 
in spite of the fact that the present bill promised some 
relief. He cited these resignations as evidence that the 
prospect of receiving the lower salaries recommended 



by the Senate was not sufficiently attractive to hold 
men in their positions, and he urged the restoration 
of the salaries recommended by the House. Mr. Prindle 
offered resolutions passed by the National Research 
Council, Engineering Council, American Chemical So- 
ciety and National Association of Manufacturers sup- 
porting the necessity for relief in the Patent Office. He 
also introduced some results of a questionnaire of the 
American Patent Law Association, showing that former 
examiners in the Patent Office are now receiving from 
private industry salaries several times as great as 
they received in the Government service. Practically 
all of the witnesses before the committee, including 
those who appeared for other reasons, indorsed heartily 
the necessity for increasing salaries in the Patent Office 
and providing a force adequate to cope with the busi- 
ness of that bureau. 

House Provision Likely to Be Reinstated 

In explanation of the Senate's amendment reducing 
salaries it should be stated that the Senate is not un- 
alterably committed to that program, nor does it neces- 
sarily believe that the House provisions were too high. 
It was felt that the subject of salaries should receive 
the attention of the Senate conferees, and the best way 
to do that was to introduce amendments. Senator 
Norris stated in the hearings that the two committees 
were not in material disagreement on this point, from 
which it may be inferred that the contentions of the 
witnesses will prevail and that the House provisions 
will be reinstated after they have been reviewed. 

Opposition to Section 9 

Opponents of section 9, which the Senate attached as 
a rider to H. R. 11984, appeared before the committee 
in large number, representing chemical manufacturers 
and industrial companies The arguments were mainly 
a repetition of those published in Chemical & Metal- 
lurgical Engineering of Oct. 27, 1920, following a 
meeting of several scientific societies in New Yor\ 
before which Dr. Cottrell and Dr. Alsberg spoke in 
behalf of the measure. Practically all of the witnesses 
opposing this section of the bill not only objected to it 
in principle but felt that it should not be attached to 
the bill for relief in the Patent Office. They advocated 
its elimination and separate consideration. 

The gist of the opposition to section 9, as expressed 
before the committee, is that it will bring the Govern- 
ment into competition with private industiy; that the 
Federal Trade Commission as the administrative agency 
has not the confidence of the country ; that the granting 
of licenses involves the question of discrimination 
among competitors in an industry; that the Federal 
Trade Commission would be under the necessity of 
defending title to its patents for the benefit of its 
licensees; that dedication of a patent to the public 
meets satisfactorily the condition which section 9 pro- 
poses to relieve; that if Government research is con- 



54 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



ducted in the proper sphere of fundamental science or 
in those industries for which there is no established 
research agency no need will exist for section 9; that 
if Government research is not so conducted it will extend 
into development work that will involve large expendi- 
tures; that more extensive industrial research by the 
Government will discourage private industry from ex- 
tending its research activities and rely more and more 
on the Government for the solution of its problems; 
and that no special machinery is required to meet the 
situation as stated by proponents of the measure. 

Administration Under Proposed System Questioned 

The possibility of administering satisfactorily patents 
assigned to the Federal Trade Commission was the sub- 
ject of much of the testimony and of colloquies between 
members of the committee and witnesses. It was con- 
tended by the latter that the licensing of patents would 
be the cause of much dissatisfaction to the inventor and 
the industry and the public. Frederick P. Fish stated 
emphatically that the Federal Trade Commission would 
find itself confronted with the necessity of choosing 
between exclusive and non-exclusive licenses ; that if the 
former were adopted there would be dissatisfaction 
among unsuccessful applicants and the Commission 
would find itself open to the charge of favoritism. When 
Senator Norris said that he doubted if much hue and 
cry would be raised by the granting of an exclusive 
license Senator Brandegee retorted, "Let the Commis- 
sion grant an exclusive license to the Standard Oil Co. 
and see what will be said." In Mr. Fish's opinion this 
feature would open the way for a vast amount of dis- 
satisfaction if not scandal. If the Commission should 
grant non-exclusive licenses it would seem unlikely that 
any would be taken, in which event nothing more would 
be accomplished by the bill than by original dedication 
to the public. 

Limitation of Government Activity Urged 

On the contention that dedication to the public is now 
satisfactorily meeting the situation R. P. Perry, of The 
Barrett Co., introduced some evidence based on the 
premise that "industry, inventors and the large ma- 
jority of the American public believes that governmental 
activities should be limited to those fields where private 
industry cannot function as well and that private enter- 
prise should be encouraged in all fields where it can 
function as well as or better than the Government." 
Continuing, Mr. Perry said: "Now what does this 
mean in the present case? It means simply this, that 
the proper and legitimate sphere for Government tech- 
nical research is, in the opinion of industry, limited to 
such work as formulating standards of quality in fields 
of general public interest (drugs, foods, etc.), develop- 
ing testing methods and determining accurate funda- 
mental data, such as the true physical constants of 
materials and making investigations in fields of agri- 
culture and animal industry not reached by private 
enterprise. It means that Government technical re- 
search is out of bounds when it goes into the develop- 
ment of new products or processes in chemical or other 
applied industry. The legitimate need to be met is 
therefore, in my opinion, a limited need and if the 
Government keeps within its proper sphere it will only 
very occasionally and incidentally develop any patentable 
inventions relating to applied industry and consequently 
will very seldom have occasion to take out patents. I 
cannot conceive of it other than as a very limited need 



unless Government technical research unconsciously or 
consciously is to invade the fields of private enterprise 
in competition with industry. ... I believe such 
invasion will sooner or later be the inevitable result of 
the plan proposed by section 9. At the present moment 
the point is that unless there is to be such expansion of 
effort into the field of private industry the needs to be 
met are limited and the present arrangement has met 
these needs." 

By way of proof that under present conditions Gov- 
ernment inventions are exploited by the public when 
open to public use Mr. Perry cited the instances of 
calcium arsenate, which was developed by the Bureau 
of Chemistry as an insecticide; oil- and water-proofing 
in concrete, developed in the Office of Public Roads ; hog 
cholera serum, a product of the Bureau of Chemistry; 
and phthalic anhydride, developed in the Color Labora- 
tory. 

Another Objection to Section 9 

An objection raised by Mr. Perry and others to the 
present innovation embodied in section 9 is that it will 
be an entering wedge that will not stop with the patent- 
ing of inventions made by Government employees in 
the course of their official duties, but that since an 
undeveloped invention is worth little or nothing there 
will be a great temptation to develop patents so that 
they will be of some value to the inventor and the 
Federal Trade Commission. Indeed, it was the conten- 
tion of witnesses that undeveloped patents would find 
little or no sale, and that development would be essen- 
tial if the plan of section 9 were to amount to anything 
and meet the expectations of its sponsors. 

The prospective expense to the taxpayers entailed by 
this experiment in patent administration was the subject 
of attack by witnesses. Mr. Randall, secretary of the 
Air Reduction Co., foresaw the necessity for the Federal 
Trade Commission building up within itself an organi- 
zation for the expert administration of patents, defend- 
ing infringement suits, etc. Senator Norris asked why 
it would be necessary for the Federal Trade Commission 
to defend patent suits. He was informed that pro- 
spective licensees would not accept a license, especially if 
non-exclusive, if there was a prospect that they would 
have to prosecute infringers or stand suit for infringe- 
ment in case their patent should prove invalid. The 
situation would be little better in the case of exclusive 
licenses, and in any event it would be incumbent on the 
Federal Trade Commission to maintain an elaborate 
legal department. 

An interesting witness was former Commissioner of 
Patents Ewing. Speaking from some years of experi- 
ence he expressed opinions on various points brought 
out by other witnesses. In his judgment it would be 
necessary to issue exclusive licenses if the scheme were 
to have any chance of success, and yet he felt that there 
was so much objection to that kind of discrimination 
that it would kill what little chance of success there 
might be for section 9 to function as its sponsors hope. 
In Mr. Ewing's opinion the whole matter would not 
amount to anything, because it would not work prac- 
tically. He was certain that the Government would 
have to protect its licensees by defending patent suits. 

A. I. C. E. Opposes Section 9 

David Wesson presented the attitude of the American 
Institute of Chemical Engineers as follows: 

The Institute has an able committee on patent legis- 



Jammry 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



55 



lation which reports at the regular semi-annual meet- 
ings progress of all patent legislation. 

The Nolan bill, as originally passed in the House, was 
discussed by the Institute in open meeting and approved. 

When section 9 was added to the bill the Institute, 
in conjunction with the New York sections of the Amer- 
ican Chemical Society, the Electrochemical Society and 
the Society of Chemical Industry, held a special meeting 
in October last in New York at which Dr. Cottrell and 
Dr. Alsberg fully explained the intent and meaning of 
section 9. 

The meeting, representative of the industrial, scien- 
tific thought of the country, discussed the proposition, 
which was disapproved by all who spoke on the subject. 

The patent committee of the Institute reported the 
bill at the annual meeting held in New Orleans Dec. 6, 
1920. The following resolution was drawn up and 
unanimously adopted: 

Be It Hereby Resolved, That Congress be petitioned 

. to pass Bill H.R. 11,984, otherwise known as the Nolan 

bill, in its original form, without the addition of section 

9, that the Patent Office may obtain the needed relief to 

maintain its efficiency; and be it further 

Resolved, That we consider the passage of section 9 
would lead to the interference by the Government bu- 
reaus with business enterprises with which they were 
originally designed to co-operate in supplying service 
and benefit to all. 

Rust Memorandum on Section 9 

Mr. Randall asked the committee to divorce section 9 
from the bill in anticipation of the substitution there- 
for of an act to be drawn by co-operative effort of all 
the parties at interest. He summarized the hearing with 
the following wire from H. B. Rust, president of the 
Koppers Co.: 

The principal purpose of our patent system is to en- 
courage private enterprise and invention. This section 
will do exactly the opposite. 

1. It will place a body of Government-owned and 
administered patents, worked out by Government in- 
ventors at public expense, in competition with another 
body of patents developed and owned by private indus- 
try. Such an effect is bound to be discouraging and 
harmful to all industry. 

2. It will make it possible for executive orders to 
direct that all patents taken out in any Government 
bureau be turned over to the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion for administration. 

3. It will make the Federal Trade Commission a hold- 
ing agency for a great group of patents affecting prac- 
tically every branch of private industry. 

4. It will make it possible for the Federal Trade 
Commission to discriminate in the issuance of licenses, 
allowing them to certain parties and refusing them to 
others. 

5. It will even make it necessary for the Federal 
Trade Commission to so discriminate, "for unless li- 
censes are restricted in number there is no gain over 
dedication of the patent to the public in the first in- 
stance." ^ 

6. It will make it possible for a taxpayer of the 
United States to be refused the right to use an inven- 
tion that he has contributed funds to develop. 

7. It will involve private industry in continual liti- 
gation with the Government on questions of patent 
validity, infringement, etc., litigation that will become 
a burden ont only to the parties, but to the public. 

8. It will discourage the co-operation between Gov- 
ernment bureaus and private concerns that is now 
benefiting both. Private industry will certainly not 
be willing to give Government employees information 
that may later be developed into patents and turned 
against it. 

9. It will place any Government bureau developing 
patents in an unfair position with respect to related 



'Quotation from Chem. & Met., Oct. 27, 1920. 



industries in competition. The Government bureau has 
means, not possessed by any private individual, of ac- 
quiring information from competitiors. Such informa- 
tion can and will be used in the development of patents 
and to the detriment of competing industries. 

10. It will give undue personal benefit to the Gov- 
ernment employee working with the advantage of Gov- 
ernment funds and Government information. 

11. It will give undue personal benefit to a favored 
group of Government employees who happen to be so 
placed that they can work on inventions, as compared 
with the many other employees who are not so placed. 

12. It will place an irresistible temptation before 
Government employees, especially of the technical and 
scientific groups, to devote their time to work on patent- 
able inventions that will lead to personal benefit to 
themselves. 

13. It will create dissatisfaction among those em- 
ployees who are not permitted to work on inventions. 

14. It will seriously curtail the fundamental technical 
and scientific activities of various Government agencies 
that have few patentable possibilities, but are, never- 
theless, of the utmost value to industry. 

15. Under the patent law of the United States, in- 
ventions, made by an employee at his employer's ex- 
pense, belong to the employer. The employer of every 
Government employee is the public. Inventions of Gov- 
ernment employees are made at the expense of the 
public and should belong to the public without any 
qualification such as this section 9 introduces. 

The conference committee of the House and Senate 
is respectfully urged to reject this section. 

Dr. Cottrell Speaks for the Section 

Dr. Frederick G. Cottrell, late Director of the Bureau 
of Mines and new chairman of the Division of Chem- 
istry and Chemical Technology of the National Research 
Council, appeared in behalf of section 9. Dr. Cottrell 
is generally recognized as principal sponsor of the bill. 
He explained to the committee that this is an experi- 
ment in administration of patents in the interest of 
the public; that in the course of official duties Govern- 
ment employees produce as a byproduct certain patent- 
able discoveries which, unless patented and adminis- 
tered, will be lost to public use; that dedication to the 
public does not, in his opinion, meet the situation; and 
that the bill has been drafted as a permissive measure 
to try the experiment of assignment to a public body 
and administration by it. In the course of his testi- 
mony Dr. Cottrell was questioned by a representative of 
the Standard Oil Co., who asked, in effect, "Would the 
industrial concerns with which the various Government 
bureaus now have co-operative agreements allow Gov- 
ernment employees to ente* their works and laboratories 
if they suspected that later they might be asked to pay 
a royalty on some invention made as a result of knowl- 
edge and information picked up in the course of co- 
operative relations?" Dr. Cottrell was of the opinion 
that the operation of section 9 would not affect the 
cordial relations now existing between Government bu- 
reaus and various industrial concerns. He spoke from 
some years of experience in administration of Govern- 
ment technical work, and said that in his judgment 
there was great need of some such medium as section 9 
in order to salvage and make available for public use 
many discoveries now lost. At the present time there 
are a number of such patented discoveries awaiting 
the establishment of a suitable agency through which 
the patents can be assigned and licensed. In reply to 
the criticism that the Federal Trade Commission would 
experience a great deal of difficulty in licensing patents 
Di. Cottrell cited the fact that during the war that 
body administered a number of enemy-owned patents, 
licensing their use without difficulty. 



56 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



Bacteria as Chemical Reagents 



Activities of Micro-Organisms — Factors Determining the Extent of Chemical Transformations 

by Bacteria — Food for Bacteria and Its Influence on Their Activities — 

Bacterial Standards of Purity — Chemical Equation of Life 



By ARTHUR I. KENDALL 



AT THE very foot of the ladder of life, the simplest 
l\ in structure and the smallest in size, there is a 
J. A. group of micro-organisms known as bacteria. 
The sinister impressions which arise at the mere men- 
tion of germs, indeed all the notoriety which attaches 
to the term "bacteria," arise from the malignant 
potency of a sm.all but formidable group of these micro- 
organisms — the pathogenic microbes — whose activities 
are in opposition or partial opposition to those of plants, 
animals or man. 

In reality the prime function of bacteria in nature is 
one of beneficence. Without their participation in the 
rotation of certain elements between the living and the 
dead all life would inevitably cease upon this planet. 
Bacteria maintain a balance between the organized and 
unorganized kingdoms in nature. They restore those 
essential elements, of which the available supply is 
limited, to the soil in fully oxidized form, suitable for 
resynthesis by plants through the agency of sunlight 
acting upon chlorophyll. Otherwise much nitrogen and 
other elements essential to the perpetuation of life would 
be locked up in complex, useless combinations in the 
dead bodies of plants and animals and their waste prod- 
ucts, while vestiges of the slowly weathering corpses of 
prehistoric monsters and prehistoric vegetation would 
still encumber the earth. 

Activities of Micro-Organisms 

The purification of water and sewage by bacterial 
action is illustrative of their analytical activation. The 
soluble organic substances of sewage and contaminated 
water are broken into simpler hydrolytic products 
through the action of soluble digestive enzymes which 
the bacteria secrete, and in turn these relatively simple 
compounds are absorbed, digested and excreted by mi- 
crobes as fully oxidized derivatives of nitrogen, carbon, 
etc. Such compounds are available for plant synthesis. 
The biological purification of water and sewage, there- 
fore, is essentially a process of bacterial digestion. The 
rapidity with which the biological purification of water 
and sewage takes place in specially constructed filters is 
illustrative of the advantage of creating favorable con- 
ditions which thus hasten the natural process. It also 
indicates the great measure of chemical transformation 
which these very small microbes bring about. 

In addition to the great analytical processes of the 
nitrogen cycle, which are caused by bacteria, the arti- 
ficial and natural souring of milk, of ensilage and many 
other preservative processes are the work of microbes. 
The fermentation industries for the production of or- 
ganic acids, alcohols and many patented reactions, and a 
multitude of others, all indicate uses to which the intel- 
ligently controlled activities of micro-organisms can be 
applied. 

Micro-organisms play an important part in the human 



economy. The ravages of tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera, 
dysentery, diphtheria and other infections are well 
known, but the normal bacteria of the alimentary canal 
also exercise a protective function against invasion by 
them. The extent to which this protection shields the 
host against contagion is not yet known, but unques- 
tioned evidence exists in favor of it. Modem research 
is leading to the formation of dietary measures which 
will increase this protection, or re-establish it, if it has 
been diminished or lost. 

Bacteria are minute, unicellular organisms, devoid of 
sex, and their reproduction is a simple and rapid process. 
They are also devoid of any catalytic pigment, as chlo- 
rophyll, so that it would appear to be impossible for 
bacteria to become synthetic agents, as are the green 
plants. Bacteria require preformed food in their di- 
etary; hence their activities are essentially analytical 
rather than synthetic. The perpetuation of bacteria 
requires an expenditure of energy, and the source of 
this energy, as will be shown, is of leading importance. 

Factors Determining the Extent of Chemical 
Transformations by Bacteria 

The simplicity of structure of bacteria and absence 
of any photochemical agent, such as chlorophyll, within 
them automatically reduce their activities to two closely 
related but very distinct processes. These are, first, an 
anabolic, or structural, process or phase, and, secondly, 
a vegetative energy, or katabolic phase. The former per- 
petuates the integrity of the species, the latter deter- 
mines the function of the organism. 

Now it is just because the individual bacteria are so 
small that their activities are so great. The physical 
basis for this resides in the large ratio of surface of the 
organism to its volume or weight, and also to the 
rapidity with which successive generations of bacteria 
appear when conditions are favorable to their growth. 

The cholera vibrio, for example, measures about 2 
microns in length and 1 micron in diameter. The vol- 
ume, therefore, of a single cholera germ is about 
0.000000002 cu.mm., while its surface measures nearly 
0.00001 sq.mm. For purposes of comparison it may be 
stated that a man weighing 100 kg., 200 cm. in height, 
has a surface area of approximately 2.4 sq.m. 

Since the energy requirement of living things varies 
with the surface area rather than the volume or weight, 
it is evident that the relatively large surface area of 
bacteria in proportion to their volume or weight creates 
a condition requiring proportionately a great deal of 
energy to maintain them. It should be borne in mind, 
however, that the energy requirement of bacteria, meas- 
ured in terms of chemical transformation, depends some- 
what on the type. Thus, bacteria which play a prominent 
part in natural processes appear to effect chemical trans- 
formations of even greater magnitude than those of 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



57 



similar size which are pathogenic for man. The 
second factor which plays an important part in de- 
termining the extent of chemical transformation by 
bacteria is the amazing rate of reproduction. Under 
favorable conditions successive generations of cholera 
vibrios may appear at intervals as frequent as every 
fifteen minutes, each individual dividing into two indi- 
viduals in this short time. The theoretical descendants 
of a single vibrio, therefore, in four hours would num- 
ber about 32,000. The weight of the progeny would be 
approximately 0.00064 mg., while the combined surface 
of the descendants of a single organism at this time 
would be nearly 0.32 sq.mm. The energy requirement 
of a four-hour culture, therefore, would have increased 
32,000 times, but the actual amount of material neces- 
sary to build up the bodies of the microbes at this time 
would be only 0.00066 mg. in weight. Fortunately such 
a rate of reproduction cannot long be maintained. Na- 
ture provides barriers and restraints, and these always 
keep proliferation within endurable limits. Were this 
not so man and animals would long ago have perished. 

Essential Food for Bacteria 

Bacteria, in common with all known living entities, 
contain nitrogen as an essential element in their struc- 
ture. Now nitrogen is notoriously an inert element, and 
this inertia is perhaps a feature of stability in the 
changing manifestations of protoplasm. Nitrogen is 
therefore necessary for the structure of all bacteria, and 
reproduction and growth are impossible in environ- 
ments which do not contain it in utilizable form. 

The nature of the nutritional compounds containing 
nitrogen required by bacteria is varied. Some types 
appear to use simple combinations of nitrogen with 
hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. The great majority of 
micro-organisms can derive their nitrogen requirement 
from amino acids or relatively simple polypeptids. Some 
— as the fastidious gonococctis — require practically un- 
altered protein from human sources for their cultivation. 

Nitrogen, although essential for the structural re- 
quirements of bacteria, is without apparent value as 
a source of energy. This is true for animals and man 
as well. Indeed, when appropriate nitrogenous com- 
pounds, as protein or protein derivatives, are the sole 
source of dietary energy for bacteria, animals or man 
the carbon of the protein or its derivative is oxidized 
for this purpose only after the nitrogen is removed from 
the molecule by a process of deamination. The am- 
monia resulting therefrom is left unchanged, or trans- 
formed to urea and excreted in this form. 

Dietary energj' for bacteria and for animals arises 
from the intracellular oxidization of carbon, so far as 
we can judge from available evidence. It is also gener- 
ally true that the partly oxidized carbon existing in 
carbohydrates is more readily utilized than the reduced 
carbon of the amino acids, for the same purpose. 

The waste products arising from the utilization for 
energy of such nitrogenous substances as amino acids, 
polypeptids or proteins, furthermore, are, as we have 
indicated above, strikingly different from those derived 
from the intracellular combustion of carbohydrates. A 
few examples will illustrate the immense importance of 
this difference. 

Influence of the Culture Medium on the 
Activity of the Bacteria 

One of the leading culture mediums for bacterial cul- 
tivation is called "plain" or sugar-free broth. It con- 



sists essentially of a sterile aqueous solution of 1 per 
cent of peptone and 0.3 per cent meat extracts, all 
neutral in reaction. This medium offers amino acids 
and polypeptids as the sole sources of nitrogen, carbon 
and other elements essential for bacterial growth. In 
such a medium, therefore, both the structural and 
energy requirements of bacteria must be obtained from 
amino acids, or combinations of amino acids, which are 
not coagulated by heat. 

An entirely similar medium, both in composition and 
reaction, but containing about 1 per cent of glucose, is 
designated "glucose broth." Both plain and glucose 
broth offer to bacteria amino acid complexes for struc- 
ture. But in plain broth these same amino acids are 
also the sole sources of carbon for the energy require- 
ment of the bacteria, whereas in glucose broth a choice 
is available between the nitrogen-containing carbon 
complexes — i.e., amino acids and their derivatives — and 
the non-nitrogenous carbohydrates for the energy re- 
quirements of the microbes. 

The diphtheria bacillus is an organism whose formid- 
ableness to man is measured by the potency of the water- 
soluble, extracellular toxin it produces. Under certain 
conditions 0.025 c.c. of a seven-day plain broth culture 
of this organism will kill a guinea pig weighing 250 g. 
within four days with definite symptoms and lesions. 

In other words, in the plain broth, in which carbo- 
hydrates are lacking, the energj' requirement as well 
as the structural requirement of the diphtheria bacillus 
is derived from the utilization of protein derivatives, 
and under this condition a very powerful specific soluble 
poison is produced which is the deadly weapon of the 
diphtheria bacillus. The same diphtheria bacillus, how- 
ever, grown in the same medium but to which a small 
amount of glucose is added, produces substances which 
are not even slightly poisonous; they are, in fact, po- 
tentially buttermilk. Instead of producing the virulent 
poison they secrete essentially lactic and acetic acids. 

The diphtheria bacillus, therefore, under the condi- 
tions of culture stated above, is a veritable Dr. Jekyll 
and Mr. Hyde. Grown in a purely protein medium it 
produces a virulent poison ; in a glucose-protein medium 
it forms potentially buttermilk. The utilization of glu- 
cose in place of the nitrogenous amino acid complexes 
for energy is the only known factor concerned in this 
remarkable transformation. 

The colon bacillus, a common inhabitant of the in- 
testinal tracts of man and of animals, produces consider- 
able amounts of indol from the utilization of tryptophan, 
an important amino acid, when protein derivatives tre 
the only available sources of energy. When a utilizable 
sugar — as glucose — is added to the medium the prod- 
ucts arising from the growth of the organism fail to 
include indol. They are, on the contrary, principally 
lactic and acetic acids. [It would appear from this that 
glucose might occasionally be used advantageously to 
avoid the evil odors attendant on putrefaction. — Ed.] 

The bacteria which incite typhoid fever, bacillary 
dysentery, cnolera and many other diseases react in a 
precisely similar manner; they produce characteristic 
nitrogenous products, which appear to be specific for 
each organism, all nitrogen-containing, when protein or 
protein derivatives only are available for energy. All of 
these formidable incitants of human infection, however, 
produce the chemical equivalent of buttermilk when an 
available source of energy in the form of carbohydrate is 
present in mediums where they are growing. Generally 
speaking, the carbohydrate spares the protein constitu- 



58 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



ents of the nutritive environment from decomposition 
for the energy requirements of the organism. 

Importance of the Utilization of Protein and 
Carbohydrate for Energy 

It is obvious, therefore, that in either medium protein 
must be used for the structural requirement of the 
organisms, and it is also evident that the products 
arising either from the utilization of protein or from 
that of carbohydrate for energy should be of great 
significance in defining the function of the various kinds 
of bacteria. This is emphasized by the far greater re- 
quirement of bacteria for energy than for structure. 

This great fundamental principle of the use by bac- 
teria of either carbohydrate or protein for energy is in 
all probability the most important single principle to 
note in approaching the unexplored field of the chem- 
istry of medical, agricultural and industrial bacteri- 
ology. 

An illustration or two will be explanatory. 

Many years ago at the Lawrence Experiment Station 
at Lawrence, Mass., bacterial sewage filters which had 
nitrified the organic constituents of sewage successfully 
for a period of years were found to permit the passage 
of the nitrogenous constituents of sewage but little 
changed in terms of free and albuminoid ammonia when 
cane sugar was added to the sewage just before it was 
introduced to the top of the filter. An explanation was 
not available when this experiment, repeated several 
times, was performed. In all probability this is a con- 
crete example of the sparing action of carbohydrates 
for proteins in fermentation. If it is easier for the 
bacteria resident in the filter to obtain their energy 
from cane sugar than from the nitrogenous constituents 
of the sewage they will do this very thing, and the 
effluent will show theoretically but little chemical evi- 
dence of nitrification. 

Several years ago certain eggs, broken and mixed 
with a considerable amount of cane sugar, were seized 
and condemned on the ground that they were filthy, 
rotten and decomposed. There were many thousands 
of colon bacilli per gram of egg, and it is known that 
Bacillus coli produces relatively large amounts of indol, 
an exceedingly foul-smelling substance, from the decom- 
position of protein. 

Most careful analysis confirmed the high bacterial 
content of these eggs, but failed to reveal am.monia, 
indol or other products indicative or even suggestive of 
protein decomposition by Bacillus coli. The reaction of 
the eggs, contrary to what might have been expected 
from protein putrefaction, was distinctly acid, and lactic 
acid in considerable amounts was found in the mixture. 
These eggs, furthermore, were used in cakes and other 
culinary products without the slightest suggestion of 
disagreeable odor or taste. What appears to have hap- 
pened is readily explained — the colon bacilli derived 
their energy requirement from the cane sugar, leaving 
the protein of the egg practically untouched except for 
the minimal amounts necessary to fulfill their nitrogen 
structural requirement. Evidence of protein decompo- 
sition would scarcely be expected under the circum- 
stances, and in reality the principal change was at the 
expense of the cane sugar, rather than the protein. 

Nature's method of preserving milk by souring, so 
extensively practiced in the tropical and subtropical 
Orient, especially by nomadic peoples, and the recently 
developed use of bacteria for "starters" in the butter 
industry are examples of the selective action of bacteria 



upon sugars in place of the protein constituents. The 
development of acid tends to retard, or even prevent, 
the growth of non-lactose-fermenting proteolytic bac- 
teria which otherwise might induce putrefaction in place 
of souring. Examples might be cited almost without 
limit upon this phase of the problem, but another phase 
deserves mention because of the theoretical possibili- 
ties associated with it. 

Significance of "Utilizable Carbohydrate" 

For many years, beginning with 1885, bacteriologists 
have added various sugars, starches and glucosides to 
plain broth, and have observed that specific bacteria 
differ in their respective powers to "ferment" or "not 
ferment" the various carbohydrates. Long-continued 
obsei'vation has led to the selection of a few sugars for 
general bacterial use, the kinds depending somewhat 
upon the organisms studied. Thus glucose, lactose, 
saccharose and the alcohol mannil;ol have been found by 
repeated trials to be of great use in separating bacteria 
derived from the alimentary canal into distinct types or 
species. Confirmatory tests, using the serums of horses 
immunized to certain of the respective pathogenic types, 
have been employed in the final diagnosis of these. 

Although the empirical facts relating to the respec- 
tive availability of such carbohydrates have been thus 
laboriously established, the underlying principle appears 
to have been overlooked. This principle is that in the 
presence of such utilizable carbohydrates they are con- 
sumed by the bacteria for their energy requirement, 
while the protein constituents of the medium are spared. 
The recognition of the principle of this sparing action 
of utilizable carbohydrate leads at once to a contempla- 
tion of the most fundamental consideration of all — what 
relationship exists between the structure of a utilizable 
carbohydrate and the ability of the living protoplasm 
of a specific organism to use such a structure as a 
source of energy? Some of the relationships between 
the stereo configuration of very closely related sugars 
and their respective values as sources of bacterial energy 
are truly amazing in their specificity. Bacteria are 
extraordinarily delicate appraisers of optical antipodes; 
that is, they are themselves sentitive polariscopes. 

D-glucose, d-mannose and d-fructose differ, according 
to available information, solely in the arrangement of 
hydrogen and hydroxyl around the carbon atom next to 
the aldehyde group — except in fructose, which is, of 
course, a ketone. The brilliant researches of Emil 
Fischer and others have shown the specific arrangement 
of the six carbon, twelve hydrogen and six oxygen 
atoms which collectively determines the identity of each 
member of this group, which tends to form a dynamic 
chemical equilibrium of the three through a common 
enol when any one of them is dissolved in an alkaline 
aqueous solution. 

D-Glucose D-Mannose D-Fructose 

CHO CHO CHOH 



1 



H— C— OH 



HO— C— H 



H— C— OH 



H— C— OH 



HO— C— H 



HO— C— H 



H— C— OH 



H— C— OH 



C— 



HO— C— H 



H— C— OH 



H— C— OH 



CH.OH CH.OH CH.OH 

Furthermore it will be seen from the diagram that 



Janitary 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



59 



d-glucose and d-mannose differ from each other solely 
in the arrangement of the H and OH groups next to 
the aldehyde group. This difference consists merely of 
a reversal of the two in mannose as compared with 
glucose. Neither the number nor the kind of groups of 
atoms differs; it is merely a transposition of one H and 
one OH upon one carbon atom out of the six. The re- 
maining carbon atoms and associated groups are pre- 
cisely the same. Yet certain bacteria, as Bacillus pro- 
teus, and cholera vibrios can derive energy from the 
intracellular utilization of glucose, but appear unable 
to utilize mannose in the slightest degree. On the con- 
trary, bacteria which are apparently much more fas- 
tidious in many of their dietary requirements, especi- 
ally with reference to protein, can ferment mannose as 
well as glucose. Observations with several hundred 
bacteria, comprising many of the more important patho- 
genic types, have revealed similar instances of a most 
extraordinary relationship between the structural con- 
figuration of various carbohydrates and their suscepti- 
bility or immunity to specific bacterial decomposition. 
Apparently definite strains of bacteria never make a 
mistake in picking out the proper structural formula for 
transformation into energy. Thus two strains of 
cholera and proteus, tested at intervals of four years, 
have consistently used glucose and refused mannose, as 
stated above. Whether all strains of cholera or of 
proteus, for example, that are in existence at the pres- 
ent time would be unable to utilize mannose cannot be 
decided in the light of available infonnation. Con- 
versely, if strains said to be one or the other of these 
types are found which ferment mannose, an extremely 
fundamental question of their respective identities 
would at once be raised. 

Observations upon one hundred different strains of 
dysentery bacilli have revealed one small group of three 
which do not ferment galactose. They do ferment (as 
do all the remaining types which could utilize galac- 
tose) glucose, mannose and fructose, as well as other 
sugars. 

So far as available evidence goes, the alcohol <Z-ara- 
bitol is fermented only by members of the Mucosus 
capsulatus group. If a large series of authentic strains 
of this group exhibit in common this peculiarity, a 
means of rapid diagnosis for one group will have been 
demonstrated. The application of this principle along 
the line of specific bacterial diagnosis is perfectly 
obvious. 

BACTERIAL Standards of Purity 

The unerring, uncanny positiveness with which the 
two cholera and two proteus organisms distinguish be- 
tween glucose and mannose suggests at once a means 
of detection of traces of the former sugar as an impurity 
in the latter. The extension of this principle to pos- 
sible bacterial standards of purity for all sugars and 
indeed for many other substances through a careful 
selection of particular bacterial strains for specific pur- 
poses needs no further elucidation. 

As an example of the possible delicacy of such a re- 
action mention may be made of the common use by 
bacteriologists of milk containing litmus as an indi- 
cator. Milk as ordinarily purchased and used in bac- 
teriology contains about 3 per cent of protein, 3 per 
cent of fat, and 5 or more per cent of carbohydrate in 
addition to inorganic salts and water. Clearly, bacteria 
have a theoretical choice of protein or carbohydrate for 
energy. Fats are omitted for the sake of simplicity 



from this discussion. The carbohydrate content of milk 
consists of somewhat less than 0.1 per cent of glucose, 
the remainder being lactose. 

Dysentery bacilli and many others can ferment glu- 
cose but not lactose. Bearing in mind what has been 
said, it is obvious that the theory outlined demands a 
primary bacterial attack upon the glucose for energy. 
If this is used up without the formation of products 
inimical to the further growth of the bacteria they 
must subsequently derive their energy from the protein 
constituents of the milk, because experience has shown 
that dysentery bacilli cannot attack the lactose. 

The products of the fermentation of glucose by dysen- 
tery bacilli are acid; those arising from the putrefac- 
tion of the milk proteins are alkaline The litmus indi- 
cator shows this sequence very clearly. It responds to 
the acidity generated from less than 0.1 per cent of 
glucose by turning distinctly violet, then it gradually 
becomes blue as the alkaline products of protein decom- 
position for energy accumulate and neutralize the fer- 
mentation acid. 

This is a crude illustration of the ability of specific 
bacteria to distinguish very small amounts of a specific 
carbohydrate in the presence of another. Even with 
the relatively gross conditions of this experiment the 
results are unmistakable. How delicate such a reaction 
can be made is yet undetermined The application of 
this principle to the identification of minute amounts of 
specific sugars and to the products of hydrolysis of 
bioses and polysaccharides is perfectly clear. 

Attempts to produce bacterial evidence of enolization 
and subsequent equilibrium of hexoses (as of the glu- 
cose-fructose-mannose group) in alkaline media have so 
far been unsuccessful, although the prevailing idea re- 
garding this phenomenon should be susceptible of 
demonstration. 

Chemical Equation of Life 

However interesting, instructive or important the re- 
lationships between structure of carbohydrates and 
their adaptability for energy may be as abstract phe- 
nomena, there is underlying all these manifestations the 
problem of the chemical equation of life. The remark- 
able precision with which bacteria of certain types dis- 
tinguish between such closely related hexoses as glucose 
and mannose has its exact counterpart in the equally 
astonishing phenomena of specific immunity and sus- 
ceptibility of animals and man to bacterial infection. 

Man is relatively free from many of the epizootic 
diseases of animals, and animals do not naturally become 
infected with many human infections, as typhoid fever. 
Much more specific examples of immunity and suscepti- 
bility to infection are known, however. Algerian sheep 
are said to be immune to anthrax, that bacterial pesti- 
lence which has decimated herds o± ordinary sheep 
both in Europe and America. House mice are extremely 
resistant to infection with glanders, while field mice are 
unusually suspectible. Goats are not readily infected 
with tubercle bacilli, but cattle and swine are extremely 
prone to the disease. 

Science is wholly uninformed with respect to the 
origin and mode of the action of immune processes. 
Much empirical knowledge has been laboriously collected 
concerning the methods of testing such immunological 
phenomena, but an adequate, satisfying explanation of 
them is wholly and entirely lacking. 

At first sight the enormous complexity of proteins to 
which immunological processes are ordinarily ascribed 



60 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



vvould appear to be an insurmountable barrier to further 
advances. Seventeen amino acids which comprise the 
building blocks of the proteins may be arranged in 
hundreds of thousands of combinations within a mole- 
cule as large as that of a native protein. Realizing 
what a mere transposition of H and OH in glucose does 
in creating bacterial immunity, the enormous complexity 
of the extension of this process to protein and proto- 
plasmic sources is very obvious. 

Nevertheless, bacteria may throw some light even 
here. Bacillus coli and Bacillus proteus and some others 
are tryptophanophilic ; in the absence of non-nitrogen- 
ous sources of energy they appear to pick out trypto- 
phan from the protein molecules and utilize the alanin 
portion, leaving indol as a useless residuum. Other 
bacteria select other amino acids. Without prolonging 
this suggestion and without mentioning some other fea- 
tures of bacteria decomposition of protein which are 
pertinent, it may be stated that untouched possibilities 
remain which the bacteriological chemist of the future 
will study and from which he will glean information 
leading directly to the heart of that mystery of mys- 
teries, the chemical equation of life. 



Use of Bituminous Coal as Water-Gas 
Generator Fuel* 

By W. W. ODELLf 

IT HAS long been recognized that coke is a more 
desirable fuel than bituminous coal in water-gas 
apparatus of present design, but still considerable 
headway has been made in the use of the latter fuel 
as a substitute for coke. This is particularly true in 
the Central States, where the supply of high-grade 
coke has been very limited and uncertain during the 
past few years and where coking coals of low sulphur 
content were available in quantities. In fact, with the 
present difference in price of coal and coke, it is pos- 
sible to realize a marked saving when using a coking 
bituminous coal as generator fuel. 

Difficulties have been encountered in the use of 
such fuel, but they have been overcome to a large 
extent. One of the chief obstacles in the use of the 
more general utilization of bituminous coal for water- 
gas manufacture is the fact that with normal opera- 
tion the capacity per unit of time is reduced. This of 
course is a serious problem for plants operating at 
capacity with coke fuel. However, this difficulty can 
be remedied to a large extent by a changed method 
of operating, and can be remedied entirely by a com- 
bination of the latter with a change in the design (or 
proportions) of a water-gas set. The preceding state- 
ment, it will be understood, refers more particularly 
to a carburetted water-gas set. 

Present Practice in the Manufacture of 
Water Gas From Coke 

In the manufacture of water gas from coke present 
practice requires that for continuous 24-hr. service 
the heat of combustion of all the carbon monoxide 
(CO) generated during the air blow be utilized in ad- 
dition to the sensible heat of the gas coming from 
the generator. 

This is doubly true when making carburetted water 
gas from bituminous coking coal. The reasons whv 



•FVoni Reports of Investigations, U. S. 
tOnsi engflneer. Bureau of Mines. 



Bureau of Mines. 



this is so are apparent when the following factors are 
considered. 

The average value of the blue gas from coke fuel 
is 300 B.t.u. per cu.ft., whereas that from the coal is 
335 B.t.u. Also the volume and quality of the blast 
gas are appreciably greater when the latter fuel is 
used. In other words, when making carburetted gas 
from bituminous coal the quality of the blue gas is so 
much richer than the same gas from coke that less 
oil is required to carburet it to a given standard. 
Therefore less heat is required for heating the checker 
chambers. This condition is aggravated by the fact 
that more and richer blast gas is available than ever, 
and must be wasted at the stack in large quantities 
when making gas to a standard lower than 565 B.t.u. 
The lower this standard the greater the quantity of 
blast gas wasted. Therefore, with the present tend- 
ency toward lower standards for city gas, the benefits 
to be realized by the utilization of a waste heat boiler 
are at once apparent. 

The general practice in the past in the use of waste 
heat boilers has been to utilize only the sensible heat 
of the gas, no consideration being given to the heat 
of combustion of the excess combustible blast gas. 
This is perhaps due to the fact that when making car- 
buretted gas to a 600 B.t.u. standard or better, using 
coke fuel, there is but little combustible gas wasted, 
since more oil is used per 1,000 cu.ft. of gas and the 
percentage of blue gas in the finished gas is lower. 
The changes brought about by the use of bituminous 
coal as generator fuel and by the lower gas standard 
materially alter this condition and make it particu- 
larly desirable to supply a combustion chamber in 
conjunction with a waste heat boiler for utilizing the 
heat of combustion of the waste blast gas. 

Advantages of Using Bituminous Coal as 
Water-Gas Generator Fuel 

In drawing attention to the use of bituminous coal 
as generator fuel it is not my purpose to claim that it 
is better fuel than coke but to point out that: 

1. Carburetted gas can be made from it cheaper 
than with coke, due to the fact that although slightly 
more generator fuel is used per 1,000 cu.ft. of gas 
produced, the difference in the prices of coal and coke 
is great enough to offset this difference. Also, the 
oil consumption per 1,000 cu.ft. is less, due to the 
higher heating value of the blue gas from coal fuel. 

2. .A still greater economy can be realized from 
the use of such fuel (bituminous coking coal) when a 
properly designed waste heat boiler with a suitable 
combustion chamber is provided. 

The Bureau of Mines in its investigations of the 
use of central bituminous coals as water-gas gener- 
ator fuel, conducted at its mining experiment station 
at Urbana, 111., has made a special study of the design 
of types of water-gas sets using coal. A report on 
the results of the study of this problem, entitled 
"Water-Gas Apparatus Designed for Use With Bitu- 
minous Coal as Generator Fuel," by William W. Odell, 
has just been completed, and will appear as a Bureau 
of Mines publication. Another paper to be published 
by the bureau of interest to those concerned in the 
manufacture of carburetted water gas is a report of ex- 
periments made during July and August, 1920, in the 
use of mixed fuels, coal and coke, on a commercial scale, 
making over 1,000,000 cu.ft. of gas a day. 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



61 



Density of Aluminum From 20 to 1,000 Deg. C. 

Experimental Methods for Measuring With Precision the Density of Liquid Metals, and Figures for the 
Results When Applied to Pure Aluminum — Derived Data of Importance Are Solid Shrink- 
age, or Pattern Allowance, and Solidification Shrinkage 

By JUNIUS DAVID EDWARDS'" and T. A. MOORMANNf 



ONE of the most interesting properties of 
aluminum from the standpoint of usefulness is 
its low density, and innumerable determinations 
of its density have been made. This work has nearly all 
been confined, however, to the observation of the density 
at "room" temperatures. In the technology of 
aluminum, the density of the liquid metal is a significant 
factor and there are no accurate data on the density 
of liquid aluminum in the literature. Furthermore, 
there has not always been a satisfactory correlation of 
the density of the material with its chemical composition 
and physical structure. It has been necessary, therefore, 
in some of our work to determine certain of these con- 
stants of aluminum and its alloys. This work has not 
only made ayailable an exact knowledge of the density 
under varying conditions but has led to some very 
interesting observations and conclusions regarding the 
process of solidification of aluminum and its alloys. 
These results are of particular interest in connection 
with the casting of aluminum alloys. This paper is one 
of a series which will describe the work and the con- 
clusions reached. 

The term density, as used in these articles, may be 
defined as the mass of the metal in grams per milliliter. 
The density multiplied by the factor 0.0361 gives the 
mass in pounds per cubic inch. These values refer to 
weighings in vacuo; weighings made in air with brass 
weights and an equal arm balance will be about 0.03 per 
cent less. The specific volume is the reciprocal of the 
density or the volume in milliliters per gram of mass. 

Experimental Methods 

The density of metal at room temperature has been 
determined in the usual manner by determining the 
apparent loss in weight when immersed in water. A 
platinum wire 0.10 mm. in diameter was used for sup- 
porting the specimen. No correction has been made for 
the effect of surface tension on the wire, because in 
nearly every case the correction is much less than one 
part per thousand. All weighings are corrected to in 
vacuo. 

The determination of the density of the liquid metal 
presented greater difficulties. An attempt was made to 
determine the density by determining the apparent loss 
in weight of a sinker immersed in the metal. Fused 
quartz appeared to be the material best adapted for the 
construction of the sinker because of its low coefficient 
of expansion and it was hoped that it would not be 
seriously attacked by the aluminum. Because the 
density of fused quartz is insufficient to insure its sink- 
ing in liquid aluminum, a hollow quartz sinker was con- 
structed with a cylinder of nickel or iron inside to 
increase its weight. A short, slender, quartz rod 1 mm. 



in diameter was attached to the top of the sinker, and 
this was suspended by a platinum wire. The sinker 
is illustrated in Fig. 1. A number of results were 
obtained with this design of sinker, and they are in fair 
agreement with the results obtained by the densimeter 
method to be described later. The quartz sinkers are, 
however, quite rapidly attacked by the metal, par- 
ticularly at temperatures above 700 or 800 deg. C, and 
the behavior of the sinker becomes erratic and the 
results unreliable. This method was accordingly aban- 
doned in favor of another method. However, such a 
sinker would give very satisfactory results in contact 
with a metal or liquid which did not attack it and they 
can be readily constructed with a little practice. 

Densimeter of Frary and Edwards. It has been found 
possible to determine the density of liquid metals with 
good precision by means of a densimeter devised by 
Dr. F. C. Frary and one of the authors. Fig. 2 shows a 
graphite densimeter of this type which was used with 
liquid aluminum and its alloys. The small inner crucible 
is completely filled with metal at a temperature some- 
what below that at which its density is to be determined, 
and the cover is screwed down tight by means of two 
steel screws. The space between the inner and outer 
crucibles is filled with aluminum until the surface of the 
metal is about 0.5 in. from the top of the inner crucible ; 
this bath of metal aids greatly in securing a uniform 
and constant temperature in the inner crucible. 

The temperature of the furnace is then slowly 
increased until the bath of metal shows the desired 
temperature as measured by a platinum-platinum 
rhodium thermocouple, and then is carefully held at this 
temperature for from five to ten minutes. Great care 
is exercised to reach this temperature slowly, and not 
to exceed it at any time. As the temperature rises, the 
^ aluminum in the inner crucible expands 

and completely fills the crucible. The excess 
runs out through a very small channel 
formed by a groove in the top face of the 
crucible and the tightly fitting cover. Any 
beads of metal adhering to these openings 
are detached, the cruciblf is removed from 
the furnace, the metal in the surrounding 
bath is poured out, and the crucible is 
allowed to cool. When cold, the ingot is 
removed and weighed. The volume of the 
inner crucible has previously been deter- 
mined by weighing the volume of mercurj' 
just required to fill it. The volume of the 
crucible at the temperature of measurement 
is calculated by means of the expansion co- 
efficient of Acheson graphite, as determined 
by Day and Sosman.^ This correction is 



♦Physical Chemist, Aluminum Company of America, 
t Chemist, Aluminum Company of America. 



FIG. 1. 
STXKER 



'Day and Sosman, /. Ind. Eng. Chem. 
p. 490 (1912). 



vol. 4, 



62 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



small— only 0.65 per cent at 1,000 deg. C. The density 
is readily calculated from the weight of the metal and 
the volume it occupied at the temperature of the 
determination. This method was considerably more pre- 
cise than the sinker method but required a longer time 
to carry out a series of determinations. 

Density of Solid Aluminum 
The density of a metal is subject to variation from 
changes in both composition and structure. As a result, 
the data on the density of aluminum as well as the 
density of other metals are frequently both conflicting 
and confusing. When metals are cast there are certain 
voids left in the metal as cracks, pores, etc. The applica- 
tion of pressure to the metal as in rolling or cold 
working tends to eliminate these voids, with a resultant 
increase in density. It has been observed, however, by 
a number of investigators that continued working of 
many metals eventually results in a decrease of density, 
and that annealing of these hard-worked specimens 
results in an increase of density. The explanation of 
this interesting phenomenon as proposed by Beilby' lies 
in his "amorphous phase" theory. According to this 
theory the deformation of the metal results in the trans- 
formation of small amounts of the crystalline metal 
into an amorphous modification possessing properties 
similar to those of a super-cooled liquid. This amor- 
phous metal should have theoretically a lower density 
than the crystalline modification, and so its production 
lowers the average density of the metal. Upon anneal- 
ing, the amorphous metal crystallizes and tlie density 
increases. These changes are not large in magnitude, 
but are apparently 



Protecting Tube — ^ 
for Thermocouple \ 



well authenticated. 
A good review of 
the evidence has 
been given by 
Johnston and 
Adams.' More re- 
cently Huir has 
shown that me- 
chanical working 
tends to change 
the crystal struc- 
ture of aluminum 
from a face cen- 
tered cubic lattice 
to a hexagonal ar- 
rangement. The 
changes in density 
under discussion 
might possibly be 
accounted for by 
some such change 
in crystal structure 
without recourse to 
the amorphous 
phase theory. In 
the case of alumi- 
num, Kahlbaum° found the density of a sample of hard- 
drawn aluminum wire to increase from 2.6995 to 2.7031 
upon annealing. Brislee" in an extensive series of 
experiments found variations of the same magnitude 
between hard-drawn and annealed aluminum wire, and 

=Hoilby, J. hint. Mddls. vol. 6, p. 5 (1911). 

'.Johnston and Adams, J. Am. Chcm. Soc, vol. 34. p .563 (1912). 
-•Htill /'ror. Am. /ii.s/. Eire. Eng., vol 38, p. 1,171 (1919). 
'Kiihlbaum and Sturm, Z. anorg. Chcm., vol. 46, p. 217 (1905). 
"Brislee, Trans. Faraday Soc, vol. 9, p. 162 (1913) 




FIG. 2. DENSIMETER OF FRARY 

AND EDWARDS FOR LIQUID 

METALS 



somewhat smaller differences in the case of metal which 
had not suffered as great deformation. 

A number of tests were made by the authors to con- 
firm these observations; a summary of these tests is 
given in Table I. 

The sample of very pure metal (99.75 per cent) taken 
from the pig was increased in density from 2.686 to 
2.703 by rolling; annealing produced no further 
change, however. Two samples of hard-rolled sheet 
(99.23 per cent) decreased slightly in density upon 
annealing. A cast sample of low-grade metal decreased 
in density with compression, and later increased upon 
annealing. According to the theory, the increase of 
density upon annealing should be greatest in the 
specimens which had suffered the greatest deformation. 
To test this point, samples of conductor wire were 
twisted almost to the breaking point. In the two tests 
made, there was an increase in density upon annealing, 
and the increase was greatest in the case of the wire 
most severely deformed. The decrease in density caused 
by annealing of the hard-rolled sheet referred to may 
have been caused by expansion of pores and fissures dur- 
ing annealing with its consequent crystal growth. The 
last-mentioned specimens had not received severe 
mechanical treatment. 

It may be of interest to calculate the percentage of 
metal which must be present in the amorphous form to 
account for the observed changes in density. Take, for 
example, the sample of No. 10 wire which increased in 
density from 2.703 to 2.706 upon annealing. If it is 
assumed that the density curve of the solid amorphous 
metal is continuous with that of the liquid, then by 
extrapolation of the graph of Fig. 3, the density of 
amorphous aluminum at 20 deg. C, would be approx- 
imately 2.55. A simple calculation from the correspond- 
ing specific volumes shows that the presence of 1.8 



TABLE I. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL TREATMENT UPON DENSITY 

OF ALUMINUM 

Purity of Density, 

Sample, Condition and Treatment (20 Deg. 

(perCTent of Sample C.) 
Al) 

99.75 Sample sawed from pig 2 . 6827 

Sample sawed from pig 2 . 686 1 

Same, cold rolled from J to 5 in 2 . 703 1 

Preceding sample, annealed 15 min. at 850° F 2.7030 

Same, annealed 2 hr. longer 2. 7030 

99.23 Hot rolled to j in.; finished to 0.22 in.; not annealed 2.7078 

Same, after annealing 2 . 7069 

Hot rolled to f in.; finished to 0.27 in 2 7077 

Same after annealing 2 . 7057 

98.25 Small ingot cast in graphite 2.7279 

Same, compressed under load of 50,000 lb 2 . 7258 

Same, after annealing at 850° F 2 . 7266 

99. 49 Wire from aluminum cable 2. 7064 

.\nother sample of same after twisting severely 2 . 7046 

Preceding sample annealed 2 . 7055 

Another sample after twisting very severely 2 . 7052 

Same, after anneaUng 2 . 709 1 

99. 5 Hard drawn aluminum wire, No. 10 gage 2 . 7029 

Same, after anneahng 2 . 7063 

Hard drawn aluminum wire, No. 6 gage 2. 7019 

Same, after anneaUng 2 . 7048 



per cent of amorphous metal of the assumed density 
would account for the change in density from 2.703 to 
2.706. 

Although we have contributed very little to the 
evidence on this phase of the investigation, the follow- 
ing conclusions seem warranted: 

The working of cast aluminum increases its density 
by the elimination of voids, A point may be reached, 
however, at which further deformation of the metal 
results in a decrease in density, and the annealing of 
such metal again produces an increase in density. This 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



63 






latter effect is best explained by the production of 
amorphous metal during working, which modification 
has a lower density than crystalline aluminum. 

Examination of the available data indicates, in the 
authors' opinion, that the density of pure annealed 

2.80 



2.70 



2.50 



12.50 

c 

o 
2.40 



2.30 



2.20 

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 
Temperature Deg. C. 

FIG. 3. DENSITY OF ALUMINUM, 99.75 PER CENT Al 
(DOTTED PORTION OF GRAPH WAS CALCULATED) 

aluminum (100 per cent aluminum) is very close to 
2.700. Samples of hard drawn wire of high purity may 
have densities only slightly lower than this value (for 
example, 2.699 or 2,698), caused by the mechanical work- 
ing. Much lower values than these indicate the presence 
of voids. Small increases in the amounts of the usual 
impurities present cause an increase in density as 
indicated in Table IV. 

Thermal Expansivity of Aluminum 

A knowledge of the thermal expansivity of aluminum 
can be used to calculate the density of aluminum at 
higher and lower temperatures than "room" tempera- 
ture. A summary of the available measurements is 
given in Table II. 



The density of the metal might be determined directly 
at the higher temperatures by the method of hydrostatic 
weighing if a suitable medium could be found. Oil 
might be used up to 300 deg. C, but beyond that tem- 
perature we have been unable to find any mixture of 
fused salts which would remain suflficiently constant in 
density to give satisfactory results. 

Density of Liquid Aluminum 

Using the densimeter method outlined in a previous 
section, the density of aluminum has been determined 
from the melting point to slightly above 1,000 deg. C. 
The expansion is apparently linear over this range. The 
results of these tests are given in Table III. In a later 
section will be found a table of densities more convenient 
for use, and which have been taken from the "smoothed 
curve" fitted to the following data. For the sake of 

TABLE IV. DENSITY OF aluminum 
Centigrade Temperature Scale 



Temp. 

20 
100 
200 
400 
658. 
658. 
700 
800 
900 
1,000 
1,100 



68 
1,217.7 
1,217.7 
1.300 
1,400 
1,500 
1,600 
1,700 
1,800 
1,900 
2,000 
NOTE. 



Condition 
of Metal 
Solid 
Solid 
Solid 
Solid 
SoUd 
Liquid 
Liquid 
Liquid 
Liquid 
Liquid 
Liquid 



99 75 

per Cent 
Aluminum 



2.703 
(2.69) 
(2.67) 
(2.62) 
(2.55) 

2.382 



— Density - 

99.4 

per Cent 

Aluminum 

2.706 



98 25 

per Cent 

Aluminum 

2.727 



371 
343 
316 
289 
262 



2.384 
2.373 
2 345 
2.318 
2.291 
2.264 



Fahrenheit Temperature Scale 



Solid 

Solid 

Liquid 

Liquid 

Liquid 

Liquid 

Liquid 

Liquid 

Liquid 

Liquid 

Liquid 



2.703 
(2.55) 
2.382 
2.369 
2.354 
2.339 
2.324 
2.309 
2.294 
2.278 
2.263 



2.706 



2 405 
2 394 
2.366 
2.339 
2.311 
2 285 



2.727 



2.384 
2.371 
2.356 
2.341 
2.326 
2 311 
2.296 
2.280 
2.265 



2.405 
2.393 
2.377 
2.362 
2.347 
2.332 
2 316 
2.301 
2.286 



-Values inclosed in parentheses are calculated from expansion formula. 



TABLE II. THERMAL EXPANSIVITY OF ALUMINUM 



Observer 
Bureau of Standards 7. 



Thermal Expansivity 
(22.3U+ 0.011152)10-6 



Dittenberger 8 (22.536<+ 0. 01 707 U^) 10-6 

Jaeger and Scheel 9 (22.9< + 0.009<2) 10-6 



Temperature 
Range, 
Deg. C. 

1 5 to 295 

to 610 
-78 to 500 



Purity of 
Metal 
Tested 

Si= 0.45% 
Fe= 0.35% 

"Pure" 
Al = 99.6% 



These results show some little variation, and we are 
adopting for the present the value obtained by the 
Bureau of Standards. The Bureau of Standards is also 
determining the expansivity of a sample of 99.75 per 
cent purity, but the results are not yet available. 



'Bureau of Standards, Circular 76 (1919). 

'Dittenberger, Z. Ver. deutsch. Ing., vol. 46, p. 1,532 (1902). 

»Jaeger and Scheel, Elektrotech. Zeit., p. 150 (1919). 



comparison the deviation of each point from the 
smoothed curve is given in the table. This curve is 
based entirely on the measurements with the densim- 
eter; the observations taken with the sinker are 
obviously of somewhat lower precision. 

The density of the liiquid (99.75 per cent aluminum) 
may be expressed by the following equation, in which 
Dt is the density at the specified temperature of t deg. C. 
Dt = 2.382 — 0.000272 r^ — 658 deg.) 

The only other data available on the density of liquid 
aluminum are those of Pascal and Jouniaux" anc^ 
Richards." The sinker method was used by Pascal and 



"Pascal and Jouniaux, Rev. Metallurgic, vol. 11, p. 1,069 (1914). 
iiRlchards, J. Frank. Inst., vol. 138, p. 51 (1894). 







TABLE III. 


RESULTS OF 


DENSITY D] 








Composition 


nf INTnfil 










Sample 


Si 


Fe 


Cu 


Mn 


Al 


No. 


per Cent 


per Cent 


per Cent 


per Cent 


per Cent 


7 


0.25 


0.26 


0.08 


None 


99.38 


7 


0.25 


0.26 


0.08 


None 


99.38 


7 


0.25 


0.26 


0.08 


None 


99.38 


7 


0.25 


0.26 


0.08 


None 


99.38 


7 


0.25 


0.26 


0.08 


None 


99.38 


12a 


0.19 


0.24 


0.07 


None 


99.50 


12c 


0.17 


0.23 


0.07 


None 


99.53 


Al 


0.11 


0.13 


0.008 


None 


99.752 


Al 


0.11 


0.13 


008 


None 


99.752 


Al 


0.11 


0.13 


0.008 


None 


99.752 


Al 


on 


0.13 


0.008 


None 


99.752 


72 


0.38 


53 


32 


0.52 


98.25 


72 


38 


0.53 


0.32 


0.52 


98.25 


72 


0.38 


0.53 


32 


0.52 


98.25 



NOTE. — Four determinations have been omitted from the table, as having 
so far off as to be obviously incorrect. 



Deviation From 

Temperature, Den.sity, Best Curve, 

Density Method Deg. C. g./ml. per Cent 

Sinker No. 1 665 2.391 +0 38 

Sinker No. 1 718 2.376 +0 34 

Sinker No. I 754 2. 364 + 25 

SinkerNo.2 959 2.280 —0 96 

SinkerNo.2 1,012 2.256 —140 

Den.simeter 952 2. 304 00 

Densimeter 701 2.372 00 

Densimeter 708 2 . 368 00 

Densimeter 897 2.317 00 

Densimeter 995 2.287 — 13 

Densimeter 996 2.282 — 35 

Densimeter 706 2.391 — 004 

Densimeter 822 2.362 +0 08 

Densimeter 912 2.335 — 0.04 

been obtained with a defective crucible; the results of these determinations were 



64 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 2 



Jouniaux with a quartz crystal as the sinker. They 
report values about 3 per cent higher than ours on metal 
for which they claim a purity of 99.48 per cent. The 
density of this metal is given as 2.794 at 20 deg. C, so 
there is obviously something wrong either with their 
technique or their analytical results, because metal of 
the stated purity could not possiby have a density as 
high as 2.79. Richards determined the weight of 
aluminum filling an iron mold of known volume and 
estimated the density of "molten aluminum" (tempera- 
ture not specified) to be 2.54, which value is also high. 

Tables and Curves of Density, 20 to 1,000 Deg. C. 

In Table IV are shown the values for the density of 
several grades of metal at various convenient tempera- 
tures. The values for the solid metal at high tempera- 
tures were calculated by means of the expansion formula 
referred to in the preceding section. The values of liquid 
density were taken from graphs plotted from the data 
of Table III. In Fig. 3 the density of "A" (99.75 per 
cent aluminum) is shown graphically. 

Shrinkage of Aluminum 

From the preceding data several interesting conclu- 
sions may be drawn regarding the shrinkage of 
aluminum in casting. The "solid shrinkage" of the 
pattern maker is the linear contraction in cooling from 
solid metal at 658 deg. C. to room temperature. As 
calculated from the expansion formula this amounts to 
0.22 in. per ft. Tests made on bars cast between two 
graphite blocks, rigidly held a known distance apart, 
gave the value 0.21 in. per ft., which is in quite fair 
agreement with the calculated value. 

The foundryman is also interested in what may be 
called the "solidification shrinkage" and the "liquid 
shrinkage." The solidification shrinkage may be defined 
as the percentage change in the volume of the metal in 
cooling from a liquid at the freezing point to a solid at 
the melting point of the metal. In the case of a pure 
metal, the freezing point and the melting point are 
identical. It is this shrinkage which is responsible for 
the pipe which is formed when the metal is cast. The 

TABLE V. SHRIXKAGE OF ALUMINUM 

Total of Solidification and Liquid 
Shrinkage From t Deg.C.to Solid 
Temperature at ^58 Deg. C. — Percentage of 

Deg. C. Deg. F.- Original Volume Remarks 

658 1,216 6.0 Calculated from data of 

Table IV. 

700 1,292 7.2 Calculated from data of 

Table IV. 

800 1,472 8.2 Calculated from data of 

Table IV. 



7.7 



Shrinkage measured on 
ingot cast at 1,550 
deg. F.; temp, esti- 
mated at 100 deg. C. 
lower at completion of 
filling of crucible. 



liquid shrinkage is the contraction of the liquid in cool- 
ing to the freezing point and of course varies with the 
temperature interval through which the metal cools. 

Referring to Fig. 3, the solidification shrinkage in 
metal changing from liquid of density 2.382 at 658.7 
deg. C. to solid of density 2.55 at the same temperature 
is 6.6 per cent. Toepler" reports the solidification 
shrinkage of aluminum to be 5.1 per cent. In the 
casting of aluminum it must, of course, be poured at a 
higher temperature than 658 deg. and the total of the 
solidification shrinkage and the liquid shrinkage will 

•n'oepler. Wied. Ann., vol. 53. p. 343 (1894). 



be correspondingly greater. In Table V are given the 
values for this total shrinkage from various tempera- 
tures as calculated from the graph of Fig. 3. There 
is also included an actual measurement of the shrinkage 
in a small experimental ingot. The method used was to 
cast an ingot in a small graphite crucible of known 
volume (about 240 c.c.) and then to measure accurately 
the volume of the pipe by weighing the volume of con- 
tained mercury. The volume of the pipe, corrected for 
solid shrinkage, was then expressed as a percentage of 
the original volume of the metal. The pouring tempera- 
ture of the ingot was 1,550 deg. F. (843 deg. C), and 
it will be noted that if we make the reasonable assump- 
tion that the average temperature of the metal was 
about 100 deg. C. lower at the time the filling and level- 
ing of the crucible of metal was completed, then the 
calculated shrinkage is in good agreement with the 
observed value. 

Summary 

The density of pure, annealed aluminum (100 per cent 
aluminum) is estimated to be very close to 2.700. The 
effect upon the density of small changes in composition 
and changes in structure produced by mechanical work- 
ing, etc., are discussed in this paper. A graphite densim- 
eter has been developed for determining the density of 
liquid metals and a series of determinations carried out 
on liquid aluminum of various grades. The density of 
liquid aluminum (99.75 per cent aluminum) may be 
obtained from the following equation: 

Dt = 2.382 — [0.000272 (t — 658 deg.)] 

The solidification shrinkage or volume change of 
aluminum on freezing is shown to be close to 6.6 per cent. 

Research Bureau, 

Aluminum Co. of America, 
New Kensington, Pa. ' 



Rubber in the Manufacture of Dynamite 

An interesting note on the important part played by 
rubber in the manufacture of nitroglycerine and dyna- 
mite will be found in India Rubber World, Nov. 1, 1920, 
p. 114. 

During the nitration of the glycerine and the sub- 
sequent settling, neutralization and washing, the work- 
men are protected from acid burns and toxic absorptions 
by rubber gloves and boots. The pure nitroglycerine 
is conveyed to the storehouses in rubber-lined gutters. 

From the storehouse the nitroglycerine is taken to 
the mixing house in a coppex'-lined, rubber-tired buggj' 
provided with long rubber tubes for discharging the 
contents. The absorbents, such as sodium nitrate, 
ammonium nitrate or wood pulp, ax'e added in the mix- 
ing machine, a large wooden bowl in which large hard- 
rubber-tired wooden wheels revolve. The loose dyna- 
mite is removed by wooden shovels to wooden tubs, 
thence to the packing machine, where it is packed into 
paraffined paper shells by means of wooden tamps tipped 
with rubber. 



A New Sweet 

The Bulletin of the Imperial Institute (vol. 18, pp. 
123-5, 1920) reports that a sweet of remarkable potency 
is found in a plant called "caa-che" (Stevia rebaudiana) , 
that flourishes in Paraguay. The sweet constituent is 
a glucoside called estevia, which is accompanied in the 
plant by another sweet constituent, rebaudin, probably 
a compound of estevia with sodium or potassium. Es- 
tevia and rebaudin are said to be respectively 150 and 
180 times as sweet as cane sugar. 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



65 



m^ 


J. 
1 


1^-— ^-^-"^'^ 



Present Status of Industry, With Special Reference to Recent Operations in Texas — 

Pyrites Versus Sulphur as a Source of SO^ — Effect of Traces of Petroleum — 

Properties and Uses — Sulphur as an Engineering Material 



By RAYMOND F. BACON* and HAROLD S. DAVISf 



SULPHUR plays a more basic role in chemical 
industry than any other element. Either as ele- 
mentary sulphur or combined as a metallic sulphide, 
it is the source of all sulphuric acid. Hence any changes 
in the sulphur industry should be of great interest to 
the chemical engineering profession. 

America now dominates the sulphur industry and 
virtually all the American sulphur is produced by three 
companies — viz., the Union Sulphur Co., the Freeport 
Sulphur Co. and the Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. These 
three companies produce not only virtually all the sul- 
phur used in the United States but also a considerable 
surplus which is exported. The only other sulphur 
which normally enters the American market in quantity 
comes from Japan' and its percentage calculated on 
the consumption of the United States is small and is 
not likely to increase. Rising costs of living have 
meant much higher wages in Japan, as well as in other 
parts of the world; in fact, the percentage increase 
has probably been greatest in Japan, due not only to 
world conditions affecting all countries but to the rising 
standards of living of the Japanese. These facts, 
together with present higher transportation costs, will 
make it increasingly difficult for Japanese sulphur to 
compete on our Pacific Coast with the American product. 

Expansion of Industry During War 

During the World War, and especially after America's 
entry into it, the demand for sulphur grew enormously. 
Some time previous to our declaration of war considera- 
tion had been given by a certain group of New York 
capitalists to the opening up of the sulphur deposit 
(known as the "Big Dome") located near Matagorda, 
Tex. These plans were hastened to realization by our 
Government's need and demand during the war for the 
maximum production from every possible source of sul- 



Read before the American Institute of Chemical Engmei?rs. 
New Orleans, Dec. C, 1920. ^ , 

♦Director of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research of the 
University of Pittsburgh. . , ^ 

t Industrial Fellow of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Re- 
search of the University of Pittsburgh. 

'However, ho Japanese sulphur is being imported into this 
country at the present time. 



phur. The plans eventuated in the formation of the 
Texas Gulf Sulphur Co., which, however, did not get its 
plants into operation until after the armistice. Pro- 
duction has been practically continuous since the com- 
pany first mined sulphur on March 19, 1919. The plant 
of this company, which has been described elsewhere,' 
was designed to have a capacity of 1,000 tons of sul- 
phur per day, but for months at a time during the past 
year it has produced on an average 2,000 tons per day. 
The total production for the year 1920 exceeds 800,000 
long tons, while in all probability the production for 
1921 will be the largest of any sulphur company in 
the world. The possible daily production with the 
present plant, under favorable conditions, could be 
forced to three or four thousand tons per day. The 
deposit contains upward of ten million tons of sulphur; 
and a brief description of its character is as follows: 

Description of Big Dome at Matagorda 

The main deposit has a diameter of about 4,000 ft. 
and is situated 800 to 1,000 ft. below the surface 
of the ground. The sulphur occurs in an almost flat 
stratum, whose general shape is like that of a flat-topped 
umbrella. Above the sulphur stratum is an unconsoli- 
dated sediment consisting of bands of shale, gumbo and 
boulders. Below is a layer of salt and gypsum, and 
then a layer of salt of undetermined but very consid- 
erable thickness. The sulphur content of the deposit 
runs quite uniform with a slightly higher percentage 
of sulphur on one side of the dome. The mining oper- 
ations are carefully checked, and a large-sized model of 
the deposit enables the engineers constantly to visualize 
what is taking place underground. 

Production and Stocks Exceed Post-War 
Normal Demand 

At the time the Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. entered 
the market the situation was about as follows: The 
Union Sulphur Co. had on top of the ground, in unsold 

=Chkm. & Met. Eng., vol. 20, Xo. 4, pp. 186-188. Eng. Min. J., 
vol. 107 (1919), pp. 555-7. 



66 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



stock of sulphur, upward of one million tons and the 
Freeport Sulphur Co. had several hundred thousand 
tons. The normal consumption of sulphur in the United 
States had been between four and five hundred thousand 
tons per annum, which quantity could be readily sup- 
plied by the two older companies." A new sulphur com- 
pany entering the market with a large production of 
sulphur was therefore compelled to pursue one of two 
policies — either to attempt to obtain a share of the busi- 
ness by cutting prices or to place the sulphur in markets 
which had not hitherto used sulphur; in other words, 
to increase the sulphur consumption of the country. 
With reference to the first possibility, competition 
based on cut-throat slashing of prices always has 
proved disastrous to the whole industry. Moreover, 



Sulphur 

Products 

Chart 

Showing Primary Indus- 
try Entered, Interme- 
diate and Final Products 
as Well as Final Use. 

(Prepared by Mary D. Davis) 



the mining of sulphur by the Frasch proc- 
ess, to be carried out economically, must 
be conducted on a very large scale, so 
that even if a company under the condi- 
tions outlined above had obtained a third 
of a possible 500,000-ton consumption, 
this would not have insured profitable 
operation. The company has chosen what 
is surely the wiser course, in attempting 
to place its sulphur by increasing the 
total consumption in the industries. 

It was possible to do this owing to the 
prevailing economic conditions. The 
United States had in recent years con- 
sumed annually, for the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid, upward of 500,000 tons of 
sulphur in the form of pyrites, most of which came from 
Spain. The older sulphur companies, either because of 
some agreement with the pyrites importers or because 
of a desire to hold the price of sulphur at a certain level, 
had not attempted seriously in past years to substitute 
sulphur for pyrites as the raw material of sulphuric acid 
manufacture. Importation of Spanish pyrites, due to war 
transportation conditions, fell off very seriously during 
the war years. This caused 



many producers 



rcKanUnV' ,>m»fr »h«' t "• P"^^^'*;^; ^^^*- ^"y economic data given 
rcgar.tln^ till er the T nion Sulpiiur Co. or the Freeport Sulphur 
.«ubjni to the usual statement on advertisements of bond 
gathered from sources we believe to be 



Co. are 

«a'e8 ; that Is. "they are ^„w...<_-u i.o. 

reuable, but are not guaranteed by us ' 




January 12, 1921 



2 CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



67 




phuric acid to discard the pyrites roasters and to install 
sulphur-burning equipment, while new producers in this 
field erected plants which were almost entirely so 
equipped. The new company was able to obtain its fair 
proportion of the new business and the net result has 
been that the total consumption of sulphur of the United 
States during the past year has been upward of 1,000,- 
000 tons, as compared with a normal consumption in 
recent years of about half that figure. 

Pyrites Versus Sulphur as a Source of SO, 

It is interesting, in this connection, to give just a 

ttle history, for if the subject is examined it is found 

that in the early days of sulphuric acid manufacture 

all the sulphuric acid of Europe, excepting Nord- 



FINAL USE 



FINAL PRODUCT 



SUBSTANCE ADDED 



INTERMEDIATE PROOUCt 



SUBSTANCE ADDED 



PRIMARY INDUSTRY 



SUBSTANCE ADDED 



hausen acid, was made from brimstone. 
This includes the period from about 1750 
to 1839, when pyrites first was used com- 
mercially for the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid in England. This use of py- 
rites was due to the fact that the Nea- 
politan Government in 1838 granted a 
monopoly for the exportation of sulphur 
to Taix & Co., of Marseilles, which firm 
immediately raised the price of sulphur 
from $25 to $70 per ton. By so doing, it 
killed the goose that laid the golden egg, 
for pyrites was substituted immediately 
for sulphur in most European countries 
and the era of high-priced sulphur was 
but short lived. The lops of this market 
was a permanent setback to Sicilian sulphur. 

The subsequent history of the sulphur industry is one 
of violent ups and downs. If one considers this history 
up until some time after Frasch made America a factor 
in the business, it will be noted that it has been char- 
acterized at all times by short periods of prosperity, 
followed by a short-sighted, selfish, destructive competi- 
tion on the part of certain interests. Following this 
would come a period of such marked depression as to 
threaten the life of the entire industry, and it would 
be necessary for some governmental or other outside 
agency to exercise pressure to get the producers to- 
gether on a common-sense basis and thus gradually 



68 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



put the industry again on its feet.' Since the time when 
Frasch made possible America's sulphur industry the 
stability of the whole industry has been much greater. 
While at the present time there is an extremely lively 
competition among the companies for business, there is 
every reason to believe that American common sense, 
spirit of fair play, and co-operation will prevent this 
competition going to the extent of threatening the in- 
dustry itself, as has happened many times in the past. 
Present indications are that all the sulphur companies 
are pursuing an enlightened policy, in that all are doing 
more or less research and development work having as 
its ultimate object the opening up of broader markets 
for sulphur, of which sulphuric acid manufacture affords 
but one. 

Advantages of Sulphur Over Pyrites 

For sulphuric acid manufacture sulphur has many 
very marked advantages over pyrites. Using pyrites 
means handling into the works a comparatively large 
quantity of material, its slow combustion in expensive 
roasters, a certain inevitable dust nuisance and the dis- 
posal of a large tonnage of cinder. As against this, 
sulphur of less than one-half the weight of pyrites for 
a given tonnage of acid produced is handled into the 
works, is burned cleanly in inexpensive equipment and 
leaves no residues to be taken care of. Sulphur is 
constant in composition, and its freedom from arsenic 
and other impurities allows the production of a purer 
acid. It is also claimed that, in practice, the burning 
of sulphur means a higher rate of production for a 
given size of lead chamber space. 

These acknowledged advantages of the use of sulphur 
over pyrites for sulphuric-acid manufacture have been 
demonstrated by the willingness of acid producers to 
pay a higher price per unit for elementary sulphur 
than for combined sulphur in the form of pyrites. 
An example of this is the fact that one of our largest 
and best organized chemical companies, in making a 
large contract, chose sulphur over pyrites for sulphuric- 
acid manufacture, where the differential in offered 
prices was 8c. per unit of sulphur. 

When one considers the present high prices of labor, 
the uncertainty of the copper market and the fact that 
sulphur may be purchased in a competing market, from 
concerns which have large stocks on hand, so that deliv- 
ery is certain, it would seem to be a wise business 
policy to use sulphur rather than pyrites for sulphuric- 
acid manufacture even with a very large differential in 
price. This is especially true when one considers the 
other side of the situation — namely, that in buying im- 
ported pyrites the consumer is putting himself at the 
mercy of one large set of interests which, while it may 
at the present time offer pyrites at low prices and even 
below actual cost, will almost certainly at some time 
in the future reap its profit by much higher prices. 
It is said that imported pyrites has been offered for 
large contracts in this country at about 10c. per unit 
of sulphur, ex-vessel, Atlantic seaboard, while at the 
same time pyrites was selling in England, much nearer 
the ba.se of supplies, at 20c. to 22c. per unit of sulphur. 
It reminds one somewhat of the tactics of Standard Oil 
in the old days before "trust-busting" became fashion- 
able with politicians; and everyone knows that those 
who bought cheaply when the company was extinguish- 

*In this connection, .see Frasch, Perkin Medal Address, Met. & 
Cm EM. Eng.. vol. 10. No. 2, pp. 73-82, and J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 
vol. 4 (1912), p. 139. 



ing a competitor never reaped any permanent advantage, 
but later more than paid for temporary reductions in 
price. 

Sulphur is today one of the few substances which 
have not risen in price since pre-war days. In fact, 
sulphur is cheaper today than at any other time in the 
history of the industry. The price for large contracts 
is about $20 per ton, Atlantic seaboard. This makes 
sulphur one of the cheapest raw materials available 
and should, it would seem, greatly extend its useful- 
ness. Sulphur as mined and sold by all three com- 
panies is of remarkably high grade. In fact, many 
so-called C.P. chemicals do not possess the purity of 
crude sulphur, as sold by these companies. The sulphur 
is free from arsenic, selenium and tellurium, and often 
for days at a time wells will yield a product running 
higher than 99.9 per cent sulphur, as calculated on a 
moisture-free basis; in fact, sulphur companies selling 
the crude sulphur on contracts guarantee the purity to 
be over 99 or 99 ^ per cent. 

Effect of Traces of Petroleum on Combustion 

One impurity occurring in traces in the sulphur of 
all three companies is oil. There is a dearth of informa- 
tion in the technical literature respecting the subject 
of oil in sulphur. Since the effect of this impurity 
is very interesting, it is appropriate to discuss it here. 
The peculiar effect of oil is its influence on the burning 
qualities and also on the color and odor of sulphur. 
A priori, one would not assume that mere traces of 
a combustible substance like petroleum oil could affect 
adversely the combustion of another combustible sub- 
stance like sulphur, but such is indeed the case. 

If one will make a simple experiment by attempting 
to burn two small lots of sulphur, one being chemically 
pure and the other containing 0.2 per cent of petroleum 
oil, he will note the following phenomena: The pure 
sulphur will burn quietly until it is totally consumed; 
the sulphur containing the oil will burn for a very short 
time, when it will be observed that a thin, elastic film is 
being formed over its surface. Very soon combustion 
is taking place only in spots, and within an exceedingly 
short time the flame goes out, although only a small 
percentage of the sulphur has been consumed. The 
explanation is quite simple. Sulphur and oil at a mod- 
erate temperature react together to form asphalt, and 
if the reaction is carried to completion the final result 
is carbon. 

In the burning of sulphur containing oil the oil reacts 
with the sulphur to form an asphaltic material, which 
quickly spreads as a film over the surface. The result, 
as combustion proceeds, is a film of carbon over the 
surface of the sulphur. The ignition temperature of 
carbon, or of the intermediate asphaltic material, is so 
much higher than that of sulphur itself or than the 
temperature developed during the burning of the sul- 
phur that this film is not ignited and consequently the 
whole flame is extinguished. 

The remedy for burning such sulphur is also quite 
obvious. If the devices for sulphur combustion are 
such as to agitate the surface of the burning sulphur 
or in any other way break this film of asphaltic material, 
no difficulty will be experienced. Acid manufacturers 
who use mostly modern types of sulphur burners, such 
as the rotary or cascade type, which allow the sulphur 
to drop from one level to another, have absolutely no 
difficulty in burning sulphur containing 0.2 per cent 
of oil, which figure represents more oil than any of the 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



69 









'• 










. .^^^gi^ggjjjugjgjj^^^^^^^^^ 


1 


■ '•'*'**^''"^^^^^^^P 




■ ..-f <, >ir^i-sv- < - ,.- --n. . 











'.V.I 









jti-k'ii'xijrji.'^ 






Kamr ii i i iwai p i|HMfc i wii i i,mn i i i 




General Views Showing Topography, Figs. 1, 2, 5, 8. 
Method of Loading for Shipment, Figs. 12, 15, 18. 21. 
Houses, Pavilion and Hospital, Figs. 11, 14, 17, 20. 



Sulphur Tank Storage System, Figs. 3, 6, 9. 

Well Driving Equipment, Figs. 4, 7, 10. 

Exterior and Interior Views of Power House, Figs. 13, 16, 19^ 



70 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



commercial sulphurs contain at the present time. On 
the other hand, many of the small paper-pulp manufac- 
turers still adhere to types of burners in which the 
burning sulphur is more or less quiescent. With such 
a type there is no agitation of the burning liquid sur- 
face, so that some of these paper-pulp manufacturers 
have had diffii'culty in burning sulphur when they hap- 
pened to obtain a shipment comparatively high in oil. 
The sulphur deposits of all three operating companies 
are located in close proximity to oil fields. When a 
sulphur deposit is first opened some of the product may 
be high in oil, running as much as 0.2 per cent, but 
as production proceeds the oil becomes progressively 
lower until finally, for days at a time, it may amount 
to only 0.04 per cent, which is totally negligible, even 
for burners which provide no agitation of the surface. 
We have assumed that hot water carried this small 
quantity of oil from small crevices in the oil-sand forma- 
tion to the sulphur below when the well was first 
opened. After a region has become heated up by the 
hot water, these traces of oil are pretty well washed 
out; consequently, sulphur mined later in the same area 
is virtually free from it. Examination of drill cores 
of native sulphur showed such in situ sulphur to be 
oil-free. We are informed by ex-employees of the Union 
Sulphur Co. that this corresponds with the experiences 
of that organization in heating up any new area of 
sulphur ground. The examination of a very large num- 
ber of samples of sulphur, representing the production 
of all three companies, has shown quite positively that 
none of their sulphur contains enough oil to cause any 
difficulty in its combustion with rotary burners or 
other burners which agitate the surface of the burning 
sulphur during combustion. It is only very exception- 
ally that one will find a car of sulphur whose oil content 
is high enough to make difficulties in its combustion in 
a stationary type of burner. 

Properties and Uses of Sulphur 

Sulphur is now and is likely to be for some time one 
of our cheapest raw materials, and accordingly should 
and undoubtedly will find a much wider range of useful- 
ness. It is by studying the physical and chemical prop- 
erties of a substance that one first obtains ideas as to 
possible new uses therefor. The chief physical prop- 
erties of sulphur are tabulated in Table I. The present 
tonnage uses of sulphur are presented in the chart. Those 
properties which suggest certain possible tonnage uses 
for sulphur are its very poor conductivity of heat and 
electricity, its resistance to being wetted by water and 
its inertness toward most acids, all of this combined 
with a fair degree of physical strength. These proper- 
ties suggest heat-insulating materials, electrical insula- 
tors of various types, water- and acid-proof cements, 
and acid-proof construction materials. 

As against the properties of sulphur which might 
make it very desirable for certain construction purposes 
are certain objectionable ones, such as its brittleness 
and its flammability. The brittleness can be overcome 
sufficiently for many purposes by making mixtures of 
sulphur with other materials, such as sand, asbestos, 
or paper pulp, or by reinforcing with wire screen. In 
many cases the flammability is not a serious objection. 
A survey of the literature, especially the patents, 
on the subject of sulphur mixtures reveals that almost 
every conceivable thing has been suggested as a per- 
fective admixture for sulphur to obtain a material which 
has all the air- and acid-resistant properties one could 



desire or to get a completely resistant kind of concrete 
useful in building. We have tested out most of the 
recipes which appeared to be promising and find as 
usual that the claims have been much overstated. How- 
ever, the ordinary mixture of sand and sulphur which 
has been repeatedly mentioned in the literature has 
merits which should make it better known. The mix- 
ture which has seemed to us the best for most uses is 
that of 40 of sulphur and 60 of sand (parts by weight). 
The tensile strengths of sulphur-sand mixtures as meas- 
ured in the usual manner for testing cement were as 
follows : 

TENSILE STRENGTHS OF SULPHUR-SAND MIXTURES 
Percentage of Sulphur Tensile Strength, 

by Weight Lb. per Sq.In. 



25 
35 
40 

45 

50 

100 



90 
310 
400 
310 
110 
250 



We have also used other fillers which have given 
tensile strengths of 800 and even 1,100 lb. measured 
in the same manner and have to a large extent over- 
come the brittleness of the sulphur in some of these 
mixtures. Sulphur-sand briquets kept on hand for one 
year show no deterioration in strength. It is evident 
that the 40-60 sulphur-sand mixture can be used as an 
acid-resistant concrete, for making acid-resisting pipe, 
tanks, gutters, launders, etc. The manipulation of such 
a mixture is much like that of pouring concrete and is 
as follows : 

Practical Manipulation. It is evident that the sand 
should contain no constituent which will be attacked by 
any material which is to come in contact with the fin- 
ished product; for instance, in the case of acid tanks 
it should be free from limestone or other acid-soluble 
•constituents. If necessary, it should be washed and 
dried. The sulphur may be melted in a kettle with 
constant stirring, and the sand, which has been heated 
separately, poured into it while the stirring is continued. 
Unless the sand is heated, it will lump when poured 
into the sulphur. When the material is thick enough 
(40 per cent sulphur and 60 per cent sand) it is ladled 
into the molds. 

Considerable flexibility is possible in handling this 
material. For instance, a small tank was made which 
was 2 ft. square, 18 in. deep, and 2 in. thick. The 
mixture was poured into a wooden mold in twelve differ- 
ent lots. Although several of these lots had solidified 
before the next was poured upon them, nevertheless 
the resulting joints were strong. Apparently the hot 
mixture melts sufficient of the solidified part to form 
a solid joint. There was no contraction of the tank 
as a whole and no tendency to split in the mold. This 
mixture can be worked with a trowel, like mortar. It 
can also be reinforced by wire netting placed in the 
mold before it is poured. The specific gravity of a 
sulphur-sand mixture (40:60) was found to be 2.46. 



Weight of 1 cu.f t 154 lb. 

Weight of sulphur required per cu.f t 62 lb. 

Weight of sulphur required per cu.yd 1,670 lb. 



Taking the value of sand as $1 per cu.yd. and of 
sulphur as $20 per ton, the price of the materials per 
cu.yd. will be about $18. It may be possible to decrease 
appreciably the amount of sulphur necessary and hence 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



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72 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



the cost by imbedding larger pieces of crushed rock or 
some such substance in the mass. Tests of the mate- 
rial in sea water are being made, but it is too early 
to give results. It is apparently standing up well to 
date. 

Pipes cast of this sulphur-sand mixture show no 
deterioration after one year in 5 per cent hydrochloric 
or 5 per cent sulphuric acid. The ordinary organic 
acids have no effect on such a mixture. The following 
extract is pertinent in this connection: 

The Use of Sulphur and Sand in Sewer Pipe Joints' 

In constructing a main line 36-in. sewer for the 
conveyance of acid waste for a pulp mill in Quebec 
the question arose as to what material should be used 
in pouring the joints. Cement was out of the question 
on account of the deteriorating effect acid would have 
upon it. A number of mills were corresponded with 
upon the subject, but no very satisfactory method was 
recommended. 

Ultimately the use of sulphur and sand was suggested 
by the engineering department. Lead wool was con- 
sidered but rejected upon the ground that the cost 
was high. On the other hand, sand was available on 
the ground from excavations and sulphur could be 
purchased at the dockside in Three Rivers. 

The method used was as follows: 

An ordinary iron boiling cauldron over an open wood 
fire was used for heating the sulphur and sand. The 
proportions were one to one. The whole was heated 
until the sulphur melted and a semi-liquid mass formed. 
Three pipes were placed vertically in the trench and by 
means of a galvanized conductor pipe bent at one end 
to fit into the flange of the pipe the mixture was poured 
from a ladle on the top of the trench directly into the 
joint. The joints of each section of the three pipes in 
the trench were then poured in the ordinary manner 
with the use of a runner. 

The insides of the joints were pointed with wet clay. 
The joints cast and became solidified in about one hour 
after pouring. The length of time for solidification of 
course depended upon the coldness of the weather. 

The joints so far have been all that could be de- 
sired, having neither blowholes nor cracks. The solidi- 
fied sulphur and sand is extremely hard and the only 
impression made on it with a large knife was to scrape 
fine particles away. In appearance it is almost metallic. 

One possible tonnage use for sulphur which has been 
arousing a great deal of interest in the last two years 
is its application as a fertilizer. There are two methods 
of application which have received attention from 
experiment stations. During the war, when sulphuric 
acid was needed for munition manufacture, Lipman, 
of the New Jersey Experiment Station, showed that 
if sulphur is composted with ground raw phosphate rock 
the phosphate is rendered available within a reasonably 
short time. Bacteria in the soil oxidize the sulphur to 
sulphuric acid, which acts on the raw phosphate to give 
available plant food. It is thus possible to make avail- 
able as high a percentage of phosphoric acid as is found 
in commercial acid phosphate. The work has been con- 
firmed by other experiment stations and would un- 
doubtedly have been of great importance if the shortage 
of sulphuric acid had continued. Lipman has since 
improved the procedure by isolating and growing pure 
cultures of the most active sulphur oxidizing bacteria 
and has prepared sulphur inoculated with these. Such 
a product is put on the market under the name "Bac- 
Sul" and it is understood that the Union Sulphur Co. 
is interested in its sale. Although we believe that a 
product of this kind will do all that is claimed for it, 
it is doubtful whether it means any immediate tonnage 
outlet for sulphur. Competent agricultural authorities 
advise that it is nearly impossible to get the American 
farmer to do composting and at best the introduction 



of any new type of fertilizer is a slow and tedious 
process. The other use of sulphur as a fertilizer consists 
in its direct application to the soil. The Oregon Agri- 
cultural College Experiment Station has shown ver>' 
conclusively that certain soils in southern Oregon are 
immensely benefited in this way, so that the alfalfa 
crops have been greatly increased. Several of the other 
state experiment stations have reported the same experi- 
ence for certain types of soils. In fact, results obtained 
by the use of sulphur as a fertilizer have in some cases 
been so remarkable as seriously to raise the question 
whether some of the standard theories on fertilizers will 
not have to be revised. Nearly all the experimental 
work through which phosphate has been given its high 
place as a fertilizer has been done with an acid phos- 
phate containing considerable quantities of sulphates. 
Similarly, in experiments with potassium and am- 
monium fertilizers, the sulphates have often been used. 
Any change in growth or yield has been ascribed to the 
phosphates, the potassium or the nitrogen. The ques- 
tion now arises as to how much of this change in plant 
growth was due to the sulphur entirely apart from the 
other fertilizing constituents. 

Correspondence with virtually all the experiment sta- 
tions in the United States on the subject of sulphur 
as a fertilizer has elicited opinions which virtually 
all boil down to the following: Very many of our 
soils either contain enough sulphur for plant require- 
ments or receive suflUcient in the rainfall and other 
water. There are also very many soils on which sulphur 
would undoubtedly prove to be an advantageous fer- 
tilizer either because of a deficiency in sulphur or 
because sulphur during its oxidation would make avail- 
able from the soil other needed plant foods. Work 
is either under way or in project in almost every 
experiment station in the country to obtain more knowl- 
edge on this subject, especially to find out what soils 
in each particular state have need of sulphur. It is 
probable that in time this may mean a tonnage market 
for sulphur, but when it is considered that there is 
today definite proof that the farmers of the country as 
a whole could use to their own profit at least ten 
times as much fertilizer as they do it will be realized 
that the building up of a tonnage use of any new fer- 
tilizer promises nothing large in the near future. 

The greatest problem of the American sulphur indus- 
try at the present time is to obtain immediately available 
new tonnage outlets for sulphur. The solution of this 
problem would mean a continued prosperity to the sul- 
phur industry and a continuance of low-priced sulphur 
for the greater chemical industry. 

Mellon Institute of Industrial Research. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



"Pulp and Paper Magazine, vol. 17, 1920, p. 998. 



Value of Magnesium Salts as Fertilizers 

Magnesium plays an important role in the process of 
plant assimilation and it has been shown that the 
chlorophyll is an organic magnesium compound with a 
content of about 30 per cent magnesium. In a paper 
recently read before the German Chemical Society Dr, 
A. Jacob described the experimental work done during 
1917-19 by the agricultural department of the Kalisyn- 
dicat on the influence of various magnesia-containing 
fertilizers on harvest yields and showed that potassium- 
magnesium sulphate and potassium chloride-kieserite 
(MgSO,.HjO) constitute efficient fertilizers for sandy 
and brackish soils. — Chemical Trade Journal and 
Chemical Engineer, Dec. 25, 1920. 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



73 



Physical Properties of Nickel 



Compilation of Literature References and Original and Unpublished Work 

on the Various Physical, Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical 

and Optical Properties of Pure Nickel 

By PAUL D. MERICA 

Superintendent of Research, International Nickel Co. 



THE density and specific gravity of nickel vary 
greatly according to its chemical composition, 
physical condition and the mechanical treatment 
which it has received. Metal which has been reduced 
by carbon, or carbon monoxide, to a powder or sponge 
contains numerous voids and may have a density as low 
as from 7.7 to 8.0, values which have been obtained for 
powder and rondelles, or grain nickel. 

Dense nickel, such as electro- or malleable nickel, will 
vary in density from 8.70 to 8.90, averaging about 8.84, 
which may be taken as quite closely representing the 
bulk of commercial material. This corresponds to 552 
lb. per cu.ft., or 0.319 lb. per cu.in. (8.84 g. per cu.cm.). 

Change of State 

The melting point of nickel is given by the Bureau of 
Standards' as 1,452 deg. C. The element undergoes a 
magnetic transformation, accompanied possibly by a 
phase change at from 340 to 360 deg. C' The trans- 
formation point in commercial nickel, containing impuri- 
ties, is lower, usually in the neighborhood of 320 deg. 
C.'''* The boiling point of nickel has never been deter- 
mined. 

The heat of transformation is 1.33 cal. per gram 
according to Wust,° and the heat of fusion 56.1 cal. per 
gram. 

Specific Heat 

Wiist" has recently determined the specific heat of 
nickel (analysis not given) from to 1,520 deg. C. in 
cal. per gram per deg. C. ; his results are given in 
Table L 



TABLE I. SPECIFIC HEAT OF NICKEL 





Mean Specific 


True Specific 


perature 


Heat 


Heat 




Qt- "o 


dq 




t 


dt 







0.1095 


100 


0.1147 


.1200 


200 


.1200 


.1305 


300 


.1252 


.1409 


320 


.1263 


.1430 


330 


.1306 


.1294 


400 


.1304 


.1294 


500 


.1302 


.1294 


600 


.1301 


.1294 


700 


.1300 


.1295 


800 


.1299 


.1295 


900 


.1299 


.1295 


1000 


.1298 


.1295 


1100 


.1298 


.1296 


1200 


.1298 


.1296 


1300 


.1298 


.1296 


1400 


.1298 


.1296 


1451 (solid 1 


.1298 


.1296 


1451 1 liquid) 


.1684 


.1338 


1500 


.1673 


.1338 


1520 


.1668 


.1338 



containing Co 1.36, Fe 0.44, Mn 1.04, Cu 0.15, Si 0.06. 
They find the following values : 

At 18 deg. C. = 0.1065 cal. per gram per deg. C. 

At 100 deg. C. = 0.1160 cal. per gram per deg. C. 

Schimpff' finds the following values of the mean 
specific heat of nickel containing 1.5 per cent Co, 0.6 
per cent Fe and 97.9 per cent Ni : 

At 17 to 100 deg. C, 0.1084 cal. per gram per deg C. 

At 17 to —79 deg. C, 0.0973 cal. per gram per deg. C. 

At 17 to —190 deg. C, 0.0830 cal, per gram per deg. C. 

Thermal Expansivity 

Guillaume' finds the thermal expansivity between 
and 40 deg. C. of five bars of commercial nickel to be 
represented by the equation : 

A? 



Jaeger and Dieselhorst' determined the true specific 
heat at 18 and at 100 deg. C. of a sample of nickel 



lot 



= (a -f 60 10-« 



in which the values of the coefficients a and h had the 
following values: 

a b 



1 


12.66 


0.0055 


2 


12.52 


0.0066 


3 


12.49 


0.0070 


4 


12.49 


0.0079 


5 


12.55 


0.0054 



Tutton' finds the following values of a and h for same 
equation, holding between and 120 deg. C. : 
a = 12.48, h = 0.0074 

Between and 300 deg. C. Harrison" finds that the 
expansivity of "pure nickel" can be represented by the 
following equation: 

Yi = (12.80 -j- 0.0075« + 0.000035^2)10 -« 

Between 300 and 1,000 dog. C. Holbom and Day" give 
the following equation for the expansivity, as calculated 
from their measurement on a nickel of which no analysis 
is given : 

lot 

Thermal CoNDucTiviTy 



=-'= (13.46 + 0.0033010 



Published by permission of the Director, Bureau of Standards. 



The best determinations of the thermal conductivity 
of nickel are those of Lees" on electrolytic nickel, and of 
Jaeger and Dieselhorst" on nickel of composition 1.36 
Co, 0.44 Fe, 1.04 Mn, 0.15 Cu, 0.06 Si. The values 
obtained by them are: 
Lees: 

K„ = 0.140 calories per second per cm. per deg. C. 
iiC.s = 0.140 calories per second per cm. per deg. C. 
Jaeger and Dieselhorst: 

Kjg = 0.142 calories per second per cm. per deg. C. 

K^^ = 0.138 calories per second per cm. per deg. C. 

Fig. 1, curve 1, gives the results of determinations of 

Lees" on 99 per cent nickel bar and curve 2 by AngelP 



74 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEZRING 



Vol 24, No. 2 



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200 400 600 800 1000 1200 

Tempera+ure in Degrees Ccn+igrade- 

FIG. 1. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITT OF NICKEL 



1400 



on a nickel rod from Boker (no analysis) of the thermal 
conductivity at higher and lower temperatures. 

Electrical Resistivity 

A number of precise determinations of the electric 
resistivity of nickel have been made, but the nickel used 
was in many cases quite impure and the values of the 
resistivity so obtained are much higher than the value 
for pure nickel. Table II gives several of the values 
which have been observed. 

The most probable value for the resistivity of pure 
nickel from these determinations is the lowest, that of 
Copaux; with this lowest value is associated also the 
highest temperature coefficient (also the most probable). 
Other values are higher due to the presence of impuri- 

U 
6 

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1200 1400 



200 400 600 800 1000 

Tempero+ure in Degrees Cen+igrade 

FIG. 2. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF NICKEL 

ties which depress also the value of the temperature 
coefficient. 

Fig. 2 gives the results of several determinations of 
the electrical resistivity at higher and lower tempera- 
tures. 



These are as follows: Curve 1 is by Lees," on a 
99 per cent Ni bar. Curve 2 is by Angell" on a nickel 
rod from Boker (no analysis). Curve 3 is by Niccolai' 
on Kahlbaum nickel (no analysis). Curve 4 is by Har- 
rison'' on a "nickel wire." Fig. 3 gives the results of one 
series of determinations of the influence of temperature 
on the temperature coefficient of resistivity by Somer- 
ville." At the transformation point the resistivity-tem- 
perature curve changes its slope and there is a marked 
change in the value of the temperature coefficient. 

The Driver-Harris Co. reports its 99 per cent nickel 
(Grade A) wire as having a resistivity of 64.3 ohms 
per mil-foot (10.68 microhm per cu.cm.)at 24 deg. C, 
with a temperature coefficient at 24 deg. C. of 0.0041. 
Other grades of malleable nickel of higher manganese 
content have higher values of resistivity and tempera- 
ture coefficient; thus. Grade D nickel, containing 4.5 per 

0.010 



0.003 



0.006 






• 0.004 



0.002 



















/ 


'\ 








1 




J 


\ 








^ 








^ 
























200 400 600 800 1000 1200 

Tempcr'^+un?, in D'^.nre'.e.s Can+iqrnde 

FIG. 3. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF ELECTRICAL 
RESISTANCE ACCORDING TO SOMMERVILLE" 

cent Mn, has a resistivity of 20.0 microhm per cu.cm., 
with a temperature coefficient of 0.0020. 

Thermo-Electromotive Force 

The curves of Fig. 8 give the results of determina- 
tions of the thermo-electromotive force of nickel to 
platinum, lead, copper and silver. These are as follows : 

Nickel against silver is, according to determinations 
of Hevesy and Wolff"" on nickel wire, no analysis given, 
furnished by the Vereinigte deutsche Nickel Werke. 
Ni : Pt is calculated from the preceding results on the 
Ni : Ag couple, together with those of Holborn and Day 
on the Ag: Pt couple. Ni:Cu is according to deter- 
minations of Pecheux^" on nickel wire of the following 
composition: Cu 0.20, Fe trace, Co 0.15, C and Si none; 
total impurities 0.35. Ni to Pb is according to determi- 
nations of Dewar and Fleming*' on Mond nickel. The 
electromotive force developed is such that the current 
flows at the deg. C. junction from the Ag, the Cu or 
the Pt to the Ni, when the emf. is positive. 

Magnetic Properties 

Nickel is ferromagnetic at ordinary temperatures and 
up to the temperature of its magnetic transformation, 



TABLE II. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF NICKEL 



Material 



Refprence 

Fleming^ Electrolytic, no analyttis given. Annealed in hydrogen and drawn into wire 

Copaux''' Pure, reduced from oxalate, no analysis 

Campbell'* Purchased in Germany in 1901 

Pecheux^f 20 Cu, 15 Co, no C or Si, trace Fe; 0.35 t talimpurities... .............. . 9.0 

Rucr and Kancko'8. . Knhllmum, 035 C 7 7 

JaegerandDieeelhorstS l.36Co, 0.44 Fe, 1.04 Mn, 0. 15 Cu, 0.06Si 1176 



Electrical Resistivity 
Microhms per c.c. 

6 926 at CC. 

6.4 at 0° 

at 0° 

at 0° 

at 0° 



8.0 



at 18' 



C. 
C. 
C. 
C. 
C. 



Temperature 
Coefficient 



0.0061 (0-100' 
0066(0-100 



C.) 
C.) 



0.0058 (0-100° C.) 
6! 0044 "(1-100'° C.) 



Curve No 
in Fig. 2 

5 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



75 



340 to 360 deg. C. Above this temperature it is para- 
magnetic and follows Curie's law/' Fig. 5 gives the 
results of some magnetic tests of nickel. In this figure 
curve 1 shows the induction curve for malleable nickel 
(International Nickel Co.) containing Ni 98.82, Cu 0.18, 
Fe 0.46, Mn 0.27, C 0.11, Si 0.13, S 0.022, as determined 
by the Burrows method. Curve 2 gives the permeability 
curve for same material. Curve 3 represents the induc- 
tion of nickel of unknown composition as determined by 
Perkins," while curve 4 gives the induction of nickel of 
unknown composition reported by Ewing." 

The susceptibility of nickel in any direction is 
markedly diminished by the application of a tensile 
stress and augmented by that of compressive stress in 
that direction. 

The permeability of nickel increases with temperature 
up to 300 to 340 deg. C. (Ewing"). 

Solution Potential 

The true reversible potential of nickel in a normal 
aqueous nickel sulphate solution is given by Schoch^* as 
0.48 volt, measured against the normal calomel elec- 
trode. Schoch attributes the higher values obtained by 
other investigators to occluded hydrogen. 

Schweitzer"" gives the value 0.612 volt for the poten- 
tial of nickel powder in contact with N/1 NiSO, and 
0.596 volt for nickel powder in contact with N/1 NiCl^, 
both measured against the normal calomel electrode. 

Measurement has been made by N. Isgarischew" of 
the potential of nickel against a solution of NiCl^ in 
methyl alcohol. The combination was : 

Ni: 0.0277N NiCl,: 0.02698N KCl: Hg.Cl^: Hg 

At a temperature of 25 deg. C. the potential difference 
was 0.247 volt. 

Nickel becomes markedly passive — i.e., it behaves like 
a noble metal — to a greater degree than do other metals 
of high solution potential. This state may be estab- 
lished by simple immersion in strong oxidizing agents 
like nitric acid or bichromate solutions. This condition 




FIG. 4. 



200 400 GOO 800 

Temperoi+ure. in Degrees Cen+i grade 
THERMO-ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE OF NICKEL. 



1000 



of passivity may often be destroyed by slight changes 
in the chemical environment or by scratching or mechani- 
cal shock. Pure nickel as an anode is readily rendered 
passive in electrolytes containing salts of oxygen acids, 
especially at high current densities. The presence of 
impurities in the anodes as well as of the chlorides or 
fluorides in the electrolyte tend to prevent passivity. 



Coincident with the etablishment of passivity, there is 
a pronounced drop in the solution potential. 

Optical Properties 

One of the most important commercial properties of 
nickel is its ability of taking and retaining a high 
polish and of reflecting a large percentage of light 
incident on such a polished surface. For example, this 
is one of the properties which make the metal valuable 



15 


11) 

o 
o 



'■f 

8^ 

■c 

c 



c 

o 

5 



\ 


K 


. 


r^^ 






! 1 












\/C^>^ 












/// 


-yv" 


% 


fe> 










11/ 












j 










^'^^q 


'^e,J 




1 

















20 40 60 80 100 120 140 ISO 

S+reng + h of .-ield 

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 

Permeoibili+y 
FIG. 5. magnetic PROPERTIES OF NICKEL 

for electroplating. In Table III are given the best 
values of the reflectivity of both nickel and Monel metal ; 
those of the Bureau of Standards are recent (1920) and 
were obtained on samples of typical commercial rolled 
materials. 

TABLE III. reflectivity OF NICKEL AND MONEL METAL 

Hagen and Bureau of Standards Bureau of Standaids 
Rubens Values Values ( 1 920) Values ( 1 920) 



Wave Length 


on Electrically 


on Commercial 


on Commerical 


of Light. 


Deposited Nickel. 


Rolled Nickel. 


Rolled Monel. 


Microns 


Per Cent 


Per Cent 


Per Cent 


0.42 


56.6 








0.50 


60.8 




61.5 


57.7 


0.55 






63.2 


59.0 


0.60 


64.9 




64.0 


60.1 


0.65 






65.1 


61.6 


0.70 


68.8 




67.1 


62.8 


0.75 






68.5 


64.5 


0.801 








67.? 


67.2 


1.00 








72.5 


72.5 


2.00 


infra-red 


.... 




83.8 


83.8 


3.00 








88.7 


88.7 


4.00 








91.0 


91.0 


TABLE 


IV. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF 


NICKEL 




Modulus of Elasticity 




Temperature, 


in 


Torsion, 


Young's Modulus 


Deg. C. 


Kg. 


per Sq.i 


aam. 


Kg. per Sq.mm. 


20 








22,000 


27.5 




7,300 






96 








21,300 


no 




6,430 






200 




6,860 






222 








20,300 


300 




7,390 






329 








17,800 


400 




7,120 






401 








15.700 


465 








11,900 


600 




6,080 






800 




4,940 






1,000 




3,730 






1,200 




2,900 






1 


,300 




2,480 







Meyer^' gives the following values for the other optical 
constants of nickel: 

Reflectivity. = 65.5 per cent for ?= 0.589// 

Absorption index {K) = 3.42 per cent for a = 0. 589 // 

Refractive index (n) = 1.58 per cent for ?= 0. 589 /u 



76 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



Elasticity 

According to determinations of Harrison,'" Grtinei- 
sen,"' Schaefer," Searle' and Guillaume," the value of 
Young's modulus for nickel varies from 21,000 to 23,000 
kg. per sq.mm. (30,000,000 to 33,000,000 lb. per sq.in.) 

Koch and Dannecker'' and Harrison"* have determined 
the values of the modulus of torsional elasticity and of 
Young's modulus, respectively, at higher temperatures; 
their values are given in Table IV. 

Poisson's ratio for nickel is 0.33 according to Benton''. 

Hardness 

In the annealed condition the scleroscope hardness of 
nickel of low carbon (0.10 per cent) and manganese 
(0.30 per cent) will vary from 9 to 12, using a universal 
hammer. The Brinell hardness under 3,000 kg. pressure 
determined on the same material varies from 80 to 100. 
The effect of carbon and manganese on the hardness of 
annealed metal will be discussed in a subsequent article 
under the effect of impurities on nickel. When hardened 
by cold working the scleroscope hardness may be raised 
to 40 to 45, the Brinell hardness to 250 to 350. 

Tensile Properties 

Table V gives the values usually obtained for the 
tensile properties of nickel of low carbon and man- 



TABLE v. TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NICKEL 



Tensile 

Strength, Yield Point, 

Lb. per Sq.In. Lb. per Sq.ln. 

"" abfe nktr "'f "'."" 65,000 to 75.000 20,000 to 25,000 

Hot rolled rods . . '. 68,000 to 78,000 21,000 to 26,000 

Hot rolle^ roas '120-130,000 110-120,000 

Sheet I ^^J^eaTed^: ; ; . . . 65- 75,000 20- 25,000 

„,. /Harddrawn 120-160,000 

Wire [ Annealed 65- 75,000 

Cast nickel (deoxidized) . . . 55,000 



Elongi- Prd c- 



tion in 
2 In. 

40-50 

40-50 

5-10 

40-50 



tion 
Area 

40-60 
40-60 
20-40 
40-60 



20,000 



25 



table VI. tensile strength at high temperatures 



Temperature, Deg. C. 
21 
149 
232 
315 
399 
460 
482 
499 
538 



Tensile Strength 
38,000 
40,900 
36,700 
35,900 
36,600 
28,500 
27,800 
31,900 
16,800 



Yield Point 

23,800 
25,100 
25,100 
22,900 
22,600 



14,200 



ganese content in various conditions. These values refer 
to malleable A nickel of the International Nickel Co. 

Table VI gives the results of tests by Bregowsky and 
Spring'" of the tensile properties at higher temperatures 
of nickel of unknown purity. 



iBureau. Standards, Circ. 35 (1915). .,nnc^ 

■^Copaux, Ann. chim. phys., vol. 6 (8), p. 508 (1905). 
'Pccheux, Lumierc cfec, vol. 10. p. 232 (1910). 
*Guertler and Tammann, Z. anorg. allgem. Chem., vol. 52, p. ii> 

nvUst F "Die Tempcrature-warmeinhalts Kurven 4er tech- 
nischen 'wichtigen Mettalen." Forschungsarbeiten Gebiete Inge- 
nieurswesen.s, No. 204 (1918). .,„ftAx 

'•Wiss Abhandi. Rrichsantalt, vol. 3, p. 269 (1900). 

'Z. phytiik. Chcm., vol. 71, p. 257 (1910). 

''L'£:clairagc Elec, vol. 16. p. 287 (1898) 

'>Proc Roy. Soc. (London), vol. 65, p. 306 (1899). 

i»P/mI. Mag., vol. 7 (6). p. 626 (1904). 

^'Ann. vhys., vol. 4 (4), p. 104 (1901). 

'-7Vans Roy. Soc. (London), vol. 208, p. 381 (1908). 

"P/iV.s. Rev., vol. 33, p. 421 (1911). 

^*Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), vol. 66, p. 50 (1900). 

"■Eire. Rev., vol. 48. p. 1014 (1901). 

'"FrJT?())i, vol. 10. p. 257 (1913). 

'■/'/iw.s. Rev., vol. 30, pp. 268. 532 (1910). 

"/';ii;. Mag., vol. 3 (6), p. 177 (1902). 

^"I'hysik. Z., vol. 11. p. 473 (1910). 

'"Lumiere elee., voL 7, p. 137 (1909). 

-TMI. Waff., vol. 40. p. 95 (1895). ,,„,„^ 

■'^Phys. Rev.. voL 9 (2), pp. 255, 394 (1917). 

-^■'MaKnotir Induction or Iron and Other Metals," D. Van No- 
strand Co. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), vol. 179A. p. 327 (1888). 

"'SUlimanS Am. Journal, vol. 30 (3). p. 218 (1885). 



■■■''Am. Chcm. J., vol. 41, p. 208 (1909). 

-■«Z. Elektrochem., vol. 15, p. 607 (1909). 

-"Z. Elektrochem., vol. 18, p. 568. 

-Unn. phys., vol. 31 (4), p. 1017 (1910). 

-»Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), vol. 27, p. 8 (1915). 

'"Ann. Physik, vol. 22, p. 801 (1907). 

■"■^Drude's Ann., vol. 5, p. 220 (1901) ; vol. 9. pp. 665, 1124 (1902K 

^-Phtl. Mag., vol. 49 ( 5 ) , p. 193 (1900). 

^^Ann. Physik, vol. 47, p. 197 (1915). 

■■*Phys. Rev., vol. 12, p. 36 (1901). 

'^Pioc. Int'l Asso. Testing Materials, 1912, Sec. 1. VII. 



Prevention of Sugar Deterioration 

The phenomenon of raw sugar deterioration is de- 
scribed in Bulletin 175 of the Agricultural Experiment 
Station of the Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. 
A summary of the findings is as follows: 

By the use of superheated steam in centrifugals it 
was possible to reduce the number of micro-organisms 
over 90 per cent, thereby eliminating one of the most 
important factors in sugar and molasses deterioration. 
This method is simple, economical and efficient. 

A survej'^ was made of the deterioration of a large 
variety of Cuban raw sugars during normal storage. 
The results show that the number of micro-organisms 
together with moisture ratio (or factor of safety) is 
the determining factor in sugar deterioration. 

It was possible to predict from the above data whether 
or not deterioration would take place, thereby preventing 
serious losses. 

Mold spores contain an enzyme capable of forming 
gum in sucrose solutions of all concentrations up to the 
saturation point. 

The gum formed is levan, as indicated by its physical 
and chemical properties, having a specific rotation of 
— 40 deg. a melting point of 200 deg. C, and forming 
levulose on hydrolysis. 

The Invertase method has been successfully applied 
in the determination of true sucrose in the presence of 
gum. The gum may be quantitatively determined polari- 
scopically by combining the Clerget and Invertase 
methods. 

Levan is formed from nascent levulose and dextrose 
(obtained by the inversion of sucrose). There is evi- 
dence that the former is used to a greater extent in gum 
formation. In the absence of sucrose and nascent re- 
ducing sugars, slight gum formation was obtained with 
c.p. reducing sugars. Levan is not formed directly from 
sucrose, but may be formed when the latter undergoes 
inversion. 

Appreciable concentrations of acidity or alkalinity 
inhibit the activity of levanase, the optimum reaction 
being about Ph 7.0. 



Estimating Impurities From Melting Point Curve 

Walter P. White, of the Geophysical Laboratory, 
has discussed the limitations and described the experi- 
mental procedure for using the freezing curve of nearly 
pure substances for estimating the amount of impur- 
ity. The results are independent of the true melting 
point of the pure substance and even of the absolute 
accuracy of the thermometer or pyrometer. In checking 
purity by the capillary method it is customary to work 
until further purification produces no change. This 
condition, of course, may occur when by decomposition, 
solution of containers or absorption from air, an at- 
tempted purification causes no change in a substance 
already nearly pure. Such a large source of error, as 
well as a heavy wastage of time, is eliminated by the 
new method. (J. Phys. Chem., vol. 24. p. 393; May, 
1920). 



January .12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



77 




FIG. 1. GENERATING MACHINERY AT THE ELEKTROCHEMISCHE WERKE, BITTERFELD, GERMANY 

Rise and Development of the Electrolytic Alkali and 

Chlorine Industry in Europe — I 

An Outline of the Electrolytic Cells Employed in the Electrolytic Alkali and Chlorine Industry of the 

United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, 

Russia and Belgium 

By JOHN B. C. KERSHAW 



THE production, upon an industrial scale, of alkali 
and of free chlorine by the electrolysis of solu- 
tions of sodium or potassium chloride is now well 
established, for it is rather more than thirty years 
since the first successful installation of this kind was 
started by the Elektron Co., at Griesheim, near Frank- 
fort, in Germany. Today electrolytic alkali works exist 
and are being operated in all the leading manufactur- 
ing countries where the raw materials of the industry 
are found; and even those who control the operation of 
the old Le Blanc process of alkali manufacture in the 
United Kingdom have found themselves at last com- 
pelled by the force of circumstances and by the chang- 
ing conditions of the trade and industry to adopt the 
newer method of decomposing salt. 

It must be remembered, however, that although Ger- 
many was the first country to operate an electrolytic 
alkali cell successfully upon a com.mercial scale, the 
early experimental and pioneer work in connection with 
this new branch of chemical industry was carried out 
in the United Kingdom. 

An Englishman (Sir Humphry Davy) in 1807 first 
employed an electric current to decompose a fused salt, 
and in this way separated and discovered the metals 
potassium and sodium. Another Englishman (Michael 
Faraday) in 1833 discovered and formulated the laws 



that govern the action of an electric current in aqueous 
salt solutions and determined the electrochemical 
equivalent of various metals; and a third Englishman 
(Charles Watt) in 1851 applied for a patent which 
may be regarded as the master-patent of the electro- 
lytic alkali and chlorine industry, since in this patent 
Watt described the conditions which must be observed 
in an electrolytic cell in which sodium or potassium 
chloride is being decomposed in order to obtain caustic 
hydrate, hypochlorite or chlorate. 

Watt's patent (No. 18,755 of 1851) is of great his- 
torical interest; but at that date the dynamo had not 
been perfected, and as there was no practical means 
of obtaining .large currents for electrochemical work, 
the electrolytic process of alkali and chlorine manufac- 
ture described by Watt remained dormant for another 
thirty-five years. Had Watt been able, however, to 
generate larger currents of electricity for his experi- 
mental work, he would have found that the production 
of alkali and chlorine in an electrolytic cell upon an 
industrial scale was not such a simple process as he had 
imagined, and that the choice of materials for and con- 
struction of durable anodes and diaphragms offered 
problems of considerable difficulty. The secondary re- 
actions which occur in the cells between the chlorine 
ions liberated at the anode and the sodium or potassium 



78 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



hydrate produced at the cathode also added consider- 
ably to the difficulties of manufacturing caustic alkali 
by this method. 

Charles Watt in fact in his patent of 1851 recognized 
and referred to this possible cause of loss; but in spite 
of his warning, the inventors and exploiters of the 
Richardson and Holland type of cell failed to recognize 
or appreciate this difficulty; and it was owing to this 
defect that the first electrolytic alkali works built in 
the United Kingdom ended in a financial failure. 

Classification of Cells 

The cells now being operated industrially m.ay be 
classified as diaphragm and non-diaphragm cells. In 
the former class a porous diaphragm, composed of 
cement, asbestos or other material unacted upon by the 
electrolyte (or by the ions produced by the electrolysis) , 
is employed to separate the cell into two or more com- 
partments; and in this way the chlorine liberated at 
the anode is to a large extent prevented from taking 
part in secondary reactions with the sodium or potas- 
sium hydrate formed at the cathode. 

The "Elektron," Hargreaves-Bird, Outhenin-Chalan- 
dre, Basel, Billiter-Siemens, Nelson, Allen-Moore, Gibbs 
and Townsend cells are all of this type, the chief dif- 
ference between them being in the construction or 
design of the diaphragm and in the arrangements made 
for withdrawing the sodium hydrate solution from the 
cathode compartment of the cell before it has had time 
to be decomposed by the electric current. The defects 
of all diaphragm cells are the higher voltage required 
per cell and the increased costs of maintenance due to 
the lack of durability on the part of the diaphragm. 

For these reasons the other class — namely, non- 
diaphragm cells — have always 'attracted the electro- 
chemist, and many of these have been patented and 
tried. Only two types have survived industrial trial — 
namely, (1) the Castner-Kellner, Whiting and Solvay 
cells, which employ a moving mercury electrode in the 
cathode compartment of the cell, and thus produce 
an amalgam of sodium which can be removed from the 
cell before it is decomposed by water with formation 
of sodium hydrate; and (2) the "bell" type of gravity 
cell, which makes use of the different specific gravities 
of the brine and of the newly-formed sodium or potas- 
sium hydrate solution in order to effect a separation 
of the two. The Aussig "bell" cell and the Billiter- 
Leykam cell are the only two representatives of this 
class in actual operation; the Richardson and Holland 
cell, which was tried on a large scale at St. Helens in 
1896-1900, having proved a failure. 

The attempts to use molten lead in place of the more 
expensive mercury in the liquid or moving electrode 
cells have also failed, after trial upon an industrial 
scale; the wear and tear of the cell structure and the 
fire dangers with this type of cell having caused the 
suspension of operation of the Hulin cell at Les Clavaux 
in France, and of the Acker cell at Niagara Falls, in 
America. The works where the latter cell and process 
were operated in fact was burned down and has not 
been rebuilt. 

Electrolytic Alkali and Chlorine Industry 
in the United Kingdom 

The first attempt to carry out the manufacture of 
caustic alkali and chlorine by electrolysis upon a large 
scale in the United Kingdom was made at St. Helens in 



1895 by a company named the Electro Chemical Co., 
with a capital of $720,000. This company operated 
the Richardson and Holland bell type of gravity cell, 
and after a disastrous career of five years the works 
was closed down and the plant was sold in 1900 for the 
reasons already mentioned. 

In the meantime the British Aluminum Co., of Old- 
bury, Birmingham, had been experimenting and de- 
veloping the mercury cathode type of cell designed and 
patented by their chemist (H. Y. Castner) in 1892 and 
1893; and in 1895-96 a company was formed and a 
works was planned for operation of what is now known 
as the Castner-Kellner process, at Weston Point, near 
Runcorn, This works started manufacture in 1897, and 
today is the largest and most successful electrolytic 
alkali works in the United Kingdom. 

The Middlewich works, of what was originally the 
Electroyltic Alkali Co., was erected in 1899-1900, a 
very long interval having been allowed to elapse be- 
tween the patenting of the Hargreaves-Bird type of 
diaphragm cell, in 1892-93, and its industrial develop- 
ment upon a large scale. 

The last-named company and works have had a very 
checkered career, for at the end of 1910 they were 
forced into liquidation, and the plant, after lying idle 
for some time, was purchased for a comparatively small 
amount in 1914 by a new company (the Electro-Bleach 
& Byproducts Co.) and is again in operation,. 

in that same year the board of directors of the 
United Alkali Co., which controls the manufacture of 
alkali and bleaching powder by the Le Blanc process in 
the United Kingdom, decided to adopt and work an 
American type of electrolytic cell for the decomposi- 
tion of brine and to gradually change over from the 
Le Blanc to the newer process. The outbreak of the 
war, however, delayed this change, and the large elec- 
trical generating station (the erection of which is now 
nearly completed) on the banks of the River Mersey, 
at Widnes, represents the first stage of this most inter- 
esting and striking development of the electrol>i;ic 
process of alkali manufacture in the United Kingdom. 

As the chairman of the company remarked at the 
annual meeting of the shareholders at which this change 
was announced, it was fortunate for the Allies that the 
change in the process of manufacture had not been 
made before the war broke out, since the large plants 
for sulphuric acid manufacture possessed by the United 
Alkali Co. were immediately placed at the disposal of 
the government in 1914 for the purpose of the war 
department, and the works at Widnes contributed a very 
large proportion of the concentrated sulphuric and 
nitric acids required for the production of high ex- 
plosives during the period 1914-1918. Now that peace 
is once more restored, the delayed plans are being 
proceeded with, and it is expected that the first unit 
of the generating plant and of the connected installa- 
tion of Gibbs cells will be in operation in the works 
of the United Alkali Co., at Widnes, before the end of 
this year. 

The Castner-Kellner Cell and Process 

The original Castner cell was constructed of slate, 
and was of comparatively small dimensions — namely, 
72 in. long by 36 in. broad, and 6 in. deep. The cell 
is shown in sectional elevation in the diagram Fig. 2, 
and is seen to consist of three compartments, formed 
by two hanging slate partitions which dip into the 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



79 



mercury lying on the floor of the cell. The solution of 
brine vas fed into the two end compartments of the 
cell, which were completely closed and contained the 
anodes of graphite cr carbon. The center compart- 
ment of the cell was open, and contained water. On 
passing an electric current of 1,300-1,400 amp. at 4h 
volts through this cell, chlorine gas, of exceptionaJ 




FIG. 2. THE CASTNER-KELLNER MERCURY CELL 

purity, owing to the absence of OH anions, was 
liberated in the closed anode-chambers, and was con- 
ducted away; while the metallic sodium liberated at 
the surface of the mercury was at once absorbed by 
this and formed an amalgam. The cell was mounted 
with one end fixed and the other free, in such a manner 
that a slight but slow rocking movement could be 
given to the free end of the cell by means of an 
eccentric mounted upon a revolving-shaft which ran 
the whole length of the building in which the cells were 
placed; and the transfer of the sodium mercury 
amalgam from the anode-chambers of the cell to . the 
central compartment, where it came into contact with 
water, was thus automatically effected. 

The Kellner improvement of the Castner mercury 
cell consisted in making use of iron as the cathodic 
terminal of the cell in place of the mercury, a group 
of iron rods being so arranged in the central compart- 
ment of the cell that they were in electrical contact 
with the sodium mercury amalgam, and on treatment 
and decomposition of the amalgam by the water acted 
as the discharge point for the hydrogen gas. This 
improvement prevented the loss of mercury which had 
occurred due to the discharge of the hydrogen ions at 
its surface, and also reduced the emf. required to 
operate the cell, since the series Hg.Na-H.O-Fe^ pro- 




duced a plus emf. The .solution of sodium hydrate 
obtained in the central compartment of the cell was 
almost entirely free from chloride and could be con- 
centrated to yield a very pure solid caustic without 
removal of the NaCl and other impurities by the usual 
"salting-out" process. 

The original installation of the Castner-Kellner cells 
at Weston Point (Fig. 2) comprised 250 cells of the 
type just described, connected up in ten series of 
twenty-five cells each, the whole being supplied with 
electrical energy from 1,000-hp. steam-plant consist- 
ing of Willans and Robinson high-speed engines and 
Mather and Piatt dynamos. 

The works was quite successful from its start in 
1897, and its record since that year has been one of 
continuous expansion of its manufacturing activity and 
of increasing profits for its shareholders. By 1905 
the capacity of the plant had increased to 4,000 hp., 
and a change from steam to gas as source of electric 
power was inaugurated in that year by the erection of 
the first 800-hp. unit of a Mond gas plant, the original 
steam plant being scrapped as uneconomical and out 
of date. 

The development of the manufacturing operations has 
proceeded even more rapidly during the last ten years. 
According to the latest otficial information, the works 
now (1920) has a total capacity of generating and 
decomposing plant of 25,000 kw. and the gas power 
plant, erected in 1907-1910, has been scrapped in its 
turn, in order to install a modern steam-turbine 
generating plant. In this new plant the boilers are of 
the Babcock & Wilcox marine type, having a steaming 
capacity of .34,000 lb. per hr., and generate steam at 
200 lb. pressure for the turbo-generators. 

The Solvay Cell 

The mercury cell now used at this works, however, 
is of another form from the earlier type, since the 




FIG. 3. CASTNER-KELLNER ALKALI WORKS. ORIGINAli 
CELL ROOM AT WESTON POINT 



i 



PIG. 4. THE SOLVAY MERCURY CELL 



original Castner-Kellner cell described above was not 
adapted for operating upon a very large scale. Accord- 
ing to Allmand, the cell now used is of Lhe Solvay type, 
first employed at the Solvay works at Jemeppe in 
Belgium and worked there up to the outbreak of war. 
The cell (see Fig. 4) consists of a large slightly 
inclined rectangular cement trough, through which the 
mercury is circulated by means of an Archimedean 
screw. The brine flows through the trough from end 
to end in the same direction as the mercury, and carbon 
anodes are employed, terminating only 10 to 15 mm. 
above the surface of the mercury. The layer of the 
latter metal maintained on the floor of the cell is a very 
thin one, and the rate of movement is such that an 
[amalgam of suitable concentration is obtained. This 
amalgam is decomposed in a separate vessel with the 



80 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



aid of water, and the regenerated mercury is then 
returned to the electrolytic cell. 

The cells at Weston Point take 4,000 amp. and make 
use of carbon in place of platinum as anode material. 
From 8 to 10 amp. of current is stated to pass per 
kg. of mercury employed in the whole cell. 

The chief manufactures of this works during the war 
were pure alkali and liquid chlorine, the chlorine gas 
obtained from the mercury cell being exceptionally pure 
and therefore specially suitable for liquefaction. The 
manufacture of caustic potash of a very high degree of 
purity is another product; and metallic sodium is also 



Center Core 
of Anode- 



Stone 
Cover 



Cathode. 
Chamber 




■Cathode 
Chamber 



■ Cement 



■Rou<jh 
Blocks 
Gas 
Carbon 

■Anode 
Chamber 

Diaphra(}m. 

and 
Cathode 



Runoff 
Pipe 



Brick wfk Bex:" 
1<"IG. 5. VERTICAL SECTION OF HARGREAVES-BIRD CELL 

manufactured by the electrolysis of fused caustic soda, 
according to the method patented by Castner in 1890. 

The Hargreaves-Bird Cell and Process 

The Hargreaves-Bird cell differs from the Castner- 
Kellner and Solvay cells in nearly every respect, for 
it is of the diaphragm type and contains liquid only in 
the closed central anode compartment or chamber. The 
construction of the cell may be best understood by 
reference to Fig. 5, which is a vertical cross-section of 
the cell, somewhat diagrammatic in form. The inner 
chamber contains the anodes, which are built up from 
blocks of gas-carbon; it is entirely closed, and is fed 
with a solution of common salt or (as at Middlewich) 
with natural brine from the salt-beds, after a pre- 
liminary treatment to remove impurities. It is closed 
•on each side by a porous diaphragm, strengthened on 
its outer side by a screen of copper-gauze, which also 
functions as cathode of the cell. The two outer 
cathode chambers contain no liquid beyond the con- 
densed steam and CO^ gas, which is passed into these 
chambers and removes the soda as it forms upon the 
surface of the wire gauze cathodes. This solution 
trickles down the cathodes and is drawn off at the base; 
^ solution containing from 10 to 16 per cent sodium 
-carbonate is obtained. 

It has been found more economical to produce car- 
bonate of soda than caustic soda in this style of cell, 
.since the union of carbonic acid gas with the sodium 
hydrate at the surface of the cathode produces a plus 
€raf. and also assists in removing the sodium hydrate as 
it is formed from the action of the current. For this 



reason a mixture of steam and carbonic acid is blown 
into the cathode chamber of the cell; and these 
chambers, containing only steam and gas in place of 
any liquid electrolyte, are the distinctive feature of the 
Hargreaves-Bird cell. The cells were made of large 
dimensions, 5 ft. high, 10 ft. long and 14 in. wide, and 
decomposed about 224 lb. of sodium chloride per twenty- 
four hours. The current used was 2,000 amp. at Ah. 
volts. 

As already stated, the first patents for the Har- 
greaves-Bird cell were taken out in 1892-93, and the cell 
received a very lengthy trial at Farnworth, near 
Widnes, before the Electrolytic Alkali Co. was formed, 
and a large works was erected at Middlewich, in 
Cheshire, in 1899. 

The original installation comprised a steam-driven 
electrical generating plant of 2,000 hp. and eighty cells 
of the type described above. The anodes were built up 
from gas-carbon, by the method shown in Fig. 6. The 
cathodes were constructed, as already stated, of copper 
gauze, and were pressed tightly against the outer sur- 
face of the diaphragms, thus assisting to support these 
against the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid in the 
central (anode) compartment of the cell. 

The construction of large and durable porous dia- 
phragms, which could not be made too thick lest they 
should increase unduly the emf. required for working 
each cell, was one of the chief difficulties attending 
the operation of the Hargreaves-Bird process; the 
other was that carbonate of soda was not so profitable 
to manufacture as caustic soda. For these and other 
reasons the Electrolytic Alkali Co. was not able to 
earn adequate profits upon its capital, and as already 
stated it was obliged to cease manufacture and to go 
into liquidation about ten years ago. 

The new company, entitled Electro-Bleach & By- 



Center ftod-.^ r-\^ 
of Lead- "'4 
Copper Alloy 



Cement 



6as Carbon. 
Blocks 




Gas Carbon 

blocks 



FIG. 6. 



ANODE OF HARGREAVES- 
BIRD CELL 



products, Ltd., which purchased the plant in 1914 at a 
very low price and remodeled a large portion of it, 
still operates the Hargreaves-Bird cell and process at 
Middlewich in all essentials as described above. The 
cells, however, are now constructed of iron, lined with 
cement, and are built of 2,500 amp. capacity. The 
electrical generating machinery' has been increased to 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



81 



a capacity of 7,000 kw., and a change has been made 
from the use of high-pressure steam to low-pressure 
steam in certain of the processes, resulting in a very 
large economy. To enable the steam to be employed 
to the best advantage non-condensing reciprocating 
engines, direct-coupled to the generators, have been 
installed; while the additional power required is made 
up by condensing turbines. A further change made 
has been to increase the pressure of steam for the 
turbines from 150 to 210 lb., the steam being super- 
heated to a temperature of 450 deg. F. The boiler- 
plant consists of seven large Babcock & Wilcox boilers, 
working at a pressure of 210 lb. and carrying a super- 
heat of 150 deg. F. The plant within the power house 
consists of four reciprocating horizontal non-condensincr 
steam engines driving direct-current generators, and 
three turbine sets, which by means of speed-reduction 
gearing drive also direct-current generators. The 
greater part of the current is employed for electrolytic 
work and is generated at the comparatively low emf . of 
150 volts. 

During the last five years, or since its inception, this 
company has been operating under the war conditions 
of inflated prices and has been able to earn very satis- 
factory profits for its shareholders. Whether it will 
be able to do so under the post-war conditions of trade 
and industry remains for the future to disclose. 

Its products are bleaching powder, carbonate of soda, 
caustic soda, hyposulphite of soda and vacuum salt. 

The managing director of the company in a recent 
letter stated that he has from time to time compared 
the results obtained by other types of cell with those 
obtained by the Hargreaves-Bird cell, and that he is 
satisfied that with the improved type of cell now 
employed the Hargreaves-Bird cell can easily hold its 
position. 

The controlling interest in this company and in the 
Castner-Kellner Co. has now been obtained by Brunner, 
Mond & Co., which by an exchange of shares with the 
holders of the ordinary share capital in the two elec- 
trolytic alkali companies has secured the amalgamation 
of these two undertakings with its own larger firm. 

The Gibbs Cell and Process 

The Gibbs cell is of the vertical diaphragm type, and 
in this respect resembles the Hargreaves-Bird cell. 
The cell and diaphragm, however, are constructed of 
cylindrial form, in order to obtain greater strength 
in the diaphragm ; and the cathode which surrounds the 
latter is constructed with a number of inward projec- 
tions or points, which are imbedded in the diaphragm 
and thus reduce its electrical resistance. 

Both faces of the diaphragni are submerged, and in 
this respect also the cell differs from the Hargreaves- 
Bird cell. ^ 

The construction of the cell will be understood from 
Fig. 7, which gives the sectional elevation and is repro- 
duced from the English patent of 1907. The combina- 
tion of diaphragm and cathode is seen in section at the 
points marked 8 and 9, the diaphragm being made 
thicker at the bottom than at the top, in order to con- 
tract the increasing rate of percolation of the brine 
from the anode chamber due to hydrostatic pressure. 
The diaphragm may be made of asbestos or any other 
suitable material which is permeable and is not attacked 
by the brine or by the products of the electrolysis. The 
cathode jacket may consist of a sheet of steel or other 



suitable metal, held in place by clamping bands or by 
other means. 

The projections and indentations of the cathode plate 
which form the novel feature of the Gibbs cell are 
obtained either by simply punching holes through the 
annular sheet and then pressing it round the diaphragm 
with the rough edges on the inside or the sheet may be 
corrugated longitudinally and pressure be used again 
to force the projecting ridges of metal into the material 
of the diaphragm. According to the patent specifica- 
tion, the special advantages of this form of cathode 




FIG. 



THE GIBBS CELL 



result particularly "from the same having points or 
projections entering the diaphragm" and also from the 
creation of "take-off" chambers or cups, which remove 
the caustic soda formed in their interior from the 
action of the current, and thus reduce the electrical 
losses due to the liberation of OH anions. 

A further advantage claimed for this type of 
diaphragm is that the same permeability can be main- 
tained for a very considerable time, whereas according 
to the patentee the permeability of the ordinary 
diaphragm decreases gradually, owing to clogging of its 
pores with the impurities of the electrolyte. 

The following description of the action of the points 
on the cathode is taken from the patent specification: 

As the solution passes outwardly through the dia- 
phragm where alkaline chlorides are treated, the caus- 
tic alkali will form upon the projections or points of 
the cathode. The bulk of the electrolysis takes place 
at these points or projections, and as the caustic alkali 
is formed, the flow of electrolyte carries it outwardly 
through the holes in the cathode and out of the region 
of electrolytic action. By thus carrying it away as it 
is formed, I avoid decomposing of the caustic alkali 
itself, and increase the efficiency of the cell. 

In the case of the cathode having the vertical pas- 
sages, the liquid will flow either up or down along these 
passages and obtain the same result of carrying away 



82 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 2 




FIG. 8. UNITED ALKALI CO.'S PLANT AT VVIDNES, UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION (EARLY IN 1920) 

the products as they are formed. In both cases the 
electric current will flow mainly to the points or pro- 
jections imbedded in the diaphragm, and there will be 
little or no electrolytic action in the troughs or portions 
more remote from the anodes. 

The outer body of the cell is constructed of iron or 
any other suitable material, and the carbon anodes are 
securely fastened to the annular heavy flat ring which 
forms the top of the cell. This top can be removed, 
together v^^ith its attached carbon rods, in one opera- 
tion by means of an overhead traveling crane when the 
cell is undergoing cleaning or repairs. The annular 
ring to which the diaphragm and cathode are attached 
can also be removed in a similar manner, and the 
rapidity and ease with which the cell can be dismantled 
is considered one of its good points. 

No figures for its current or energy efficiency or for 
the strength and purity of the chlorine and caustic soda 
solution produced have yet been published; but the 
Gibbs cell had been used for some years in America 
by the Pennsylvania Salt Co., at Wyandotte, Mich.; 
and the United Alkali Co. before adopting it for its 
new installation at Widnes became convinced by 
exhaustive tests there and elsewhere that the claims 
made for it can be substantiated. 

Proximiy TO Water Supply More Important 
Than Nearness to Fuel Supply 

Fig. 8 shows the power station which is now under 
construction at Widnes for the supply of electrical 
energy to the new plant. The station is situated on the 
banks of the River Mersey, near the L. & N. W. Ry. 
bridge connecting Widnes and Runcorn. The site is 
convenient for fuel supplies and for disposal of ashes; 
and, being situated on the banks of the River Mersey, 
a full supply of cold water is always insured. Expe- 
rience has shown that an abundant supply of condensing 
water is even more important than proximity to coal- 
supply, the transport of fuel being a much cheaper 
proposition than the transport of condensing water or 
the use of cooling towers. The station has therefore 
the great advantage of an ample supply of condensing 
water. 

The boiler house will be equipped with eight Babcock 
& Wilcox boilers, provided with up-to-date mechanical 
coal and ash-handling plant. 

(The second part of the article, dealing with the Elec- 
trolytic Alkali and Chlorine Industry in Germany and 
Austria, icill be published in a subsequent issue.) 



Industrial Possibilities of Chia Seed Oil 

A new drying vegetable oil said to rival linseed oil 
is claimed to have been discovered and patented by 
Sebastian Lomanitz, of Bryan, Tex. He states that a 
plant chia, belonging to the genus Salvia and known 
as Salvia hispanica of the Labiatae family, yields a seed 
the oil of which has all the good properties of linseed 
oil, even the odor. The seeds of chia are used for the 
preparation of a beverage which is sold publicly in the 
streets of Mexico. There are a number of varieties of 
such seeds. 

The chia plant is a shrub that reaches about 5 to 6 
ft. in height and the seeds are oval shaped, about 1 
mm. in the longest diameter and about i mm. in the 
shortest diameter. The yield per hectare varies between 
4,000 and 1,000 kg. and in certain parts of the country 
two crops a year may be obtained. It is remarkable 
that in all classic books on vegetable oils, such as those 
by Lewkowitsch, Chershefsky, Beilstein and Abder- 
halden, there is no mention whatever that oil can be 
derived from this species. 

Experiments performed with seven varieties of seed 
gave the following results: Average weight of 1,000 
seeds, 1,166 g. ; moisture, average, 7.33 per cent; oil 
average in seed, 32 per cent. 

It will be noticed that the yield of oil from chia 
seeds exceeds the yield of oil from linseed. The test 
of oil obtained from seeds coming from different parts 
of the country gave the following data : 

Sp.gr. 15.5/15.5 0.9341 

F. F. A. (as oleic) 1.45 

Index of refraction nD 40 deg. C 1.4757 

Index of refraction nD 17.5 deg. C 1.48354 

Reichert-Meisel number 0.1 

Iodine value 187.59 

Hehner value 94.16 

Ester value 187.49 

The oil remains fluid at low temperatures, similarly 
to linseed oil. The residue left after the extraction of 
the oil was found to contain substantially 30 per cent 
protein and could be utilized as a valuable cattle feed. 

Particular attention is called to the specific gravity 
of the oil, to the index of refraction, the iodine value 
and the Reichert-Meisel value and also the fluidity at 
temperatures below normal, all indicating the close rela- 
tion in drying qualities between this vegetable oil and 
that derived from linseed. The iodine value, which 
is the index of the drying qualities of the oil, is sub- 
stantially that of the best linseed oils. 

While it is possible to derive only 29 per cent of oil 
from linseed, it is possible to obtain about 33 per 
cent of oil from seeds of chia, the method of extraction 
being in no way more difllicult than that of linseed oil. 
The great yield of oil from chia seeds and the value 
of the residue reduce considerably the price of the 
finished product. In view of the fact that two crops 
a year may be obtained, it is natural that the oil 
could be manufactured at a cost considerably lower than 
linseed oil. 

Mr. Lomanitz has introduced this seed into Texas, 
growing it in Houston and Bryan on a small scale 
with a yield of about 20 bu. an acre. He harvested 
the crop by hand, picking out the spikes which con- 
tain the seeds and getting out the seeds from their 
tiny envelopes by rubbing them against a wire screen, 
sifting and blowing off the chaff. 

The seed is very small and it is estimated that about 
5 lb. would plant an acre. 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



83 



American Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Chicago Meeting 



Notes on Papers of Interest to Chemists Which Were Presented at Chicago — Phosphorescence, 

Fluorescence, Activated Sludge, Single Potentials, Crystalloid Filters, Ionization 

and Resonance Potentials, and the Theory of Chemical Reactions 



CHICAGO UNIVERSITY entertained the annual 
meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science during Christmas week 
with representatives from sixteen branches of science 
ranging from mathematics, physics and chemistry to 
geology, medicine and education. 

General Sessions 

' Robert W. Wood gave a lecture Wednesday night on 
"High-Power Phosphorescence and Fluorescence," in 
which he defined a phosphorescent body as one which 
when subjected to light rays, or perhaps to ultra-violet 
invisible rays, itself becomes luminous and continues to 
emit light after the excitation has been removed. It is 
possible that all solids have this property, but if so most 
of them have periods of self -luminosity following excita- 
tion so short that they cannot be detected by present 
methods. A high-power apparatus has been devised 
which generates ultra-violet rays of singlar intensity, 
yet invisible to the ordinary eye. They have been used 
for the purpose of naval signaling, in particular for 
finding invisible running lights for convoys. The rays 
are detected at the receiving point by means of a wide 
angle telescope with a screen which phosphoresces under 
the influence of the ultra-violet rays from the signaling 
apparatus. A similar device is of use in cancer hospitals 
for diagnosing pathological condition in tissues by phos- 
phorescence. 

Two lamps were exhibited which made the entire 
audience and auditorium phosphorescent. Faces became 
self-luminous with a gray tint, teeth with bright blue, 
while artificial teeth remained an inky black. Different 
dress materials phosphoresced with different colors 
corresponding to the properties of their various dyes, 
the lenses of the eyes became themselves phosphorescent, 
emanating rays of a light blue or lavender color, 

A fluorescent body is one which receives light rays 
of one type and, as a result of the excitation so pro- 
duced, re-emits light of a different character. There 
are, for example, substances which when illuminated by 
red light give out again rays which are green. Some 
varieties of red ink show this property slightly. Prof. 
Wood has demonstrated that fluorescence of this char- 
acter is always accompanied by a chemical decomposition 
of some sort in the fluorescent substance. A particular 
example is rhodamine, which when first illuminated with 
blue light produces orange red. Later it gives green, 
and at a first stage in its chemical transformation it 
becomes non-fluorescent. 

Chemistry Section 

Some Properties of Activated Sludge, by A. M. 
Buswell and C. C. Larson. — It is known from published 
analyses that the quantity of nitrogen in septic tank 
contents varies from 1 to 3 per cent, in intermittent 



filter contents from 1 to 4.5 per cint, while activated 
sludge has from 4.5 to 6.5 per cent nitrogen content, 
making it useful as a fertilizer. This activated sludge 
is in general produced by blowing air through the 
sewage, causing the milkiness to disappear and the 
sludge to flocculate. If the material is not handled 
quickly, it soon decomposes again to a putrescent mass 
which cannot be used. It is filtered or centrifuged to 
remove 85 per cent of the water and then dried by heat. 
Acidification is beneficial to the filtering process, as it 
tends to cause the solids to contract. Acid also prevents 
the material from becoming septic and so allows slow 
separation by gravity. One-third of the amount of acid 
determined by titration with methyl orange indicator is 
actually necessary, for it has been found that the action 
depends on the intensity or H-ion concentration rather 
than the capacity factor. 

On the Single Potentials of Arsenic and Its Position 
in the Electrochemical Series of Metals, by Louis 
Kahlenberg and Vernon Steinle. — The electrodes used 
were solid arsenic, arsenic plated on gold and platinum 
and the arsenic mirror from AsH, plated on a glass tube. 
Powdered arsenic was pressed to a bar and coated with 
paraffine. Finely divided metal was imbedded in gela- 
tine or cellulose acetate. The single potentials secured 
were as follows: 

With sawed piece of arsenic — 0.554 volts 

and — 0.553 volts 

With paraffine coated piece — 0.549 volts 

With arsenic mirror — 0.552 volts 

With pressed stick of arsenic —0.548 volts 

With powder in gelatine — 0.544 volts 

With powder and cellulose acetate on 

platinum — 0.551 volts 

On gold —0.554 volts 

Membranes for Separating Crystalloids From One 
Another, by Louis Kahlenberg. — There is no record ir 
the literature where crystalloids in aqueous solution are 
separable by a membrane. The author found that a mem- 
brane prepared from thin china silk dipped in melted 
lanoline, the fat from sheep's wool, will separate sugar 
from salt or potassium iodide in aqueous solution. 

An Attempt to Activate Chlorine Photometrically, by 
Gerald L. Wendt. — In line with the research work 
carried out by the author where he successfully prepared 
activated or ozone forms of nitrogen and hydrogen by 
the brush electric discharge, he has unsuccessfully at- 
tempted the same with chlorine, using mercury elec- 
trodes. The next step was to set up an apparatus con- 
sisting essentially of an ultra-violet light in a central 
glass tube surrounded by a second glass tube to form an 
annular space through which dry chlorine was passed 
and subsequently conducted into the dark, where it was 
mixed through a three-way cock with hydrogen. Tests 
of the mixed gases showed that no HCl was found. In 
other words the chlorine was not activated. The two 



84 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



gases were inert compared to Draper's experiments 
where rapid combination is secured by exposing the 
mixture to light. 

Physics Section 

The American Physical Society co-operated in present- 
ing some valuable papers having a bearing on chemical 
topics. 

The work done by such physicists as Dr. Foote and 
Dr. Mohler of the Bureau of Standards in determining 
the "Ionization and Resonance Potential" of various 
chemical elements and compounds is going to be very 
valuable to the chemist in obtaining a more intimate 
insight into the mechanism of activation which precedes 
all chemical reactions. Most chemical reactions, 
especially those involving carbon compounds, are not 
accompanied by actual ionization, so that the resonance 
potentials are apt to be more valuable from our stand- 
point. When the electron hits a molecule in such a way 
that its energy is absorbed, probably by the displacement 
of a valence electron, and the absorption is measured, the 
quantity is known as its resonance potential. This cor- 
responds to a state of activation which may result in 
chemical action. Thus zinc ethyl has a resonance 
potential of 7 volts and an ionization potential of 12 
volts. Carbon monoxide, has a whole series of resonance 
potentials indicating several degrees of activation. 

From the chemical standpoint this means that during 
the first stage it might react with chlorine or ozone. 
During a second stage it might react with the more 
active oxygen molecules and when at some of the higher 
stages it might react with some form of hydrogen to 
form formaldehyde. At all events something of the sort 
does take place in the leaves of plants, carbon dioxide 
being reduced and combined with hydrogen to form 
formaldehyde. This suggests a possible artificial 
synthesis of carbohydrates. 

Another interesting thing noted by these gentlemen 
was that the vapors of sodium or potassium chloride at 
2 mm. pressure are highly ionized, while metallic calcium 
vapor is not ionized. Does this mean that these salts 
are ionized at the same time that evaporation occurs? 
According to Langmuir they are already ionized in the 
solid crystal, and on evaporation, while there is a ten- 
dency to form pairs, there is also a tendency for some 
of the ions to stay apart as they do in solutions. In 
the calcium vapor there is nothing to remove the elec- 
trons from the metallic nucleus as there is in the salts 
where chlorine has a far greater attraction for the 
valence electron than has the metallic nucleus. 

Dr. Davey, of the General Electric Co. Research 
Laboratory showed how X-ray crystal analysis confirmed 
Langmuir's postulates as to atomic structure. Langmuir 
has shown how the CI- ion and the K+ ion have the 
same outer shape as the argon atom, so that all are 
isoteric. As each of these has eight electrons in the 
outer shell, they should be cubical. As a matter of fact 
all crystals of all the alkali halides are cubical. In a 
similar manner the alkaline earth oxides and sulphides 
are usually cubical. The iron atom having eight elec- 
trons in its outer shell is cubical. Then the Ni++ ion 
should have the same shape, making NiO a real cube, 
as it is. The TH ion and Pb ^ + ion lack six electrons 
of completing the stable arrangement corresponding to 
the inert gas, niton, so that they should have a cubical 
shape with rounded corners. This results, in the forma- 
tion of cubical crystals of TlCl and PbS. 

A. J. Dempster of Chicago University, using the 



apparatus described in Physical Review, April, 1918, 
has shown that magnesium consists of isotopes of 
atomic weight 24, 25 and 26 as referred to nitrogen of 
molecular weight of 28. 

An entirely new method for the determination of 
isotopes has been developed by F. W. Loomis of New- 
York University. By observing the infra-red absorp- 
tion spectra of various gases with a high degree of dis- 
persion he has shown that bands due to hydrogen 
chloride contain two peaks corresponding to chlorine of 
atomic weights 35 and 37. Fluorine and bromine do 
not show any isotopy by this method. 

Dr. Farrington Daniels of the University of Wisconsin 
gave a very able summary of the present status of the 
radiation hypothesis of chemical reactions which is 
receiving attention in this country from men like 
Langmuir and Tolman [J. Am. Soc, vol. 42, pp. 2190, 
2506 (1920)]. The first part of his discussion was 
presented at the Chicago meeting of the American 
Chemical Society [Chem. & Met., vol. 23, p. 563 (1920) ]. 
Daniels has shown that the decomposition of nitrogen 
pentoxide is monomolecular in gaseous condition and 
also when dissolved in carbon tetrachloride even at 15 
atmospheres pressure. He has calculated the heat 
necessary for activation and compared it with the total 
black body radiation at temperatures from 20 to 100 
deg. C. At the higher temperature there is not enough 
radiant energy to produce the actual activation observed. 
These facts are unfavorable to the radiation hypothesis. 

Other Sections 

Among the excellent papers given at other sectional 
meetings was one presented by Frank B. Dains of the 
University of Kansas before the section of Historical 
and Philological Sciences entitled "Applied Chemistiy 
in Prehistoric and Classical Times." Chemical informa- 
tion was current in considerable amount about 2,000 
years ago, but remained without much development until 
the time of Paracelsus, 1,400 years later. Chemistry is 
said to begin when copper and tin were mixed together 
in certain proportions by weight to make bronze, but 
really began when ores were first smelted to produce 
metals, or even before, when fire was discovered — or 
perhaps when man or animal first breathed, or perhaps, 
in Biblical terms. In the beginning, when God created 
the universe. Investigations in the valley of the Nile 
revealed a complete plant equipped with crushers, con- 
centrating tables and cupels for producing metallic gold. 
Mercury was derived from artificial HgS about 1000 B.C. 

Iron was probably first produced in Asia Minor. The 
Romans had blast furnaces similar in shape to the 
present-day furnaces but the metal was not completely 
melted. The mass was alternately heated and ham- 
mered to produce the crude metal. 

Zinc and tin were made about the time of Paracelsus. 
Lead was used in Rome for piping water, for cofiins 
and for household utensils. Copper and antimony were 
known in antiquity, as were red and yellow sulphides of 
arsenic. The historical development of the Mediter- 
ranean nations was in direct proportion to the develop- 
ment of their technical arts. 

While it is well to study the literature for the history 
of chemistry, even more may be gleaned by making 
analyses of ancient products. Such work reveals the 
ancients' knowledge of indigo and alizarin dyes. 
Analyses of ancient glasses and ceramic ware may throw 
new light on their work. Historical research, then, 
should look to the analytic methods. 



Janvary 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



85 



British Chemical Industry 

(From our London Correspondent) 

London, Dec. 13, 1920. 

THE chemical trade is, as usual at this time of the 
year, inclined to be slow, but the slackness has been 
accentuated by the adverse conditions prevailing in the 
cotton, paper, leather and other trades. Heavy chemi- 
cals are maintaining their price well in spite of foreign 
competition and in most cases are still far above the 
actual cost of manufacture. 

Dyestupps Bill Approved by Parliament 

The dominant feature of the past month has been the 
dyestuffs campaign, culminating in a partly agreed bill 
which, like nearly all British safeguards and expedients, 
will, it is hoped, save the industry literally at the 
eleventh hour. Under the terms of the bill the importa- 
tion, subject to a system of licenses, of all synthetic 
organic dyestuffs and colors and of intermediates used 
in their manufacture is forbidden for a period of ten 
years. The Board of Trade is the licensing authority 
and is to act under the guidance of an advisory com- 
mittee comprising five users, three manufacturers and 
three members of the public. The merchant is appar- 
ently left out in the cold, but will derive comfort from 
the fact that the act does not apply to goods for re- 
export. 

Apart from the natural doubts and misgivings with 
which this last-minute compromise has been received 
by the cotton trade and other users, many important 
sections of the chemical industry are greatly troubled 
in regard to the possibility of a very wide interpreta- 
tion of the term "organic intermediate products." Some 
of the products which may fall within this category 
may have only a restricted use for dyestuffs and the 
like as compared with their consumption in the chemical 
and allied industries as a whole. The infant fine chemi- 
cal trade in particular, which in the past manufactured 
completely only a small proportion of the goods sold, 
seems to be particularly affected and efforts are again 
being made — probably too late — to put this industry 
also on an economically satisfactory basis. 

British Cellulose Co.'s $1,000,000 Deficit 

As foreshadowed in these notes of September and 
October last, the facts and figures presented at the sec- 
ond annual meeting of the British Cellulose Co. held 
last month are not encouraging. The change over from 
war to peace conditions has proved a very slow business 
and for its future prosperity the company seems to 
rely mainly upon the success of its artificial silk proc- 
esses. The deficit is quite comprehensible in view of 
the fact that production has hardly commenced, but even 
now there seems no prospect of achieving the produc- 
tion originally promised, although the chairman stated 
that with a one-ton-per-day plant in commercial opera- 
tion the loss in trading would cease. The problem of 
dyeing cellulose acetate silk satisfactorily under all cir- 
cumstances does not yet appear to have been solved, 
but this is perhaps only a matter of time and experience. 
Meanwhile much stress is laid upon its special insulat- 
ing properties, which are stated to be several times 
greater than those of natural silk. The general feeling 
seems to be that the cellulose acetate industry will ulti- 
mately be firmly established, but meanwhile the enor- 



mous value — about $7,000,000 — placed upon good will 
and patents is having a deterrent effect upon the aver- 
age investor and it certainly seems difficult to justify. 

Failure of Injunction Against Brunner, Mono 

It will be remembered that the proposal of the di- 
rectors of Brunner, Mond & Co., Ltd., to devote $400,000 
in aid of research was negatived at the annual meeting 
by a show of hands, but it was subsequently confirmed 
at a special meeting called for that purpose. A -share- 
holder endeavored by process of law to oppose this deci- 
sion on the ground that the directors had exceeded the 
powers conferred upon them by the articles of associa- 
tion of the company. Most of the large companies and 
corporations in this country have realized that money 
spent on scientific research and for the benefit of the 
chemical industry generally may be relied upon to pay 
good dividends and an adverse decision would have been 
most unfortunate. Moreover, the appeal for $2,000,000, 
which is now to be launched for the establishment of 
a central home for the leading chemical societies and 
for an ambitious scheme of chemical publications was 
obviously dependent in some measure upon the support 
and generosity of the large chemical firms. It remains 
to be seen whether the legality of a donation to such 
purposes will also be called into question. 

Wave Power Transmission 

This novel form of transmission of energy was men- 
tioned in a recent note (see Chem. & Met. Eng., Nov. 
10, 1920, p. 913). The details of this invention are 
difficult to describe in a short note and possibly the 
following supplementary particulars may therefore be 
welcome. If we imagine two cylinders fitted with 
plungers and connected together by a long pipe com- 
pletely filled with water, this represents the simplest 
form of wave transmission. If one of the plungers is 
now moved rapidly up and down, it will set up at each 
downward stroke harmonic waves of compressed water, 
which, traveling along the pipe at high speed, will ex- 
ert their energy on the plunger at the far end and if 
there is a suitable resistance to the movement of that 
plunger, a simple synchronous reciprocating motion will 
be produced. The two cylinders in their developed 
form are the wave generator and wave motor respect- 
ively of the previous note on this subject, but of course 
the actual development of uhis harmonic series of im- 
pulses into actual practical use is a more complicated 
matter than the above statement. The main underlying 
principle involved is really the fact that water is com- 
pressible. If a piston is forced under pressure into a 
pipe 1 in. in diameter and 500 ft. long by about i in. 
in thickness, closed at the far end, the decrease in the 
volume of the water due to its being compressed is 
about seventeen times as great as the increase in volume 
due to the expansion of the pipe line under pressure. 
The net result is that the piston would enter the con- 
taining pipe for a distance of about 11 in. The result- 
ing power wave when this principle is applied in suit- 
able machinery enables practical use to be made of this 
harmonic motion, which offers an excellent analogy in 
many ways to alternating current practice in that their 
laws, formulas and conceptions are very nearly inter- 
changeable. Readers who are more closely interested 
should write to W. H. Dorman & Co., Ltd., Stafford, 
England, who would no doubt be glad to give them 
full particulars. 



86 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 




Current Events 

in the Chemical and Metallurgical Industries 



Tariff Commission's Surveys of the Chemical 

Industries 

When the Ways and Means Committee held its hear- 
ings on chemicals Jan. 6, 7 and 8 in Washington it 
had at its disposal comprehensive information regarding 
the complicated and extremely technical tariff problems 
of the chemical industry. This information was pre- 
pared by the United States Tariff Commission in the 
form of reports known as "Tariff Information Surveys," 
each of which presents, without suggestion of tariff 
policy or rates of duty, the main facts and figures 
pertinent to tariff legislation. 

In general the survey follows a standardized form, 
consisting of a description of the article; uses to 
which it is put; methods and processes of its manufac- 
ture; notable divergences between American and for- 
eign methods of production; the nature and source of 
its raw materials, and statistical data concerning domes- 
tic poduction, imports and exports, prices, and costs of 
production, as far as are obtainable, in the United States 
and in foreign countries. 

Schedule A of the tariff act — chemicals, oils and 
paints — consists of seventy paragraphs, many of which 
contain provisions for several different products. In 
some cases the Tariff Commission prepared a single 
survey to cover a whole paragraph in the tariff act; in 
other cases, where a paragraph enumerates several unre- 
lated articles, a separate survey was prepared for each 
article. 

The hundred or more surveys of the chemical industry 
have been grouped into nineteen pamphlets, each of 
which has been published by the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives, from whom they 
can be obtained on request. 

1. "Acids of Paragraph 1 and Related Materials," in- 
cludes surveys dealing with boric, citric, formic, gallic, 
lactic, oxalic, pyrogallic, tannic and tartaric acids, and all 
other acids and acid anhydrides not specially provided for 
in that section. 

2. "The Wood Chemical Industry," includes surveys deal- 
ing with acetic anhydride, acetone, formaldehyde, acetic 
acid, wood alcohol, calcium acetate, charcoal, and tar and 
pitch from wood. 

3. Paragraphs 4 to 9 inclusive. This includes aluminum 
and ammonium compounds, egg albumen, copaiba, Peru, 
tolu and other balsams, as well as the general provision in 
paragraph 5 for "all chemical and medicinal compounds, 
preparations, mixtures and salts, and combinations thereof 
not specially provided for in this section." 

4. "Barytes, Barium Chemicals, and Lithopone," includes 
all of the barium salts in paragraph 10, crude barytes, 
ground barytes and blanc-fixe in paragraph 51, and litho- 
pone in paragraph 60. 

5. Paragraphs 11 to 17 inclusive. This includes black- 
ing of all kinds, bleaching powder, caffeine and tea waste, 
mercurial preparations, chalk, and chemical and medicinal 
compounds containing alcohol or imported in capsules, pills, 
ampoules, etc. Liquid chlorine, whiting and paris wTiite 
are also discussed in this pamphlet. 

6. Paragraphs 18 to 26 inclusive. This includes chloral 
hydrate, salol, phenolphthalein, aspirin, thymol and other 
medicinals, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, cobalt oxide, 
collodion and pyroxylin plastics, and coloring for brandy, 
wine, etc. Sulphur chloride is also discussed in connection 
with the surveys of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. 



7. "Botanical Drugs." This consists of a general sur- 
vey of the crude botanical drug industry, whose products 
are dutiable under paragraph 27 or free under paragraph 
477, and in addition there have been included the surveys 
of ergot, paragraph 28, and of the ethers and esters dutiable 
under paragraph 29. 

8. "Tanning Materials and Natural Dyes." This includes 
all natural tanning materials and vegetable dyes, such as 
sumac, logwood and other dyewood extracts, chlorophyll 
and saffron of paragraphs 30 and 31. The following para- 
graphs from the free list are also discussed in this con- 
nection: 399, 455, 469, 475, 492, 536, 538, 553, 564, 618, 
624, 630, 634 and 639. 

9. Paragraphs 32 to 38 inclusive. This includes surveys 
of fusel oil, butyl alcohol, gelatine and glue, glycerine, 
camphor, gum arable, dextrine and other gums, inks and 
ink powders, iodine, iodoform and potassium iodide. 

10. Paragraphs 39 to 43 inclusive. This includes sur- 
veys of buchu leaves, coca leaves, gentian, licorice and 
sarsaparilla roots, magnesia and magnesium compounds, 
and menthol. 

11. "Animal and Vegetable Oils." This includes all of 
the fish and animal oils of paragraph 44 and the expressed 
vegetable oils of paragraph 45. In addition the following 
oils, free of duty under paragraph 561, are discussed: 
Chinese nut oil, coconut oil, cod and cod liver oil, cotton- 
seed oil, palm and palm kernel oil, perilla and soya bean oil. 

12. "Essential and Distilled Oils." This includes surveys 
of all essential oils enumerated in paragraph 46, and, in ad- 
dition, the following essential oils from the free list: Caje- 
put, ichthyol and juglandium. 

13. "Opium." This includes the surveys of opium, cocaine 
and related alkaloids. 

14. "Perfumery, Cosmetics and Toilet Preparations." 
This includes perfumery, cosmetics and toilet preparations 
under paragraph 48, and the natural and synthetic perfume 
materials under paragraph 49; also healing and court 
plasters under paragraph 50. 

15. "Paints and Pigments." This includes all of the sur- 
veys dealing with paints and pigments in paragraphs 51 to 
63 inclusive, with the exception of barytes, blanc-fixe and 
lithopone, which have been discussed under paragraph 10. 

16. "Potassium Compounds." This includes the surveys 
of potash and the potassium salts, dutiable under paragraph 
64, or free of duty under paragraph 580. 

17. Paragraphs 65 to 66. This includes the surveys of 
salts and compounds of bismuth, gold, platinum, silver, tin, 
etc.; also the surveys of soaps, dutiable under paragraph 66. 

18. "Sodium Compounds." This includes all the sodium 
salts, dutiable under paragraph 67 or free of duty under 
paragraph 605; also potassium prussiates, potassium nitrate, 
potassium chromate and bichromate, dutiable under para- 
graph 64; chromic acid and silicic acid, free of duty under 
paragraph 387; chromium hydroxide, paragraph 449; cal- 
cium nitrate, paragraph 440; potassium nitrate, crude, and 
potassium cyanide under paragraph 580. 

19. Paragraphs 68 to 70, inclusive. This includes surveys 
of sponges, talc and soapstone, vanillin, vanilla and tonka 
beans. 

American Engineering Council Assumes Activities 
of Former Engineering Council 

On Jan. 1, 1921, American Engineering Council of 
the Federated American Engineering Societies assumed 
the continuation of such activities as have been con- 
ducted for the past three and one-half years by 
Engineering Council of the United Engineering Society. 
This transfer of activities was made effective by the 
action of Engineering Council on Dec. 16 in recommend- 
ing to United Engineering Society that Engineering 
Council be discontinued. Subsequently United Engineer- 
ing Society amended its bylaws so as to disestablish 
Engineering Council. 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



87 



Symposiums on Drying and Filtration Planned 

For the Rochester meeting of the American Chemical 
Society the division of industrial and engineering chem- 
istry plans to have a symposium on drying. Plans for 
the program are in charge of the committee now being 
formed under the chairmanship of Charles 0. Lavett 
of the Buffalo Foundry & Machine Company of Buffalo, 
N. Y. Those interested in this symposium should com- 
municate their suggestions to the chairman of the com- 
mittee. 

On the occasion of the fall meeting, in New York City, 
the industrial division program will include a similar 
symposium on the subject of filtration. The chairman 
and committee in charge of this program have not yet 
been selected, but further arrangements will probably 
be perfected in the near future, as the secretary of 
the division. Dr. H. E. Howe of the National Research 
Council, has the matter actively in charge at present. 



International Chamber Committee Organized 

The American committee to represent in this country 
the International Chamber of Commerce has fully or- 
ganized and held its first meeting in New York City on 
Jan. 6. This agency is the direct representative and 
point of contact in the United States with the Interna- 
tional Chamber of Commerce, which has its headquarters 
in Paris. Chemical, metallurgical and other engineering 
interests are represented on the board by the following 
gentlemen, among others: Herbert C. Hoover, repre- 
senting Federated American Engineering Societies; 
Thomas S. Grasselli, Grasselli Chemical Co.; E. A. S. 
Clark, Consolidated Steel Corporation; A. C. Bedford, 
Standard Oil Co.; C. F. Kelley, Anaconda Copper Min- 
ing Co.; E. G. Miner, Pfaudler Co.; William H. Nichols, 
General Chemical Co. ; Thomas A. O'Donnell, American 
Petroleum Institute; John J. Raskob, Dupont Co.; 
Charles M. Schwab, Bethlehem Steel Corporation; 
Charles A. Stone, American International Corporation; 
E. P. Thomas, U. S. Steel Products Co. 



Nitrate Plant Controversy Grips Senate and House 

The nitrate plants at Muscle Shoals, the proposed 
United States Fixed Nitrogen Corporation and the Wil- 
son dam have come in for extended discussion in Con- 
gress during the past two weeks. The Nitrogen Cor- 
poration bill became the unfinished business in the 
Senate after Senator Underwood, the Democratic leader, 
had threatened to delay the Republican legislative pro- 
gram unless the bill were taken up. In the House the 
nitrate plant controversy was precipitated by the fail- 
ure of the Appropriations Committee to provide funds 
for the continuation of the work on the Wilson dam. 

Division of opinion on the matter, however, was not 
along party lines. The Democrats are not a unit for 
it, nor are the Republicans uniformly against it. In 
fact, Representative Mann, of Illinois, one of the Repub- 
lican leaders, proved to be an effective champion in 
favor of continuing the work. Opinion in the House 
is evenly divided, as is indicated by the close vote on 
the first test of strength, when 125 votes were cast 
to override the committee, against 132 in support of 
the committee's position. 

An unexpected development in the Nitrogen Corpora- 
tion discussion came when Senator Wadsworth, of New 
York, submitted amendments withdrawing the corpora- 
tion entirely from the jurisdiction of the War Depart- 



ment and proposing that it be placed under the Treas- 
ury Department, because he believes "soldiers ought not 
to be running a business concern." Another amend- 
ment by Senator Wadsworth proposes material changes 
in the plan for capitalization. He would give the cor- 
poration the power to sell common stock in any amount 
not to exceed $20,000,000. Another amendment by Sena- 
tor Wadsworth limits the activities of the corporation 
to the manufacture of ammonium nitrate, ammonium 
sulphate and cyanamide from atmospheric nitrogen. 

In submitting his estimates to Congress the Secretary 
of War requested $10,000,000 for the continuation of 
the work on the Wilson dam. This item was entirely 
omitted by the committee in framing the sundry civil 
bill on the ground that the policy with respect to carry- 
ing forward the project had not been worked out. 

In the course of his remarks Mr. Good, chairman of 
the Committee on Appropriations, said : "I can but feel 
that a great blunder was made when the American 
Cyanamid Co. was given a free hand in the making 
of the plans for building Plant No. 2, which is the 
large plant. I have forgotten whether it is the Amer- 
ican Cyanamid Co. or the American Chemical Co., but 
the two were in very close relation. One of them pre- 
pared the plans and constructed this plant. One or the 
other of these companies, which have been working very 
closely together, has the patent rights for the Haber 
process. The Haber process is covered by a great many 
letters patent and these companies, or one of them, 
hold the letters patent. True, the basic patent was 
granted seventeen years ago, but when this company was 
given the power to make the plans for this plant it 
made its plans for the manufacturing plant to fit in 
with its patents. So every unit of the building, every 
piece of construction, everything that was done was in 
order to turn out nitrates at Plant No. 2 under the 
Haber process, which is covered by these patents, and 
the company receives royalties on every ton produced — 
$5 a ton royalty on cyanamide and $10.11 a ton on 
nitrates of ammonia. The royalties under the present 
contract for 100,000 tons of nitrates of ammonia, the 
estimated annual production, would be $2,200,000." 

At another point in his remarks Mr. Good said: "We 
will have to become accustomed to some higher Govern- 
ment salaries if the Government is going to engage in 
this kind of enterprise. You cannot compete with the 
American Cyanamid Co. in the manufacture of fertilizer 
and nitrate if you are going to have $2,500-a-year men 
or $5,000-a-year men to manage the plant when a com- 
peting company pays from five to ten times such sums 
for their managers in order to secure the best talent 
available. You must apply to Government affairs the 
same business principles that a business man adopts in 
connection with his affairs if you want the Govern- 
ment to succeed in business." 

Among the champions for the continuance of the 
project was Representative Garrett, of Tennessee. At 
one point in his address he stated that some chemists are 
of the opinion that eventually the Haber process will 
be developed to a point when nitrates can be fixed at a 
cheaper cost by that method than by the cyanamide 
process, but he continued : "We must bear in mind that 
however hopeful gentlemen may be of the eventual 
development of the Haber process it still is speculative 
in this country and the cost of production by it neces- 
sarily is speculative." 

At another point in his remarks Mr. Garrett ex- 
pressed the opinion that it is not possible to dispose 



88 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



of the nitrate plant to private parties at any price that 
would approach, even remotely, a just return to the 
Government. "So far as I knov^^," he continued, "no 
one ever has believed that it is possible for private 
capital to construct this dam economically." 

Representative Graham, of Illinois, deprecated the 
spirit of "let the Government do it." So far as the 
nitrate plant controversy is concerned, he said, the part- 
ing of the ways has been reached, "We must either 
embark on the national management and manufacture 
of fertilizers or we must take the other road which 
leads to individual initiative and enterprise." He ex- 
pressed the opinion that the real purpose of the power 
development is to erect at Muscle Shoals, at Government 
expense, a water-power project for the development of 
that part of the country. "I am opposed to junking 
this plant," he declared. "I am equally opposed to the 
Government running it, if there is any other way to 
do it. I favor its operation by private capital. Plant 
No. 1 is a failure, always has been a failure and always 
Will be a failure. At the time it was built they knew 
considerable about the Haber process, which, by the 
Way, is the coming process in this country. The method 
to be liSefd in Plant No. 2 is obsolescent. Inside of ten 
years it probably will not be used at all. The Haber 
process is a simpler process. It has grown by leaps 
and bounds during the war. The Haber patents are 
open to the use of any man. I am informed privately 
that there are at present organizations in the United 
States, with great capital behind them, organized for 
the manufacture of synthetic ammonia by the Haber 
process. If the United States goes into the business 
that industry perishes, as do all others related to the 
production of nitrates from the atmosphere. How can 
any privately owned industry compete with the United 
States Government?" 

Representative Almon, of Alabama, said: "Who is 
opposing the proposition that the Government should 
operate this plant? No one has come out in the open 
in opposition except Mr. Washburn, who operates a 
similar, but much smaller, plant at Niagara Falls, on 
the Canadian side. This plant would be his competitor." 

Representative Mann, in concluding his speech, said: 
"Shall we scrap a plant simply because we feel resent- 
ment at its cost? Shall we throw away an opportunity 
because we do not like the men who have created it? 
Shall we waste the thing that we have because we do 
not like the methods that have been followed? We 
ought to rise above that. We ought to be willing to 
continue the work which is of benefit to the country and 
which utilizes Nature's power to draw from the air 
this plant food." 



National Public Works Association Final Report 

The final report of the National Public Works Associa- 
tion has just been completed by C. T. Chenery, secre- 
tary, dated Dec. 30. American Engineering Council 
will take over the work of this association, together 
with the work of Engineering Council, the first of the 
calendar year. This report of the public works activi- 
ties is, therefore, its final summary of association 
affairs. 

In addition to the effort to obtain passage of a bill 
to create a department of public works, known as the 
Jones-Reavis measure, this association has been active 
in support of the resolution recently passed by Con- 
gress known as the Smoot-Reavis resolution, providing 



a Congressional commission for the investigation of the 
need of and basis for reorganization of the executive 
departments. In fact, the Public Works Association 
can properly be credited with having been one of the 
most influential agencies in obtaining the early passage 
of this resolution, which has just become a law through 
the failure of the President to act on the measure 
within ten days following its submission to him, which 
ten days expired December 30. It is hoped by those 
interested in the public works department that the need 
for it will be quickly demonstrated and that the first 
measure approved by the commission will be this par- 
ticular part of Government reorganization. 



Comments on Dye Development 

A brief historical summary of the history of the dye 
industry in the United States, showing its growth from 
a small unit in the general industrial machine to a tre- 
mendous factor in the manufacturing life of the country, 
was given at the December meeting by Dr. C. G. Derick, 
in charge of the Research Laboratory of the National 
Aniline & Chemical Co., Buffalo, N. Y., before the 
Rochester Section of the American Chemical Society, in 
the Eastman Building of the University of Rochester. 
In addition to his historical remarks Dr. Derick also 
touched upon the problems confronting the industry at 
present. 

Before 1914 about 70 per cent of the annual output 
of 400,000,000 lb. of dyestuffs was produced in Germany, 
no other one country' producing as much as 10 per cent. 
England produced about 6i per cent, France 5i, the 
United States 5, and Switzerland about 8 per cent. 
Scientific research can be considered the backbone of 
the German monopoly. However, had there not been 
a small industry in this country since 1870 the situation 
would have been much worse. In speaking of the histoiy 
of the dye industry in this country Dr. Derick said that 
back in 1869 out on Buffalo Creek J. F. Schoelfkopf 
started a small factory. The same building served as 
stable, factory, laboratory, oflJice and restaurant. The 
beginning was small and the difficulties were many, such 
as the Buffalo River rising and floating away part of the 
factory. This small concern was dependent upon Ger- 
many for its apparatus and the intermediates from 
which the dyes were made. Competition was keen with 
Germany, which held the monopoly and intended to 
keep it. 

About twenty years ago, however, Schoelfkopf worked 
out a new black dye and patented it. It proved to be 
one of the most popular dyes. When he tried to get 
patents in other countries, however, Germany stepped 
in and said she had known about it for a long time. 
Then started one of the hardest fights the dye industry 
in this country ever had. Germany, seeing she was los- 
ing ground, tried then to compromise, divide up markets, 
etc. There was great rejoicing when the first carload 
of dye left the small Schoelfkopf factory. The value of 
an American patent backed by American law cannot be 
overestimated. 

In 1914 Schoelfkopf thought the war would not last 
very long and having a large supply of intermediates 
on hand made up dyes and sold them at good profit. 
But it soon became evident that the war would not 
soon be over and the dye industi-y would suffer. Schoelf- 
kopf made contracts with his older men to work out 
new dyes and share in the profits. In May, 1916, the 
old building was torn down, in August the research 



1 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



89 



chemists, Dr. Derick being in charge, went into the 
new building, and by Christmas of that same year 
twenty buildings were in operation and putting out 
from 60 to 70 per cent of the total consumption of this 
country. This wonderful work was made possible 
through the thirty-five years of research, experience and 
hard work. The contractors also deserve much credit 
for putting up the buildings in record time. 

Dr. Derick went on to speak of the work involved in 
research, which may be divided into two classes — the 
exploratory function and the developmental function. 
In the United States about 99 per cent of the research 
has been along the latter line and this cannot go on; 
more work must be done in exploration. The research 
work in dyes must develop the dyestuffs, patent them 
and work out methods for qualitative analysis. Twenty 
per cent of the total business was dyes the constitution 
and components of which were unknown. The great 
problem then was to work out these unknowns, and this 
has now been done; there is not an important German 
secret in the dye industry that has not been solved in 
the laboratory, but some have not been as yet developed. 
Another phase of the work is the realization of the 
fundamental relation between constitution and color. 
The principal coal-tar products used in the making of 
dyes are benzene, toluene, naphthalene and anthracene. 

The problems of the research man which must be 
solved in the laboratory are the materials that enter 
into the specifications, methods of analysis to back up 
the specifications, study of operations, study of variables 
and methods of control. The hazard study involving 
explosives likely to be produced and the effect of ma- 
terials on the health of the workers is most important. 

After the work leaves the research chemist it goes to 
the research engineering division, where apparatus is 
decided upon and estimates are made. Then the process 
goes to the factory and is worked out by a special set 
of workers under the supervision of the research chem- 
ist long enough to get accurate records of cost, etc. 

Special difficulties that must be met and overcome 
are the effect of shutdowns of engineering service, such 
as of steam or electricity at an important point, which 
may result in an explosion, death of workers, or spoiled 
products. Other difficulties are the destructive action 
of bacteria and yeast to the finished dyestuffs. The 
patent situation must be continuously watched. 



General Fries Advocates Plan to Stimulate 
Inventive Initiative in C.W.S. 

General A. A. Fries, the head of the Chemical War- 
fare Service, states that some plan of systematic han- 
dling of inventions by Government employees is very 
necessary in the Chemical Warfare Service. As it is 
there is great need for stimulating inventive initiative 
and effort. He believes this applies to the whole Gov- 
ernment service, but it is of unusual importance in his 
organization, where the field is so new. Under present 
conditions, he points out, many Government employees 
leave the service to develop their ideas so that they may 
participate in its benefits. Greater incentive must be 
given Government research workers if maximum prog- 
ress is made in such matters as the development of war 
gases. General Fries said. He characterized the atti- 
tude of some of the concerns opposing such a plan as 
being narrow and an inheritance from the days of the 
alchemist, when all chemical research was hedged about 
with deep secrecy. 



Industrial Investigations in Universities 

On Friday evening, Jan. 7, the New York Section of 
the American Chemical Society was addressed by two 
prominent professors. 

Dr. Warren K. Lewis reported that the new co-opera- 
tive system established at Mass. Inst, of Tech. is proving 
highly advantageous both to the graduate students and 
to the .score of industries represented. Co-operative 
students are chosen competitively on the basis of schol- 
arship shown in their undergraduate work, reliability, 
personality and ability. A great amount of plant phi- 
losophy is imparted to the students and industry is saved 
the trouble of training raw recruits. 

Drs. Ralph H. McKee and E. E. Lyder presented a 
very comprehensive report of their investigations on 
the pyrolysis of shale kerogens. The primarj' decom- 
position product at about 400 deg. C. was shown to be 
viscid tarry hydrocarbons which break down under 
destructive distillation (at 500 to 600 deg. C.) to form 
secondary products — oils, vapors, gases and free carbon. 
The investigations also included the determination of 
physical constants which may be of importance in 
process design. 



Personal 



H. Foster Bain has been recommended by the Secretary 
of the Interior for the directorship of the Bureau of Mines. 
Dr. F. G. Cottrell's resignation has been accepted by Secre- 
tary Payne, effective Jan. 1. Dr. Cottrell has resigned to 
become chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemi- 
cal Technology of the National Research Council. Both Mr. 
Bain and Dr. Cottrell will enter upon their new duties im- 
mediately. Mr. Bain during the war was assistant director 
of the Bureau of Mines and is widely known for his work 
as a consulting mining engineer and as a geologist. He has 
just returned from a trip to the Far East, where he made 
examinations of mining properties in ten countries. 

Dr. C. B. Clevenger has resigned as instructor in the 
department of chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis., to accept a professorship of agricultural chemistry 
and head of the department of chemistry of the Manitoba 
Agricultural College, Winnipeg, Canada. 

Will H. Coghill of the U. S. Bureau of Mines has gone 
to Platteville, Wis., to study the sludge problem in the Wis- 
consin zinc district. 

W. C. Graham, formerly /vf the Great Western Sugar 
Co. and now having his own business in the Coronado Bldg., 
Denver, Col., left New York on Jan. 8 to be away for 
several months on a special mission for the South Porto 
Rico Sugar Co. 

Dr. Ralph E. Hall, formerly of the Geophysical Labora- 
tory of the Carnegie Institution, Washington, D. C, has 
resigned from the Firestone Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, to 
accept a position with the Koppers Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Frederick A. Harvey has resigned from the Semet-Solvay 
Co. to become technical assistant to the president of the 
United States Refractories Corporation, which prior to Jan. 
1 was known as the Mt. Union Refractories Co. 

Ellwood Hendrick, consulting editor of Chemical & 
Metallurgical Engineering, lectured before the Polytech- 
nic Section of the American Institute of the City of New 
York on Jan. 3 on "The Sense of Smell." 

E. L. Jorgensen, formerly general superintendent of re- 
duction for the Chile Exploration Co. at Chuquicamata, 
Chile, has after fifteen years with Guggenheim Companies 
opened an office as consulting engineer in Suite 1429, 150 
Nassau St., New York City. 



90 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 2 



Charles H. Miller of Auburn, N. Y., has started a 
chemical and physical laboratory for the Mcintosh & Sey- 
mour Corporation, maker of Diesel engines. The materials 
used in the manufacture, as well as the coal, oil, etc., will 
be tested chemically and physically. 

Prof. James F. Norris has been elected to the chair- 
manship of the committee in charge of the C. M. Warren 
Fund of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 
place of Prof. H. P. Talbot, resigned. The income from the 
fund is available for the "encouragement and advancement 
of research in the science or field of chemistry," and may 
be used to provide the materials required for such investiga- 
tions or assistant in their execution. The commitee will be 
glad to receive and consider requests for grants from this 
fund. They should be addressed to Prof. James F. Norris, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 

A. A. Rackoff, Wilkinsburg, Pa., is now specializing on 
special steel works and labor-saving machinery, teeming 
devices and coke-oven accessories. 

Dr. L. I. Shaw lectured before the Franklin Institute Jan. 
6, 1921, on "Smoke and Incendiary Material." 

Dr. Edgar Fahs Smith has been elected president of the 
American Chemical Society for the year 1921. 

At the College of the City of New York Prof. Herbert 
R. Moody has been appointed professor of chemical engi- 
neering within the department of chemistry; Asst. Prof. 
W. L. Prager has been promoted to an associate professor- 
ship and Joseph A. Babor has been promoted to an instruc- 
torship. 

The Royal Society of England has awarded the Coply 
medal to H. T. Brown for his work on the chemistry of 
carbohydrates, on the assimilation of atmospheric carbon 
dioxide by leaves, and on gaseous diffusion through small 
apertures; the Rumford medal to Lord Rayleigh for re- 
searches into the properties of gases at high vacua; the 
Davy medal to C. T. Heycock for his work in physical chem- 
istry, especially on the composition and constitution of alloys, 
and the Hughes medal to Prof. O. N. Richardson for his 
work in experimental physics on the passage of electricity 
through gases, and especially for those relating to the 
electrons from hot bodies, which he has termed "thermi- 
onies." 

The British Institution of Mining and Metallurgy has 
awarded its gold medal to Sir Thomas Kirke Rose in recog- 
nition of his eminent services in the advancement of metal- 
lurgical science with special reference to the metallurgy of 
gold. 



Qirrcnt Market Reports 



The Chemical and Allied Industrial Markets 

New York, Jan. 10, 1921. 

Large inquiries were not numerous during the past week 
in the chemical market but the situation showed signs of 
recovering from the effects of the recent holidays and pro- 
ducers seemed confident of a slow but gradual improvement 
in business during the rest of the month. Buyers are gen- 
erally holding off and seem to be waiting for someone to 
start the ball rolling. There seems to be little doubt that 
should someone break the ice consumers will come into the 
market in force. Prices generally continue weak and sub- 
ject to shading among leading dealers. Producers are still 
holding quotations well up to their recently quoted levels 
for contracts over 1921 in spite of the lack of any consider- 
able business. 

Resale hichromute of soda was offered at 9ic. per lb., 
with some sellers, however, asking 9Jc. Trade conditions 
were not very active and buyers appeared content to await 
new developments in the market before operating. Offer- 
ings were not heavy and February shipments were held at 
about Ic. premium over spot goods. Solid caustic soda 
opened steady on the spot market with sales recorded at 



$3.75@$3.80 per 100 lb. This was the general quotation 
named for domestic and export use and the tone appeared 
quite steady. No change was noted in contract prices and 
producers continued to quote Sic. per lb., basis 60 per cent 
works, for forward shipments. 

Small lots of American cyanide of soda were held at 30c. 
per lb. by dealers. The French variety sold at prices rang- 
ing from 21c to 24c. per lb. Some high-test German was 
on the market at 23c. English material was rather scarce 
on spot and was held at 24@26c. per lb. Moderate business 
in formaldehyde was booked at I82C. per lb. spot in barrels. 
The market is quoted quite steady at this figure, with small 
lots held as high as 19@192C. Wide differences of opinion 
were held as to the arsenic market. Some lots of white 
material were said to have sold as low as 9c. per lb. c.i.f. 
New York for immediate shipment from Japan. Other 
holders were quoting 10c. per lb. Spot quotations ranged 
from IO2 to II2C., according to quantity and sellers. 

The market on caustic potash remained in an unsettled 
condition. Imported material 88-92 per cent strength caused 
further weakness to the spot market. Consumers were un- 
willing to enter the market in spite of the bargain prices 
which were offered through second hands. Prices ranging 
from 14c. to 16c. per lb. for imported seemed to represent 
a fair low mark for this material. Domestic producers' 
quotations were far above these figures. 

Producers on American chlorate of potash continued to 
quote 18c. per lb. for goods in warehouse. Second hands 
offered imported goods as low as lie. per lb., with prac- 
tically no response from leading match and powder factories. 
Demand of late has generally been of a very limited nature. 
There were some sellers of nitrite of soda as low as 6c. per 
lb. for spot goods and quotations were heard from 6| to 6Jc. 
per lb. The inside figure was said to be for round lots and 
was not general in the open market. The low figure com- 
pares with 14c. per lb., the initial price last January, and 
with the high point touched, 60c. per lb. last March. Resale 
bleaching powder was quoted by dealers at 2J(a)23c. per lb. 
Some fair sales were recorded in small drums at inter- 
mediate prices. The inquiry appeared to be moderate, 
although enough supplies were around to meet all require- 
ments. A feature of the market was the persistent demand 
for carload lots of light soda ash in single bags at the 
works. Producers seemed well sold up for immediate busi- 
ness and dealers were not anxious to quote the present 
market. Spot goods have been taken off the market during 
the past few days and the general undertone appeared quite 
steady. Prices ranged from S1.90 to $2.10 per 100 lb. for 
single bags. Barrels were held at 5c. per 100 lb. premium. 

Coal-Tar Market ' 

The new year has revealed nothing startling and most 
factors reported a light demand for small quantities of 
staple products that, have a routine call. Inquiries from 
European sources showed an increase and seemed to indicate 
that there is a real need for some items. Opinions from 
different producers, on the other hand, were that these in- 
quiries of the moment are in the nature of feelers trying out 
the market. Crude materials are quiet and prices are quot- 
ably unchanged from previous reports. While there has 
been no heavy demand for anthracene, there is nevertheless 
a healthy look and the steady developments along the vat 
dyes are keeping producers rather light on available mate- 
rial. Manufacturers of intermediates are steady in their 
views and dealers are also more conservative than they 
have b^en as to prices. What little is offered on the open 
market is held on a firmer basis than heretofore. 

Small lot trading of aniline oil constituted about the ex- 
tent of business during the week. The market seemed more 
steady around 23@25c. per lb., although supplies were easy 
in most quarters. The market on aniline salt showed little 
change from the former quiet stand. There were no new 
developments featuring the trade and prices held along the 
regular range from 27c. to 30c. per lb. Reports from most 
quarters stated that the market for dinitrobenzene is quiet. 
Supplies were said to be available in moderate volume on 
a basis of 27@o0c. per lb. Consumers of orthotoluidine are 
showing little interest at this time. Producers are steady 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



91 



in their views around 25@30c. per lb., with fair supplies 
available. While there were some resale lots of parani- 
traniline floating around the market, the quantity is not 
large and a firmer view is held as to prices, which range 
from 93c. to $1 per lb. 

Waxes 

The wax market in the past few weeks has been excep- 
tionally quiet, with only small orders from domestic con- 
sumers noted. The inquiry for crude beeswax was moder- 
ate but trading in the refined material was very dull. The 
spot market for Cartiauba wax saw no change in action, but 
a fair amount of interest was shown in shipments. No. 3 
North Country was held at 20@25c. per lb., with futures 
available at about 18c. per lb. A limited inquiry was in 
evidence for Japan wax, and with spot material not press- 
ing the market prices remained unchanged at 19@20c. per 
lb. The market for scale wax was unsettled, with offerings 
in some directions of a liberal nature. Crude wax 124 m.p. 
was available at 63c. per lb., with carload lots a trifle 
under the figure. Refined 133 m.p. wax was offered at 
lOJc, with no new business noted. 

Coal-Tar Products Market for 1920 

The sensational rise of the coal-tar, intermediate and 
dyestuff markets was directly due to the wave of export 
business that flooded the country immediately after the 
severe slump during the latter part of 1919. It was gen- 
erally supposed that Germany had accumulated a tremen- 
dous surplus stock of dyes during the war and the entire 
world was waiting to see whether this condition was a 
reality. Rumors were current that German interests were 
about ready to ship in continuous quantities to the outside 
markets dyes of every description, and as a result consum- 
ers were narrowing their orders to the barest necessities. 
Stocks were reduced to await the time when prices and 
quality would reach pre-war levels by the Germans in their 
efforts to once more rehabilitate themselves to their former 
commercial supremacy. 

During the later months of 1919 there were no signs of 
any importations of dyes and buyers became pessimistic 
as to the truth about these hoarded stocks. This was an 
impetus for live buying and immediately orders were noted 
in large volume for American-made material. Prices soared 
to their highest peak during the early months of 1920. With 
this sudden turn in the trend of business it became evident 
that American manufacturers were not entirely prepared to 
meet this overwhelming demand. General conditions in 
other lines prevented any expansion in the industry, and as 
stocks became depleted with the demand greater than the 
supply prices fluctuated. Speculation became the or- 
der of the day here and abroad. Buyers were 
paying fabulous prices in order to get what little there 
was on the spot market. Principal among export buyers 
were Japan and the Far East countries. Japan, as was 
noticed in the chemical industry, speculated blindly. Mate- 
rial was bought at any price and it soon became evident 
that stocks had accumulated which were sufficient to cover 
her requirements over a period of a few years. The result 
was inevitable. A chaotic condition arose in Japan when 
banks began to call their loans on speculative holdings and 
also to refuse any additional credits. In order to save them- 
selves the Japanese turned from the buying end to the sell- 
ing. Large holdings were brought back to the American 
market at sacrifice prices. Prices began to break rapidly 
and domestic consumers, who had been willfully neglected 
during the foreign rush, took the upper hand. Stocks moved 
sluggishly in view of the fact that material was offered at 
bargain prices. The market became demoralized through 
these forces and it is in this condition that the coal-tar 
and intermediate markets find themselves at the turn of the 
year. 

There were many factors together with the enormous 
export demand that hindered any additional production. The 
coal strike reduced supplies of all crude-tar manufacturers. 
Shortage of coal forced practically all of the byproduct 
coke plants to work on greatly reduced schedules. The car 
shortage, railroad inefficiency and the unusually hard winter 



COMPARATIVE PRICES OF COAL-TAR PRODUCTS. 
JANUARY-DECEMBER. 1920 



.Ian. 

Ben2ene, c.p. gal $0 30 

Cresylic acid, 95-97%, gal 90 

Creaylic acid, 97-99%, gal .94 

Dip oil, lb .45 

Solvent naphtha, water white, gal. . 26 

Toluene, water white, gal .32 

Xylene, pure, gal .45 

H-acid, per lb 2 00 

Phthylic anhydride, lb .85 

Salicylic acid, U.S. P., lb .60 

Alpha naphthylamine, lb .42 

Aniline oil, lb .36 

Aniline salt, lb .40 

Anthracene, 80%, lb .80 

Benzaldehyde, (F.F.C.) , lb 2 . 00 

Benzidine, ba.se, lb 1 . 35 

Benzidine, sulphate, lb 1 . 05 

Beta Naphthol, tech., lb .55 

Dichlorbenzene, lb .10 

Dinitrobenzene, lb .30 

Diethylaniline, lb 1 . 40 

Dimethylaniline, lb .90 

Dinitrophenol, lb .40 

Diphenylamine, lb .80 

Naphthalene, flake, lb .08 

Naphthalene, ball, lb .09 

Nitrobenzene, lb .16 

Orthonitrotoluene, lb .23 

Paraphenylenediamine, lb 3.00 

Paia amidophenol, base, lb. 2.60 

Para amidophenol, Hcl; lb 2.85 

Paradichlorbenzene, lb .15 

Paranitraniline, lb 1 . 30 

Phenol, lb .• 14 

Resorcinol, tech, lb 4.50 

Resorcinol, pure, lb 7.50 

Toluidine, lb 1 .65 



March 


.July 


Oct. 


Dec. 


$0 31 


$0 37 


$0 37 


$0 32 


95 


1.10 


1 05 


90 


1 00 


1 20 


1 15 


95 


45 


45 


.40 


38 


.27 


.32 


.32 


30 


.36 


.43 


.40 


33 


.50 


50 


50 


42 


1 95 


2 25 


1 70 


1 40 


.75 


60 


.65 


.60 


.60 


55 


37 


.35 


.45 


.55 


50 


.40 


.38 


.36 


30 


.22 


.44 


.45 


.38 


27 


.85 


1 00 


1 00 


.90 


2.00 


2 00 


2.00 


2 00 


1 35 


1.40 


1 20 


1 00 


1.10 


1 25 


1 10 


85 


.65 


88 


75 


40 


.10 


09 


.08 


08 


.32 


36 


.35 


35 


1.60 


1 50 


1.50 


1.35 


.90 


1 30 


1.00 


.70 


.45 


.42 


.40 


.40 


.82 


.87 


.80 


.70 


.10 


.16 


.13 


.08 


.11 


.17 


.14 


08i 


.17 


.17 


.15 


14 


27 


28 


.25 


25 


3.00 


3 00 


2.50 


2.25 


2 60 


2.60 


2 50 


2.10 


2.85 


2 85 


2.75 


2 20 


.15 


.15 


.15 


.12 


1.45 


1.45 


1.20 


.93 


.20 


.18 


.12 


.12 


4.50 


4.50 


2.85 


2.75 


7.50 


6.50 


4.00 


3.60 


1.65 


1.70 


1.70 


1.35 



added to the difficulties of American producers. It became 
evident that some material had to be imported. Naphtha- 
lene led among speculators and soon an oversupply followed 
the rapid slump in business. Large holders began to offer 
their purchases for resale at prices far below manufac- 
turers' quotations. The same condition held true on all 
other coal-tar products. 

The 1921 prospect for business seems very indefinite 
and will remain so until some settlement is reached on the 
tariff question. No point is of such crucial significance to 
the industry at the present time as the passage of suitable 
protective measures by Congress. The present scale of 
operation as well as the expert supervision required causes 
enormous expenses and makes it necessary for the American 
manufactui'er to charge more for his product than the 
German. Some definite action in this matter will immedi- 
ately set the industry on a firm basis and development work 
which will follow will be one of the greatest factors in re- 
ducing the cost of American products to the consumers. 
Prices will probably rise without any resumption of new 
business, as present stocks have been generally reduced to a 
minimum. It is problematical whether this will occur during 
the first quarter. The only logical solution is that the re- 
bound will be gradual and that business will increase until 
a normal volume of trade is reached. Prices are much 
lower now than at the beginning of 1920 and in some cases 
are even below the cost of production. Any inequalities 
will undoubtedly be removed in the immediate future and 
legitimate prices will be set forth which will include legiti- 
mate profits. 

The St. Louis Market 

St. Louis, Jan. 5, 1921. 

A more cheerful tone has been evident in the heavy 
chemical market during the last week. Producers report 
many domestic consumers renewing contracts at the price 
levels established around the middle of December. Ship- 
ments on contracts have picked up appreciably since the 
first of the year also. Although spot sales have not in- 
creased to any great extent the number of inquiries has 
increased. One helping factor is the almost complete 
absence from the market of small distressed lots of heavy 
chemicals. 

Quotations have changed in only one instance, and pro- 
ducers are manipulating their production in such a manner 
that their stocks of heavy chemicals will not accumulate 
beyond control. In a few instances a quickening demand 
has found supply low. 



92 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



Demand for the 98 deg. sulphuric acid is still slow and 
the price has dropped to $24 per ton f.o.b. works from 
the previous quotation of $25 per ton. The 66 deg. acid 
continues in strong demand, the greater portion of the 
production going to the oil refineries. Quotations are 
stable at $20(S)$21 per ton and lie. per lb. in carboys, 
carload lots. The demand for the 60 deg. sulphuric acid 
has shown flashes of activity in the last few days and the 
current price is $16 per ton and lie. per lb. in carboys. 
Oleum has shared in this increased activity, producers re- 
porting inquiries good, although orders have picked up only 
slightly. It is being offered at $28.50 per ton. 

Producers report that users are calling more actively for 
muriatic acid. Stocks were not large and prices are hold- 
ing firmly at $25 per ton in bulk and li@2c. per lb. 

Sodium bisulphate is quiet, but there are no very large 
lots to offer and the greater part of the production is being 
shipped on contract. The nominal quotation is $7(a)$8 
per ton. 

Zinc chloride is not in exceptionally strong demand, but 
there has been no further decrease in quotations. It is being 
offered at $4.15 per 100 lb. 

The nitric acid market is quiet and quotations are $7 per 
100 lb. for the 36 deg. test and $10 per 100 lb. for 42 leg. 
Quotations on standard mixed acid are unchanged. 

The Chicago Market 

Chicago, Jan. 5, 1921. 

A very definite tendency toward a stronger market is felt 
on all sides since the turn of the calendar. This has not 
been evidenced by any marked price advances nor by in- 
creased demand, but rather by the very definite decrease in 
the volume of supplies in the stocks of second hands. The 
trend of the past few months has been toward the elimina- 
tion of the speculator and the vest-pocket trader, who were 
so largely responsible for the extreme height to which prices 
rose last year. With their activity reduced to a minimum 
and with markets largely in the hands of producers, prices 
are bound to be more stable and to be based on actual 
worth. 

With consumption going on at a day-to-day rate and with 
production materially retarded, no oversupply in any item 
seems probable. From this it is deduced that while prices 
may not necessarily be at their bottom level they are very 
near to it. Dealers and manufacturers are a unit in ex- 
pressing the opinion that business during the coming season 
is going to be good. 

Heavy Chemicals 

Little action, but prices firmly held, in general, has been 
the story of the past two weeks. In the soda group only 
routine orders are being placed, but spot stocks seem to 
be getting low. Soda ash offerings are at $2 per 100 lb. now, 
against $1.85 ten days ago. All supplies are firmly held at 
the quoted price. Caustic soda has been moving in good 
volume, orders averaging small but running to a good total. 
Today's quotation is $3.85@$4.15 per 100 lb. Sal soda, at 
$2.25 per 100 lb., is in routine demand only. No large stocks 
of sodium bichromate are to be found and prices are held at 
12(5)13c. per lb., with demand steady. 

The alcohol market is still in a bad way. Production of 
methyl grade has been seriously curtailed and with the 
gradual depletion of resale stocks current quotations of 
$1.80 per gal. for 97 per cent should represent about the 
bottom of the market. Ethyl grade, owing to the uncer- 
tainty of future production costs, is uncertain as regards 
supply. At present the market is quiet at $5.15 per gal. 
for 190 proof. S'lpply of denatured is still greatly in excess 
of demand, and quoted price of 80@90c. indicated the wide 
range of price offerings. 

Glycerine remains at a very low ebb. buyers showing no 
interest and holders of stock apparently being content to 
hold. The c.p. grade, held at 19c. per lb. f.o.b. works, is 
exciting no interest and saponification grade is offered at 
12c., with but little business resultiri":. Quicksilver, quoted 
at $43(«)$45 per flask, is s'lid to be o'le-xper than production 
cost, in spite of which demand remains light. 



Acids are facing a weak market. Price range does not 
seem to mean much to consumers, who are content to limit 
purchases to their day-to-day requirements. Current quota- 
tions, most of which can be shaded, are: 66 deg. sulphuric, 
$24 per ton; 36 deg. nitric, $6.50(5)$6.75 per 100 lb.; 
muriatic, 18 deg., $1.85(S)$2 per 100 lb.; acetic, glacial, lOJ 
(otlljc. per lb., 56 per cent, 5g@5ic. per lb. Production of 
all acids is being curtailed. 

Vegetable Oils 

Continued weakness is noted in this line, small volume of 
transactions and lowering prices being the order of the day. 
Quotations are largely nominal as large stocks are still in 
second hands and most any offer will be made to induce 
sales. Linseed oil. unchanged in quotation, could actually 
be bought at 76c. per gal. in car lots. Cottonseed oil, quoted 
at 6c. per lb. f.o.b. point of production, is not only below 
cost but is also lower than the appraisement value upon 
which bank loans were made a few months ago. Actual 
transactions are few. Coryi oil, firmed up in price by re- 
duced production, is held at 7c. per lb. f.o.b. Chicago, but 
no reports are heard of any sales of importance. Coconut 
oil, in spite of rumored impending shortage, excites no in- 
terest at the curent price from local warehouse of l2|c. per 
lb. for crude and 15c. for deodorized. 

Naval Stores 

Owing to the widespread depression in the various indus- 
tries which use naval stores prices are held at low levels 
and but little real business is being done. Very recent im- 
provements in foreign exchange rates may make possible 
increased export business, which has been negligible for 
some weeks. Current quotation on turpentine in barrels by 
the carload f.o.b. Chicago is $1.09J per gal.; in drums it is 
6c. lower. Better grades of rosin are quoted at $10.25 per 
100 lb., and lower grades at $9.90@$10. Distilled pine oil, 
under fair demand, remains unchanged. 

Coal-Tar Products 

The dye trade shows every indication that stocks in con- 
sumers' hands are low, which promises well for the future. 
The recently reported resumption of work in numerous tex- 
tile plants, although on a reduced scale, is another favorable 
factor. Great interest is shown in the action to be taken by 
Congress in placing a protective tariff on products of the 
coal-tar industry. Quotations on crudes, while firm, are 
largely nominal, as transactions are few. Phenol is offered 
at 10@12c. per lb., sales at any figure being light. Spot 
stocks are reported as diminishing. Toluol shows a similar 
wide price range, offerings ranging from 32c. to 36c. per gal. 
Benzene, 90 per cent, is quoted at 33c. per gal., and naph- 
thalene in both ball and flake form at 9@10c. per lb. All 
coal-tar acids are reported as very quiet, current quotations 
being purely nominal. Benzoic is offered at 65c. per lb. for 
technical grade and 70c. for U.S. P.; picric at about 35c.; 
salicylic at 36@38c. for U.S.P. 

The Iron and Steel Market 

Pittsburgh, Pa , Jan. 7, 1921. 

Independent pipe mills have reduced their prices to the 
Steel Corporation level. The movement was inaugurated 
by the Republic Iron & Steel Co., which distributed new list 
prices under date of Dec. 31, other independents following 
in short order, some lists being dated Jan. 1 and others 
Jan. 3. The difference in dates is immaterial, they merely 
fixing the time for readjustment of prices on current ship- 
ments against old contracts, and Jan. 1 was not a shipping 
date. 

Pipe was the only important steel mill product requiring 
readjustment from the advanced independent market, and 
thus the return of the independent steel market to the Steel 
Corporation or Industrial Board level was completed, with- 
out a day to spare, within the limits of the calendar year. 
The real flight of the independent market had only begun 
in 1920. There were some advanced prices secured late in 
1919, but at the time the advances were regarded as simply 
involving a premium for early delivery. Later, or in 1920, 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



93 



the independents would not sell for any delivery except at 
their advanced prices, while formerly they simply refused 
to sell for extended delivery at all. 

Operations 

The trend in independent mill operations is downward, 
but there has been no general closing. Many mills are 
closed but others are operating at rates up to perhaps 50 
or 60 per cent of capacity. The general average among in- 
dependents is perhaps not over 20 per cent. The Carnegie 
Steel Co. has been producing ingots at fully 96 per cent of 
rated capacity, while the National Tube Co. is running full. 
These two subsidiaries have 53 per cent of the Steel Cor- 
^poration's total ingot capacity. The Illinois Steel Co. is 
reported to be operating at 85 per cent. The general aver- 
age of the Steel Corporation is pi'obably about 92 per cent. 

If the independents are operating at 20 per cent and the 
Steel Corporation at 92 per cent, the general average for the 
industry is about 52 per cent of capacity, or about 65 per 
cent of the average rate during the period of heavy demand, 
the first nine months of 1920. In that period the mills aver- 
aged only 80 per cent, being held down by shortages of cars 
and fuel, and in spots a little labor shortage. 

Predictions that were being made in December that there 
would be an "improvement" in the steel trade immediately 
after the turn of the year need not be taken seriously. 
There could be an increase in buying without its offsetting 
the exhaustion of old contracts, and no signs even of that 
are now seen. With steel production and shipments at 65 
per cent of the former rate one may doubt whether the 
present rate can be maintained, for it is not reasonable to 
suppose that steel consumption has decreased by only 35 per 
cent. Indeed, some steel producers candidly state that they 
know some of the steel they are shipping is not going into 
actual consumption, although their customers are willing 
to receive it. The trend of the next few weeks, therefore, 
is likely to be a downward trend in production. It is from 
a rate lower than the present that recovery is to start. 

Price Prospects 

A common prediction was that almost as soon as the 
independents reduced their prices to the Steel Corporation 
level they would begin to shade the new prices. The pre- 
diction did not reckon with present conditions, when no new 
business of importance is developing. At the moment the 
chief recourse of the independents, in endeavoring to secure 
business, would be to take business from the Steel Corpora- 
tion. That would be difficult if not impossible, but in any 
event would not be attempted, for obvious reasons. 

The present prospect seems to be, therefore, that prices 
will remain as they are for a time, with occasional shading, 
no doubt, until some substantial volume of new business 
develops. With a light operation costs are high, but a little 
additional operation would not mend matters a great deal. 
The lowest prices will probably be seen when there is hope 
that by cutting prices a reasonably full operation can be 
secured. Meanwhile costs will be coming down. There is 
scarcely any doubt that eventually, and before there is an 
upturn in prices, there will be a somewhat lower level than 
now obtains, but that is not for the immediate future. 

While there have been some wage reductions among the 
independent steel producers the movement is very far from 
general. It appears to be the common impression that the 
present is not an appropriate time. The independent mills 
are largely idle in any event. As to the Steel Corporation, 
there is no expectation that it will take any action in the 
matter of wages for quite a while. 

Pig Iron 

The prediction made last week as to bessemer and basic 
pig iron prices is borne out, as there are furnace offerings 
this week at $3 decline, $32 for bessemer and $30 for basic 
at valley furnaces. Foundry is not clearly defined, but 
seems quotable at $33, a decline of $2. There is no inquiry, 
and the few furnaces still in blast contemplate going out 
as they complete orders or make up enough iron to take 
care of orders in hand. No unsold pig iron is being made. 



Carlota 


Lef« Carlota 


_ 




$0 55 - 


$0 60 


$0 13 - 


$0 13i 


I3i- 


14 


3 00 - 


3.25 


3 50 - 


3 75 


6 00 - 


6 25 


6 50 - 


6 75 


10 50 - 


II 00 


1 1 25 - 


11 50 


■ \^- 


15 


.15}- 


16 


.I5i- 


16} 


.17 - 


.18 






50 - 


52 


1 85 - 


2.25 


2 75 - 


3 00 


15 - 


16 


16}- 


18 


10 - 


11 


II}- 


.12 


04}- 


05} 


06 - 


.07 


4 00 - 


4 50 


4.50 - 


5.00 


■ 07 - 


:07i 


■ " . J8 - 


.nsi 


.085- 


09 


.09'. 


10 


I8i- 


18} 


19 - 


20 


18- 


.18} 


18: 


19 


28 - 


.35 


40 


50 






2.30 


2.40 



18.00 
21 00 



19 00 
22 00 



14 00 - 15 00 
22'56 - 23.00 



General Chemicals 

CURRENT WHOLESALE PRICES IX NEW YORK MARKET 



Acetic anhydride lb. 

Acetone lb. 

Acid, acetic, 28 jjer cent 100 Ib.'i. 

Acetic, 56 per cent 100 lbs. 

Acetic, glacial, 99} per cent, carboys, 

100 lbs 

Boric, crystals lb 

Roric, powder lb. 

Citric lb. 

Hydrochloric 100 lb. 

Hydrofluoric, 52 per cent lb. 

Lactic, 44 per cent tech lb. 

Lactic, 22 pe- cent tech lb. 

Molybdic, C. P lb. 

Muriatic, 20 deg. (see hydrochloric) .... 

Nitric. 40 deg lb. 

Nitric, 42 deg lb. 

Oxahc, crys tals lb. 

Phosphoric, Ortho, 50 per cent solution. lb. 

Picric lb. 

Pyrogallic, re.sublim ed lb. 

Sulphuric, 60 deg., tank cars ton 

.Sulphuric, 60 deg., drums ton 

Sulphuric, 66 deg., tank cars ton 

Sulphuric, 66 deg., drums ton 

Sulphuric, 66 deg., carboys ton 

Sulphuric, fuming, 20 per cent (oleum) 
tank cars ton 

Sulphuric, fuming, 20 per cent (oleum) 
drums ton 

Sulph ric, fuming, 20 per cent (oleum) 
carboys ton 

Tannic, U. S. P lb. 

Tannic (tech. ) lb. 

Tartaric, crj'S tals lb. 

Tungstic, per lb. of WO lb. 

.A.lcohol, Ethyl (nominal) . .. gal. 

Alcohol, Methyl (see methanol) 

-Alcohol, denatur ed, 188 proof. ........ gal. 

.\lcohol, denatur ed, 190 proof gal. 

.\luni, ammonia lump lb. 

.Alum, potash lump . .lb. 

Alum, chrome lump lb. 

Aluminum sulphate, commercial lb. 

Aluminum sulphate, iron free lb. 

Aquaamm onia, 26 deg., drums (750 lb.). lb. 
Ammonia, anhydrous, cyl. ( 1 00- 1 50 lb.). lb. 

Ammonium carbonate, powder lb. 

Ammonium chloride, granular (white 

salamon iac) (nominal) lb. 

Ammonium chloride, granular (gray sal- 

ammon iac) lb. 

.Ammonium nitrate lb. 

.Ammonium sulphate lb. 

.Amylacetate gal. 

.Amvlacetate tech gal. 

Arsenic oxide, lump.s (white arsenic)., lb. 
Arsenic, sulphide, powdered (red arsenic) lb. 

Barium chloride ton 

Barium 'dioxide (peroxide) lb. 

Barium nitrate lb. 

Barium sulphate (precip.) (blanc fixe)..lb. 
Bleaching powder (see calc. hypochlorite) . . 

Blue vitriol (see copper sulphate) 

Borax (see sodium borate) 

Brimstone (see sulphur, roll) 

Bromine lb. 

Calcium acetate 100 lbs. 

Calcium carbide lb. 

Calcium chloride, fused, lump ton 

Calcium chloride, granulated lb. 

Calcium hypochlorite (bleach'g powder) lb. 

Calcium peroxide lb. 

Calcium phosphate, monobasic lb. 

Calcium sulphate, pure lb. 

Campho r lb. 

Carbon bisulphide lb. 

Carbon tetrachloride, drums lb. 

Carbonyl chloride (pliosgene) lb. 

Caustic potash(see potassium hydroxide). 

Caustic soda (see sodium hydroxide) 

Chlorine, gas, liquid-cylinders(I001b.). .lb. 

Chlorofor m lb. 

Cobalt oxide lb. 

Copper as (see iron sulphate) 

Copper carbonate, green precipitate. . . lb. 

Copper cyanide ?lb. 

Copper sulpliatc, crystals lb. 

Cream of tartar (see potas.--ium bitartrate). 
Epsom salt (see magnesium sulphate).. . . 

Ethyl Acetate Com. 85^^ gal. 

Ethyl Acetate pure (acetic ether 98";; to 

100%) 

Formaldehyde, 40 per cent lb. 

Fusel oil, ref gal. 

Fusel oil, crude gal. 

Glauber's salt (see sodium sulphate) 

Glycerine, C. P. drums extra !b. 

Iodine, resublimed lb. 

Iron oxide, red !b. 

Iron sulphate (copperas) 100 lb. 

Lead acetate, normal lb. 

Lead ar.senate (paste) lb. 

Lead nitrate, crystals lb. 

Litharge lb. 

Lithium car bonate lb. 

Magnesium carbonate, technical lb. 

Magnesium sulphate. V. S. P 100 lb. 

Magnesium sulphate, coniniercial.. 100 U\ 

Methanol, 95% gal. 

Methanol, pure gul. 

Nickel salt, double lb. 

Nickel salt, single lb. 

Phosgene (see carbonyl chloride) 

Phosphorus, red lb. 

Phosphorus, yellow lb. 

Potassium bichromate lb. 



23 00 - 


24 00 


- 




25 00 - 


26 00 


26 50 - 


27 00 


32 00 - 


35 00 


40 00 - 








1 30 - 


1 35 


.48 - 


.50 


.51 - 


52 


_ 




.33 - 


35 


_ 




1.20 - 


1 40 


- 




5.25 - 


5 50 


■ ■ ■ ■ _ 




■ 70 - 


■;72 


_ 




.75 - 


.77 


04^- 


041 


.05 - 


.05i 


.05}- 


06 


.06}- 


.07 


'3 - 


.13} 


.14 - 


■ Hi 


02J- 


.03 


.03J- 


.03} 


.03A- 


m 


04 - 


04; 


.06;- 


07 


.07}- 


081 


.30 - 


32 


.33 - 


35 


.14 - 


Hi- 


.14}- 


.15 


.10}- 


ll 


lU- 


■ 11} 


.r9i- 


.091 


.10 - 


.10} 


.09 - 


.09; 


.10 - 


.10} 


.03}- 


.033 


.04 - 


.04} 






4.25 - 


4.50 


— 




3 50 - 


3 75 


.103- 


.11 


lU- 


114 


15 - 


.15; 


.15 - 


\o 


73 00 


80 00 


85 00 - 


90 00 


24 - 


.25 


.26 - 


27 


10 - 


lOi 


.10}- 


11 


04i- 


,05 


.05}- 


.06 



50 - 
00 - 
04 - 
OO - 
02 - 
02:- 



.52 
2 05 
04} 
29 00 
.02} 
.03 



.54 



.56 



08 
.11 



.08} 
lU 



.04 - 

30 00 - 

02i- 

.03}- 

I 25 - 

.16 - 

.05 - 

88 - 

.09 - 

II}- 
.60 - 



05 

32 00 

.03 



03', 

30' 
.18 

Oj 
.90 
.09'. 
.12" 

75 



09 



.09} 



.22 - 
.06}- 



.22} 
.06 



I8\- 



18 



1 50 - 1.75 
.i3 - '■ J4 
'io - " .\0i 



.10"- .11 
3 00- 3 25 



.10 

.43 

3 90 

^24 
40 
07 



1.05 



.19 - 
3 50 

2 75 - 

.20 - 

3 85 
10 - 

2 00 
141- 
.14}- 
.90 - 

lo;- 

1 50 - 
.11}- 



10} 
50 
4 00 



.25 
.50 
.07} 



.45 
\7 



.46 
•71 



1 50 

1.60 - 

1 85 - 

.12 - 

.13 - 

.47 - 
.35 - 
.17}- 



1 10 



.19-; 

3 60 

3 00 

21 

4 00 
.20 

2 25 
16 
15 

1 00 
.11} 

;i2 

1^75 
1 65 
I 95 
.12} 
I3i 



.50 

37 

.18 



94 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 



Carlots 



75 



2. 



Potassium bitartrate (cream of tartar) .... lb. 

Potassium bromide, granular lb. 

Potussium carbonate, U. S. P lb' 

Potassium carbonate, crude lb. 

Pctassium chlorate, crystals lb. 

Porassium cyanide lb 

Potassium hydroxide (caustic p tash).. . . lb. 

Potassium muriate ton 

Potassium iodide lb. 

Potassium nitrate lb. 

Potassium permanganate lb. 

Potassium prus.siate, red lb. 

Pctassium prussiate, yellow lb. 

Potassium sulphate (powdered) ton $225 

Rochelle salts (see sodium potas tartrate) 

Salammoniac (see ammonium chloride) 

Sal soda (see sodium carbonate) 

Salt cake ton 

Silver cyanide oz. 

Silver nitrate oz. 

Soda ash, light 100 lb. 1 

Soda ash, dense 1 00 lb. 2 

Sodium acetate lb. 

Sodium bicarbonate 100 lb. 2 

Sodium bichromate lb. 

Sodium bisulphate (nitre cake) ton 7 

Sodium bisulphite powdered, U.S.P lb. 

Sodium borate (borax) lb. 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 100 lb. 

Sodium chl rate lb 

Sodium cyanide, 96-98 per cent lb. 

Sodium fluoride lb. 

Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) 100 lb. 

Sodium hyposulphite lb. 

Sodium mtrnte 100 lb. 

Sodium nitrite . . •. lb. 

Sodium peroxide, powdered lb. 

Sodium phosphate, dibasic lb. 

Sodium potas.»ium tartrate (Rochelle salts) lb. 

Sodium prus.siate, yellow lb. 

Sodium silicate, solution (40 deg.) lb. 

Sodium silicate, solution (60 deg.) lb. 

Sodium sulphate, crystals(Glauber's salt) 100 lbs. 
Sodium sulphide, crystal, 60-62 per cent(conc.) lb. 

Sodium sulphite, crystals lb. 

Strontium nitrate, powdered lb. 

Sulphur chl ride, red lb. 

Sulphur, crude ton 

Sulphur dioxide, liquid, cylinders lb. 

Sulphur (sublimed), flour 100 lb. 

Sulphur, roll (brimstone) 100 lb. 

Tin bichloride, 50 per cent lb. 

Tin oxide lb. 

Zinc carbonate, precipitate lb. 

Zinc chloride, gran lb. 

Zinc cyanide lb. 

Zinc dust lb. 

Zinc oxide, XX lb. 

Zinc sulphate lb. 



Le.ss Carlots 
$0.38-$0.40 



35 
II 



14 
00 



,40 
.12 

'i4i. 

80.00 



IH 

60 

60 

31 

00 



.12 
.63 
62 
31 1 

230.00 



.35 - 
.45 - 
.111- 
.13 
65 
.15 - . 

3.00 - 3. 

.124- . 

.65 - 

63 - . 

.32 - . 



.40 
.50 
.12 
.18 
.70 
.16 

20 
13 
70 
65 
33 



90 - 
30 - 
05J 
45 - 
091- 
00 - 
06^ 
07 - 
00 - 
10 - 
21 - 
17 - 
75 - 

85 - 
06 - 
30 - 
03J- 



2.00 

2 50 
.051 

2.60 
.09^ 

7.50 
.07 
07^ 

2.25 
.10^ 
.23 
.17^ 

4.00 



40.00 -45.00 



16 



17 

01} 

03 

75 

06 

04 

20 

08 

00 

09 



.06'i 

.31 

.041 

"i7i 
.OU 
03i 
.00 
.065 
.04i 
.201 
.09 
20.00 



- 2 



25 
43 
2 10 

2 75 
.06 

2.65 
095 
8 00 
075 
.071 
2.50 
.\0l 
.24 
17! 
4 25 
03 

3 00 
.061 
.32 
.041 
.33 
.175 
.02 
.035 

2.25 
.07 
.045 
.21 
.10 



■ .45 

2 30 

3 00 
.065 

3.00 

. 10 

11 00 



.08 
.08 

2.75 
.11 
.30 
.185 

4 35 
.04 



.07 
.34 
.05 
.35 
.18 

02} 
.04 

50 
.075 
.05 
.22 
.105 



- 2 



18 



16 - 
115- 
45 - 
12 - 
10 - 
035- 



.19 

'.is' 

.12 

.49 

.13 

.105 

.031 



10 - .12 
3 70 - 4 35 
3.40-3.90 



.50 - 
.19 - 
.125- 
.50 - 

.135- 
.11 
.04 - 



.51 
.20 
.13 
.60 
.14 

.115 
.06 



Coal-Tar Products 

NOTE — The following prices are for original packages in large quantities: 

Alpha-naphthol, crude lb. $1 . 10 — $1 . 15 

Alpha-naphthol, refined lb. 1 . 45 — 1 . 50 

Alpha-naphthylamine lb. .40 — .44 

Aniline oil, drums extra lb. .23 — .25 

Aniline salts lb. .27— .30 

Anthracene, 80% in drums (100 lb.) lb. . 85 — 1 . 00 

Benzaldehyde (f.f.c.) .. lb. 2 00 — 2.10 

Benzidine, base lb. 1.00— 1.10 

Benzidine sulphate lb .85 — ■ .90 

Benzoic acid, U.S.P lb. .70— .75 

Benzoate of soda, U.S.P lb. .75— .85 

Benzene, pure, water-white, in drums (100 gal.) gal. .30 — .35 

Benzene, 90%, in drums (100 gal.) gal. .28— .32 

Benzyl chloride, 95-97%, refined lb. . 35 — .40 

Benzyl chloride, tech lb. .25 — .35 

Beta-naphthol benzoate lb. 3.50 — 4.00 

Beta-naphthol, sublimed lb. .75 — ■ .80 

Beta-naphthol, tech (nominal) lb. .38 — .42 

Bcta-naphthy la mine, sublimed lb. 2.25 — 2 . 40 

Crc.-*ol, U. S. P., indrums (100 lb.) lb. .16— .18 

Ortho-cre.sol, in drums (100 lb.) lb. .23 — .25 

Cresylic acid, 97-99 ;, straw color, in drums gal. .95 — 1 .00 

Cresylic acid, 75-97 , dark, in drums gal. .90 — .95 

Cre.sylic acid, 50%, first quality, drums gal. .65 — • .75 

Dichlorbenzcne lb. . 065 — ■ ' 5 

Dicthylanilino lb. 1 . 35 — 1 . 40 

Dimethylaniline lb. .65 — .90 

Dinitrobenzene lb. .27 — .30 

Dinitroclorbenzene lb. .25 — .30 

Dinitronaphthalene lb. .40 — .45 

Dinitpophenol lb. .40 — .45 

Dinitrotoluene lb. . 27 — .30 

Dip oil, 25%, tar acids, car lots, in drums gal. 38 — .40 

Diphenylamino lb. .70 — .75 

H-acid lb. 1.40— 1.55 

Mcta-phenvlenediamine lb. 1.25 — 1 . 30 

Monochlorbenzene lb. .15 — .16 

Monoethylaniline lb. 1.75 — 2.25 

Naphf halene crushed, in bbls. (250 lb.) lb. . 08 — 085 

Naphthalene, flake lb. .08 — .08; 

Naphthalene, balls lb. . 09 — .095 

Naphthionic acid, crude lb. .70 — .75 

Nitrobenzene lb. .12 — .15 

Nitro-naphthalene lb. 40 — .50 

Nitro-toluene lb. .18 — .25 

Ortho-amidophenol lb. 3.20 — 3.75 

Ortho-dichlor-benzene lb. .15 — .20 

Ortho-nitro-phenol lb. . '/5 — .80 

Ortho-nitro-toluene lb. .23 — .30 

Ortho-toluidine lb. . 25 — .30 

Para-amidophcnol, ba.se lb. I . 90 — 2 . 00 

Para-aniidophenol, HCl lb. 2 20— 2.25 



Para-dichlorbcnzene lb. 

Paranitroaniline )b. 

Para-nitrotoluene fb. 

Para-phenylenediamine lb. 

Para-toluidine lb. 

Phthalic anhydride lb. 

Phenol, U. S. P., drums (dest.), (240 lb.) lb. 

Pyridine gal. 

Resorcinol, technical lb. 

Resorcinol, pure. lb. 

Salicylic acid, tech., in bbls. (110 lb.) lb. 

SaUcylic acid, U. S. P lb. 

Salol lb. 

Solvent naphtha, water-white, in drums, I ()0 gal gal. 

Solvent naphtha, crude, heavy, in drums, 100 gal .gal. 

Sulphanilic acid, crude lb. 

Tolidine lb. 

Toluidine, mixed lb. 

Toluene, in tank cars gal. 

Toluene, in drums gal. 

Xylidines, drums, 100 gal lb. 

Xylene, pure, in drums gal. 

Xylene, pure, in tank cars gal. 

Xylene, commercial, in drums, 100 gal gal. 

Xylene, commercial, in tank cars gal. 

Waxes 

Prices based on original packages in large quantities. 



.10 — 


15 


.93 — 


1.00 


1 25 — 


1.40 


2 20 — 


2 35 


1.70 — 


1 80 


.60 — 


.70 


.09 — 


.10 


2 00 — 


3.50 


2.75 — 


2.80 


3.6Q — 


3.80 


.30 — 


.32 


.33 — 


.35 


.85 — 


.95 


.28 — 


.32 


.16 — 


.18 


.32 — 


.35 


1 35 — 


1 40 


.45 — 


.55 


.30 — 


32 


.33 — 


35 


.45 — 


50 


.42 — 


45 


.45 — 




.33 — 


35 


.30 — 





Beeswax, refined, dark 
Beeswax, refined, light 
Beeswax, white pure. . 

Carnauba, No. 1 

Carnauba, No. 2, North Country 



lb 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 



Carnauba, No. 3, North Country lb. 

Japan lb. 

Montan, crude lb. 

Parafline waxes, crude match wax (white) 105-110 

m.p lb. 

Paraffine waxes, crude, scale 124-126 m.p lb. 



$0.24 
.27 
.35 
.85 
.40 
.20 
.19 
.07 



Paraffine waxes, refined, 
Paraffine waxes, refined, 
Parafllne waxes, refined, 
Paraffine waxes, refined, 
Paraffine waxes, refined 



.06}— 
.065— 
.07 — 
.075— 
.085— 
.105- 
.115- 
.14}- 
.15}- 
.15}- 



$0 26 
.28 
.40 
90 
.42 
.25 
.20 
.08 

.06} 

.06} 

.075 

.08 

.09 

.11 

.12 

.15 

.155 

.16} 



118-120 m.p lb. 

125 m.p lb. 

128-130 m.p lb. 

133-135 m.p lb. 

. 135-137 m.p lb. 

Stearic acid, single pressed lb. 

Stearic acid, double pressed lb. 

Stearic acid, triple pressed lb. 

Flotation Oils 

All prices are f.o.b. New York unless otherwise stated, and are based on 
carload lots. The oils in 50-gal. bbls., gross weight, 500 lb. 

Pine oil, steam dist., sp.gr., 0.930-0.940 gal. $1 . 90 

Pine oil, pure, dest. dist gal. 1 . 50 

Pine tar oil, ref., sp.gr. 1.025-1.035 gal. .48 

Pine tar oil, crude, sp.gr. 1.025-1.035 tank cars f.o.b. Jacksonville, 

Fla gal. . 35 

Pine tar oil, double ref., sp.gr. 0.965-0.990 gal. . 75 

Pine tar, ref., thin, sp.gr., 1.080-1.960 gal. .36 

Turpentine, crude, sp. gr., 0.900-0.970 gal. I 25 

Hardwood oil, f.o.b. Mich., sp.gr., 0.960-0.990 gal. .35 

Pinewood creosote, ref gal- . 52 

Naval Stores 

The following prices are f.o.b. New York for carload lots. 

Rosin B-D. bbl 280 lb. 

Rosin E-1 280 lb. 

Rosin K-N 280 lb. 

Rosin W. G.-W. W 280 lb. 

Wood rosin, bbl 2801b. 

Spirits of turpentine gal. 

Wood turpentine steam dist gal. 

Wood turpentine, dest. dist gal. 

Pine tar pitch, bbl 200 lb. 

Tar, kiln burned, bbl. (500 lb.) bbl. 

Retort tar, bbl 500 lb. 

Rosin oil, first run gal. 

Rosin oil, second run gal. 

Rosin oil, third run gal. 



$8 75 
8 75 

8 75 

9 00 
9 00 

.75 
.73 
.73 



15 00 
.60 
.62 
.75 



8 50 
15.00 
15 50 



Solvents 



73-76 deg., steel bbls. (85 lb.) 

70-72 deg., steel bbls. (85 lb.) 

68-70 deg., steel bbls. (85 lb.) 

V. M. and P. naphtha, steel bbls. (85 lb.) . 



gal. 
gal. 
gal. 



Crude Rubber 

Para — Upriver fine lb. $0,185 

Upriver coarse lb. .14 

Upriver caucho ball lb. .145 

Plantation — First latex crepe lb. .17 

Ribbed smoked sheets lb. .165 

Brown crepe, thin, clean lb. .16 

Amber crepe No. I lb. .1' 

Oils 

VEGETABLE 
The following price? are f.o.b. New York for carload lots. 

Castor oil. No. 3, in bbls lb. $0.10 

Castor oil, A,\, in bbls lb. .12 

China wood oil, in bbls. (f.o.b. Pac. coast) lb. .085 

Cocoanut oil, Ceylon grade, in bbls lb. .3 

Cocoanut oil. Cochin grade, in bbls lb. . 1 3J 

Com oil, crule, in bbls lb. .09 

Cottonseed oil, crude (f. o. b. mill) lb. .06 

Cottonseed oil, summer yellow jb. . UBJ 

Cottonseed oil, winter yellow lb. .0^ 

Linseed oil, raw, car lots (domestic) gal. . // 

Linseed oil, raw, tank cars (domestic) gal. . /3 

Linseed oil, boiled, car lots (domestic) ga' • «• 



$0.41 
.39 
.38 
.30 



$0.19 
.14} 
.14} 



— $0 



09 

09i 

07 

08} 

09| 

79 

74 

60 



January 12, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



95 



Olive oil, commercial sal. 

Palm, Lagos lb. 

Palm, Niger lb. 

Peanut oil, crude, tank cars (f .o.b. mill) lb. 

Peanut oil, refined, in bbls lb. 

Rapeseed oil, refined in bbls gal. 

Rapeseed oil, blown, in bbls gal. 

Soya bean oil (Manchurian), in bbls. N. Y lb. 

Soya bean oil, tank cars, f.o.b.. Pacific coast lb. 

FISH 

Light pressed Menhaden gal. 

Yollow bleached Menhaden gal. 

White bleached Menhaden gal. 

Blown Menhaden gal. 



Miscellaneous Materials 



2.60 





2 70 


.075 


— 


.08 


.071 





.081 


.07 





.075 


.13 


— 


.135 


I.IO 


— 


1.15 


1.20 


— 


1.25 


.08i 


... 


09 


.06 


— 


.07 


$0.53 




$0 55 


.55 


— 


.58 


.57 


— 


.60 


1.00 


— 





All f . o. b. New York Unless Otherwise Stated 



Barytes, ground, white, f.o.b. Kings Creek, S. C. 
Barytes, ground, off color, f.o.b. Kings Creek 
Barytes, crude, 88%@94% ba.. Kings Creek. . . . 

Barytes, floated, f.o.b. St. Louis 

Barytes, crude, first grade, Missouri 

Blanc fixe, dry 

Blanc fixe, pulp 

Caseine 

Chalk, domestic, extra light 

Chalk, domestic, light 

Chalk, domestic, heavy 

Chalk, English, extra light 

Chalk, English, light 

Chalk, English, dense 

China clay, (Kaolin) crude, f.o.b. mines, Georgia 

China clay (Kaolin) washed, f.o.b. Georgia 

China clay (Kaolin) powdered, f.o.b. Georgia . . 
China clay (Kaolin) crude f.o.b. Virginia points 
China clay (Kaolin) ground, f.o.b. Virginia points. 

China clay (Kaolin), import rd, lump 

China clay (Kaolin), import<d. powdered 

Feldspar, crude, f.o.b. Maryland and North 

Carolina points 

Feldspar, crude, f.o.b. Maine 

Feldspar, ground, f.o.b. Maine 

F eldspa •, ground, f .o. >. North Carolina 

Feldspa , ground, f.o.b. N. Y. State 

Feldspar, ground fob Baltimore 

Fuller's Earth, f.o.b. New York 

Fuller's earth, granular, f.o.b. Fla. 

Fuller's earth, powdered, f.o.b. Fla 

Fuller's earth, imported, powdered 

Graphite, crucible, 90<7, carbon, Ashland, Ala. . . 
Graphite, crucible. 85^^ carbon, Ashland, Ala. . . 

Graphite, higher lubricating grades 

Pumice stone, imported, lump 

Pumice stone, domestic, lump 

Pumice stone, ground 

Quartz (acid tower) fist to head, f.o.b. Baltimore 
Quartz (acid tower) I}@2 in., f.o.b. Baltimore... 

Quartz (acid tower) rice, f.o.b. Baltimore 

Quartz, lump, f.o.b. North Carolina 

Shellac, orange fine 

Shellac, orange superfine 

Shellac, A. C. garnet 

Shellac, T. N 

Soapstone 

Sodium Chloride 

Talc, paper-making grades, f.o.b. Vermont 

Talc, roofing grades, f.o.b. Vermont 

"Talc, rubber grades, f.o.b. Ve mont 

Tale, powdered. Southern, f.o.b. cars 

Talc, imported 

Talo, California Talcum Powder grade 



Refractories 

Bauxite brick, 56% Al, f.o.b, Pittsburgh 1,000 160 

Chrome brick, f.o.b. Eastern shipping points net ton 1 00- 1 1 

Chrome cement, 40-45% CrjOa net ton 55-60 

Chrome cement, 40-45% CrjOs, sacks, in oar lots, f.o.b. 

Eastern shipping points net ton 60-65 

Fire clay brick, 1st quality, 9-in. shapes, f.o.b. Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Kentucky works 1,000 55-60 

Fire clay brick, 2nd quality, 9-in. shapes, f.o.b. Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Kentucky works 1,000 45-50 

Magnesite brick, 9-in. straight net ton 1 10 

Magnesite brick. 9-in. arches, wedges and keys net ton 121 

Magnesite brick, soaps and splits net ton 1 34 

Silica brick, 9-in. sizes, f.o.b. Chicago district 1,000 65-70 

Silica brick, 9-in. sizes, f.o.b. Birmingham district 1,000 56-61 

Silica brick, 9-in. sizes, f.o.b. Mt. Union, Pa 1,000 55-60 



net ton 


$24.00 


— 


$30.00 


net ton 


22.00 


— 


26.00 


net ton 


10.00 


— 


12.00 


net ton 


26.50 


— 


28.00 


net ton 


10.00 


— 




lb. 


.05 


— 


.055 


net ton 


60.00 


— 


65.00 


lb. 


.14 


— 


.18 


lb. 


.05 


— 


.06 


lb. 


.045 


— 


.051 


lb. 


.04 


— 


.05 


lb. 


.05 


— 


.07 


lb. 


.05 


— 


.06 


lb. 


.045 


— 


P5 


net ton 


8.00 


— 


10 00 


net ton 


12 00 


— 


15.00 


net ton 


18 00 


— 


22.00 


net ton 


8.00 


— 


12.00 


net ton 


15.00 


— 


40.00 


net ton 


25.00 


— 


35.00 


net ton 


30.00 


— 


35.00 


gross ton 


8.00 





14.00 


net ton 


7.50 


— 


10.00 


net ton 


21.00 


— 


23.00 


net ton 


17.00 


— 


21.00 


net ton 


17.00 


— 


21.00 


net ton 


27.00 


— 


30.00 


net ton 


16.00 


— 


17.00 


net ton 


25.00 


— 




net ton 


18.00 


— 




net ton 


25 00 


— 


35.00 


lb. 




— 


.09 


lb. 


.07 


— 


.09 


lb. 


.11 


— 


.40 


lb. 


.04 


— 


.50 


lb. 


.06 


— 




lb. 


.04 


— 


.07 


net ton 




— 


10.00 


net ton 




— 


14.00 


net ton 




— 


17.00 


net ton 


5.00 


— 


7.50 


lb. 


1.00 


— 


1.05 


lb. 


1.05 





I.IO 


lb. 


.90 


— 


.95 


lb. 


.85 


— 


.95 


ton 


15.00 


— 


25.00 


ong ton 




— 


17.50 


ton 


12.00 


— 


22.00 


ton 


9.50 





15.00 


ton 


12.00 


— 


18.00 


ton 


12.00 


— 


15.00 


ton 


50.00 





60 00 


ton 


20.00 


— 


30 00 



Ores and Semi-finished Products 

All f.o.b. New York, Unless Otherwise Stated 

Bauxite. 52% Al. content, less than 2% FciOi, up 

to 20% silica, not more than H4% moisture., gross ton $10 00 
Chrome ore, Calif, concentrates, 50^/i min.... 

CnOi unit . 60 

Chrome ore, 50%, Cr,0, f.o.b. Atlantic Sea- 

board unit 55 

Coke, foundry, f.o.b. ovens net ton 6 25 

Coke, furnace, f.o.b. ovens net ton 5.00 

Coke, petroleum, refinerv, Atlantic Seaboard. . . . net ton 21 . 00 

Fluorspar, lump, f.o.b. Tonuco, New Mexico... netton 17.50 
Fluor spar, standard, domestic washed gravel 

Kentucky and Illinois mines netton 22.50 

Ilmenite, 52%, TiL2, per :b. ore lb. .04 

Manganese Ore, 50% Mn, r i.f. Atlantic seaport unit 40 

Manijanese ore, chemical (MnO,) gross ton 60 00 

Molybdenite, 85% MoS„ per lb. of MoS„ N. Y. lb. .55 

Monazite, perunitof ThO,. ci.f. Atlanticseaport unit 35.00 

Pyrite.<, Spanish, fines ,c.i.t., Atlanticseaport . . . unit . 12 
Pyrites, Spanish, furnace size, ci.f., Atlantic 

seaport unit . 17 ■ 

Pyrites, domestic, fines, f.o.b. mines. Ga unit 12 

Rutile, 95% TiOj per lb. ore lb. 15 

Tungsten, Scheelite, 60% WO, and over, i>er unit 

of WO3 (nominal) unit 3 75 

Tungsten, Wolframite, 60% WO, and over, per 

unit of WO,, N. Y. C unit 4 00 

Uranium Ore (Carnotite) per Ih. of V3 Og lb. 2 75 

Uranium oxide, 96% per lb. contained U3 Og. . . . lb. 2. 75 

Vanadium pentoxide, 99% lb. 12 00 

Vanadium Ore, per lb. of Vj O5 contained lb. 1.50 

Zircon, washed, iron free lb. .05 



$11 00 

65 

.60 

7.00 

5.50 

22. OU 



25 00 
.015 

45 
65 00 

60 



— .14 



4 00 

4 25 

3.00 

3.00 

14.00 



Non -Ferrous Metals 

New York Markets 

Cents per I.b 

Copper, electrolytic 1 5 . 00 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent 27 50 

Antimony, wholesale lots, Chinese and Japanese 5. 25(a 5 375 

Nickel, ordinary (ingot) 43 . 00 

Nickel, electrolytic 45 00 

Tin, 5-ton lots 34 025 

Lead, New York, spot 5 375 

Lead, E. St. Louis, spot 6. 25 

Zinc, spot. New York 7.00 

Zinc, spot, E. St. Louis 6.75 



OTHER METALS 

Silver (commercial) 01. 

Cadmium lb. 

Bismuth (5001b. lots) lb. 

Cobalt lb. 

Magnesium (f.o.b. Philadelphia) lb. 

Platinum oz. 

Iridium 01. 350. 

Palladiunt o«. 

Mercury 75 lb. 



66f 

1.40@l.50 

2.40 

5 00 

1 35 

75 00 

000400.00 

75 nn 

45 00 



FINISHED METAL PRODUCTS 
. Warehouse Price 

^ Cents per Lb. 

Copper sheets, hot rolled 21.50 

Copper bottoms 32 1 

Copper rods 28 00 

High brass wire and sheets 20 25 

High brass rods 18.25 

Low brass wire and sheets 29.50 

Low brass rods 18. 50 

Brazed brass tubing 35 . 25 

Brazed bronze tubing 40.50 

Seamless copper tubing 25 00 

Seamless high brass tubing 24 00 

OLD .METALS — The following are the dealers' purchasing prices in cents per 
pound : 

, New York . 

One 
Current Year Ago Cleveland Chicago 

Copper, heavy and crucible 12 00 17 00 10 00 10 50 

Copper, heavy and wire 1 1 50 16 00 9 50 10 00 

Copper, light and bottoms 10 00 14 00 9 00 9 00 

Lead, heavy 4 00 ^75 4 00 4 00 

Lead, tea 3 00 3.75 3 00 3 50 

Brass, heavy 7.00 10 50 7 00 10 00 

Brass, light 5.50 7.50 5 00 5 50 

No. I yellow brass turnings 6 50 10 00 5 50 5 50 

Zinc 4.50 5 00 3 00 4 25 



Ferro- Alloys 

All f.o.b. Works 

Ferro-carbon-titanium, 15-18%, f.o.b. Niagara 

Falls, N. Y netton $200.00 —$225.00 

Ferro-chrome, per lb. of Cr. contained, 6-8% 

carbon, carlots lb. .16 — .17 

Ferro-chrome, per lb. of Cr. contained, 4-6% 

carbon, carlots lb. .17 

Ferro-manganese, 76-80% Mn, domestic gross ton 1 20 00 

Ferro-manganese, 76-80% Mn, English gross ton 1 10 00 

Spiegeleisen, 18-22% Mn gross ton 60 00 

Ferro-molybdenum, 50-60% Mo, per lb. of Mo. . lb. 2.00 

Ferro-silicon, 10-15% gross ton 55 . 00 

Ferro-silicon, 50% gross ton 78 00 

Ferro-silicon, 75% grosston 140 00 

Ferro-tungsten, 70-80%, per lb. of contained W... lb. 55 

Ferro-uranium, 35-50% of U, per lb. of U content lb. 7 00 ___....._.... 

Ferro-vanadium, 30-40% per lb. of contained v.... lb. 6 00— 6.50 Plats, 1 to I in. thick 4 00 4.15 3 67 3 78 3.57 3 78 3.67 





18 


125 


00 


115 


00 


65 


00 


2 


50 


60 


00 


80 


00 


145 


00 




60 



Structural Material 

The following base prices per 1 00 lb. are for structural shapes 3 in. by } in. and 
larger, and plates J in . and heavier, from jobbers' warehouses in the cities named : 

-^ . — Cleveland — . . — Chicago- 



Structural shapes. . . 

Soft steel bars 

Soft steel bar shapes 
Soft steel bands. 



. New York- 
One 

Current Month 
Ago 



$3 80 

3 70 

3 70 

4 65 



$4 15 

4 15 

4 15 

5 50 



One 
Year 
Ago 

$3.47 
3.37 
3.37 
4.07 



One 
Current Year 
Ago 



$3 58 
3 34 
3 48 
6 25 



$3.37 
3.27 
3.27 



Current 

$3.58 
3 48 
3.48 



One 

Year 

Ago 

$3.47 
3.37 
3.37 



96 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 2 




Industrial 

Financial. Constniction and Manufacturers' News 



Construction and 
Operation 

Connecticut 

DANBURY — The Beaver Brook Paper 
Mills, Inc., Beaver Brook St.. plans to build 
a 1-story, 75xl50-ft. addition to its manu- 
facturing plant. Private plans. 

Indiana 

MARION — The Standard Glass Co. plans 
to build a 1-story glass factory. Estimated 
cost, $75,000. Private plans. 

TERRE HAUTE — The Union Hospital 
will receive bids after Feb. 1 for the con- 
struction of a 6-story, 80xl20-ft. hospital 
on North Eighth St. Estimated cost, $337,- 
000. Johnson, Miller & Miller, archts. 

Iowa 

COLLINS — The Bd. Educ. will soon 
award the contract for the construction of 
a 2-story, 69xl09-ft. high .school. A chem- 
ical laboratory will be installed in same. 
Estimated cost, $150,000. B. L. Mead, secy. 
T. Thorson, Forest City, archt. 

Massachusetts 

LEOMINISTER — The Viscoloid Co. will 
build a 1-story, 20x95-ft. addition to its 
plant for the manufacture of viscoloid 
sheetings. Estimated co.'it. $15,000. 

Michigan 

GLADSTONE — The Bd. Educ. will re- 
ceive bids until March 1 for the construc- 
tion of a 2-story, 120xl30-ft. junior high 
school on Main St. A chemical laboratory 
will be installed in same. Estimated cost, 
$140,000. G. Arutzen, Escanaba, archt. and 
engr. 

Montana 

MILES CITY — The Custei- Co. Free High 
School will soon award the contract for the 
construction of a 3 -story high school. A 
chemical laboratory will be installed in 
same. Estimated cost, $400,000. G. F. 
Ingersoll elk. "W. A. Dedrick, Billings, 
archt. Noted Jan. 5. 

New York 

BROOKLYN — R. Ember.s. 209 King St., 
has awarded the contract for the construc- 
tion of a 1-story, 60xl00-ft. foundry on 
Richards St., to T. Drysdale, 250 Baltic St. 
Estimated cost, $35,000. 

North Dakota 

MANDAN — The city is having plans pre- 
pared for the construction of a filtration 
plant and new reservoir or repairs to the 
present one. Estimated cost, $150,000. 

Ohio 

COLUMBUS — The Ohio State University 
plans to build 13 buildings to include a 
chemistry building. Estimated cost, $4,000,- 
000. 

SALEM — B. M. French, city engr., plans 
to construct a new building to include a 
filtering and settling basin with complete 
pumping and purification plant. Estimated 
cost, $800,000. 

SANDUSKY— The Hard Color Products 
Co., South Columbus Ave., has awarded the 
contract for the construction of a 1 -story 
factory for repair woik. to H. K. Ferguson 
Co., 6223 Euclid Ave., Cleveland. Estimated 
cost, $50,000. 

Oklahoma 

LINCOLNVILl.E—Tlie Natl. Tripoli Co., 
Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Joplin, Mo., 
will receive bids until Jan. 25 for the con- 
struction of a 2-story factorv to have a 
capacity of 100 tons. Estimated cost. 
$130,000. G. A. Smith, pr.s. 

Pennsylvania 

PHILADELPHI.V— The Amer. Bng. Co.. 
Spevlva St. and Wheatsheaf Lane, has 
awarded the contract for the construction 
of a 1-story, 50xl00-ft. foundrv and ma- 



chine shop to the Austin Co., Bulletin Bldg. 
Estimated cost, $25,000. Noted Dec. 29. 

PHILADELPHIA — H. T. Potts & Co., 
Inc., 316 North Third St., has awarded the 
contract for the construction of a 1-story 
foundry on D and Erie Sts., to W. Steel & 
Sons Co., Sixteenth and Arch Sts. Esti- 
mated cost, over $15,000. 

South Dakota 

EGAN — The Bd. Educ. is having plans 
prepared for the construction of a 1- or 
2-story consolidated school. A chemical 
laboratory will be installed in same. Esti- 
mated cost, $150,000. Schumacher & Fin- 
kelhor, 316 Paulton Blk., Sioux Falls, archts. 

Texas 

AUSTIN — The city plans an election to 
vote on $20,000 bonds to construct im- 
provements to the sewage disposal plant. 
Address W. D. Yett, Mayor, or C. E. Leon- 
ard, engr. 

Wisconsin 

ANTIGO — The Bd. Educ, c/o R. A. 
Brandt, is having plans prepared for the 
construction of a 2-story, 127x225-ft. junior 
high school on Main St. A chemical labo- 
ratory will be installed in same. Estimated 
cost, $250,000. Oppenhammer & Obel, 
Wausau, archts. 

GOODMAN — The School Bd, plans to 
build a 2-story, 90xl25-ft. high and grade 
school. A chemical laboratory will be in- 
stalled in same. Estimated cost, $125,000. 
E. Tough, 24 East Mifflin St., Madison, 
archt. 

Quebec 

MONTREAL EAST — The Royal Duke Oil 
Co., 157 St, James St., Montreal, will re- 
ceive bids until Jan. 15 for the construction 
of a plant -for the purification of gasoline 
distilled, etc. Estimated cost, $50,000. W. 
B. Richards & Co., 203 Bernard Ave., W., 
engr. 

Industrial Notes 



The Fisher Governor Co., Marshall- 
town, Iowa, has taken over the manufac- 
turing of the O-B regulating valve, formerly 
made by the Ohio Brass Co. In the future 
the valve will be known as the Fisher 
pressui-e regulating valve. 

F. J. Ryan & Co., Franklin Trust Bldg., 
Philadelphia, are completing the installa- 
tion of a large electric processing oven at 
the Thermoid Rubber Co., Trenton, N. J. 
This equipment is the second large process- 
ing equipment built by this company. The 
chief interest surrounds the possibility of 
solvent recovery owing to the form of heat 
used. 

The Electric Furnace Co., Alliance, O., 
is installing a complete automatic heat- 
treating set at the new plant of the C. H. 
Wills Co., of Marysville, Mich, The set 
is designed to treat all kinds of automo- 
bile parts and consists of a 200-kw. hard- 
ening furnace, a motor operated quench 
and a 200-kw. drawing furnace. A 200-kw. 
Baily annealing furnace is being installed 
at the Springfield plant of the Ohio Steel 
F'oundries Co., and a similar outfit but with 
300 kw. electrical capacity has been ordered 
for export to the Oddehome Steel Corp. of 
Norway. 

The Wise Electro-Sherardizing Corp. 
has started production at 2326 South West- 
ern Ave., Chicago, 111. This company gives 
a sherardizing treatment to metal by_ an 
electric process as distinguished from 'the 
gas process of heating. 

The Memphis Iron & Steel Co. started 
operations at the first unit of the new mill 
recently, and is producing bars and round 
iron. 

The .Austin Machinery Corp. of Chi- 
cago has established a distributing branch 
in Memphis, Tenn., for the Arkansas and 
Tennessee territories. J. M. McCampbell will 
have charge of the new organization. 

The Ei.e<'tric Fi'rnace Construction 
Co., Philadelphia, announces the starting 
of a "Greaves-Etchells" electric fm-nace at 
the Holmes Foundry Co,"s plant. Port 



Huron, Mich., for refining and superheating 
molten cupola metal. It has been found pos- 
sible by short-treatment in the electric fur- 
nace to increase the fluidity of the metal and 
to largely eliminate sulphur. The cupola 
iron contained 0.102 per cent average sul- 
phur, and the finished product showed only 
0.023 per cent sulphur. Time taken was 
about forty minutes. Charges of cold scrap 
have also been run, consisting of 80 per 
cent cylinder scrap and 20 per cent iron 
borings. Sulphur in final product from the 
cold-melted heat was reduced to 0.013 pei- 
cent. 



Manufacturers' 
Catalogs 



HoLz & Co., New York, has issued two 
new bulletins. No. 11 is on "The Eden- 
Foster Repeater Impact Testing Machine" 
for investigating the resistance of steel and 
other metals to fatigue procured by re- 
peated stresses of small force, and No. 41 
is on the "Burrows Defectoscope and Mag- 
netic Analyzer" for the inspection of steel 
rails, rods, wire, cable and all other steel 
and iron stock of uniform section. Both 
booklets are illustrated. 

International Oxygen Co., Newark, 
N. J., calls attention to Bull. No. 61, cover- 
ing the design, construction and operating 
characteristics of the I.O.C. system elec- 
trolytic oxygen-hydrogen generator type 
1,000, which has just been published. The 
company announces that it will forward 
copies free of charge to anyone interested 
in the production of oxygen and hydrogen 
for industrial purposes. 



Coming Meetings 
and Events 

Americ.\.v Ceramic Society will hold its 
annual meeting Feb. 21 to 24, at Columbus. 
Ohio, with headquarters at the Deschler 
Hotel. 

American Chemical Society will hold 
its sixty-first meeting at Rochester, N. Y., 
April 26 to 29. 

American Electrochemical Society will 
hold its spring meeting at Atlantic City 
April 21 to 23 inclusive. Headquarters will 
be at the Hotel Chalfonte. 

American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers will hold its 
spring meeting Feb. 14 to 17 in New York 
City. 

American Society for Testing Mate- 
rials will hold its 1921 annual meeting in 
the New Monterey Hotel, Asbury Park, 
N. J., during the week of June 20. 

Common Brick Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation OF America will hold its annual 
meeting at the Hotel Pennsylvania, New 
York City, Jan. 31 to Feb. 4. 

Compressed Gas Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation will hold its eighth annual meeting. 
Monday, Jan. 17, at 2 p.m., at the Hotel 
Astor, New York, and its eighth annual 
dinner at the same place that evening. 

National Petroleum Congress will meet 
at the Hotel Baltimore, Kansas City, Mo., 
March 22 to 25. 

New Jersey Chemical Society holds a 
meeting at Stetters Restaurant, 842 Broad 
St., Newark, N. J., the second Monday of 
every month. 

Society of Chemical Industry holds its 
Perkin Medal Award Meeting at Rumford 
Hall, Chemists' Club, New York, on Jan. 14. 

The Seventh Exposition of Chemical 
Industries will be held during the week 
of Sept. 12, in the Eighth Coast Artillery 
Armory, New York City. 

The following chemical societies will meet 
at Rumford Hall, Chemists' Club, New York 
City, as follows: Jan. 14, Society of Chem- 
ical Industry, Perkin Medal award ; Feb. 11. 
American Electrochemical Society. Joint 
meeting with Society of Chemical Industry. 
American Chemical Society and Soci6t4 de 
Chimie Industrielle : March 11, American 
Chemical Society, Nichols Medal award : 
March 25, Society of Cliemical Industry : 
April 22. Socfcty of Chemical Industry, 
joint meeting with American Electrochem- 
ical Society. Soci6t6 de Chimie Industrielle 
and American Chemical Society : May 6, 
Ameiicnn Chemical Society ; May 13. So- 
ci6t6 de Cliimie Industrielle, joint meeting 
with American Chemical Society, Society 
of Chemical Industry and American Elec- 
trochemical Society ; May 20, Society of 
Clienvcal Industry ; June 10, American 
Chemical Society. 



H. C. PARMELEE 

Kditor 

ELLWOOD HENDRICK 
Consultinjr Editor 

ERNEST E. THUM 
Associate Editor 

WALLACE SAVAGE 
ALAN G. WIKOPP 
R. S. McBRIDE 
CHARLES N. HULBURT 
Assistant Editors 



CHEMICAL 

S* METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERING 



L. W. CHAPMAN 

Wee tern Editor 

CHESTER H. JONES 

CHARLES A. BLATCHLEY 

t Tj ±- t Industrial Editor* 

A consobjoatwn of j g jj^grw 

ELECTROCHEMICAL & METALLtTRGICAL INDUSTRY and IRON & STEEL MAGAZINE ManarinV Editor 



Volume 24 



New York, January 19, 1921 



Number 3 



Perkin Medal for 
Doctor Whitney 

THE award of the Perkin Medal to Dr. Willis R. 
Whitney, director of the research laboratory of 
the General Electric Co., will meet with universal ap- 
proval which will only be heightened by the doctor's 
generous attempts at self-effacement. He was the 
unanimous choice of the Committee on Award. Dr. 
Whitney may protest that he cannot graciously accept 
the medal as a personal tribute and that he shines in 
the accumulated glory of members of his staff. But 
even in this recognition of his loyal associates. Dr. 
Whitney's admirers will find indirect though ample 
justification for the honor that has come to him. Ac- 
cepting for the moment his disclaimer to personal 
achievement, which the record will not sustain, his 
name is synonymous with one of the first and most 
successful organizations for industrial and scientific 
research. This in itself is no light accomplishment, 
and if Dr. Whitney prefers to let his claim to fame 
rest thereon his friends will still feel that it is quite 
sufficient to warrant his present recognition. 

Senate Muddles 

The Nitrate Bill 

AFTER several weeks of debate on the bill to create 
^ the United States Fixed Nitrogen Corporation the 
Senate passed it in amended form on Jan. 14. It will 
be recalled that the purpose of this bill was to provide 
the necessary corporate machinery for federal owner- 
ship and operation in the interest of the War Depart- 
ment of the nitrate plants at Muscle Shoals. As the 
Senate discussion grew in volume the fog in which the 
entire subject has been enshrouded increased in density 
until there was little likelihood that the Senate could 
emerge from it with any intelligent action. One has 
only to read the debate in the Congressional Record 
for the past few weeks to confirm the forecast which 
we made months ago when we intimated that on 
account of the complexity of the subject, the dust 
created in the course of discussion probably would 
obscure and defeat the legitimate ends of the bill. The 
nitrogen question is many-sided. Even if one had to 
deal only with its economics and technology, the subject 
would be large enough. But when, as in the present 
instance, it is so intimately mixed with politics, public 
and private, there is little hope of intelligent action. 
It is true that economic and industrial conditions 
have changed since the bill was introduced a year ago 
and it is quite possible that it needed amendment. But 
such amendments as Senator Wadsworth introduced on 
Jan. 4 could have but one purpose and effect — namely, 
to kill the bill. Their full purport is not evident at 
this writing, but one of them takes the jurisdiction 
of the plant out of the War Department and puts it in 
the Treasury. Another increases the corporation's 



financial obligations to the United States by requiring 
it to issue bonds up to half of the war-time expendi- 
tures of the Government in constructing the nitrate 
plants and for the full value of the hydro-electric in- 
stallation if and when acquired by the corporation. This 
has been done in spite of the fact (or maybe in accord 
with it) that persistent opponents of the bill have 
testified to Congressional committees that the Plant 
No. 2 could not possibly be sold for anything like its 
war-time cost nor even leased on any such basis. 

The amendments can scarcely be taken in good faith, 
because they require the corporation to earn 5 per cent 
on its securities under penalty of ceasing operations 
and awaiting further action by Congress. This would 
kill it in its first year of operation. It would also 
compel it to operate the plants at the greatest capacity 
and enter into the stiffest kind of competition with 
commercial fertilizer manufacturers — something that 
never was contemplated by any of those who have 
advocated the control and operation of the plants by the 
War Department. One of the objections to that con- 
trol and operation was that the peace-time product of 
the plants must inevitably compete with certain articles 
of domestic commerce, and objection was raised to the 
United States engaging in such competition. The cur- 
rent amendments practically impose upon the corpora- 
tion the necessity of engaging in such competition, if 
it is to maintain its existence. 

In the consideration of this, as of many other tech- 
nical subjects with which Congress has to deal, we are 
repeatedly impressed with the value of the much- 
maligned "single-track" mind. It is far superior to 
the "sidetrack" mind which seems to develop in large 
number and great variety whenever a complicated ques- 
tion is before our national legislature. In the present 
instance the issues have b'^en so misrepresented, dis- 
torted and complicated that the original and legitimate 
reasons for and purposes of the bill have been lost to 
sight. Let us keep them clearly in mind. The United 
States has made a large investment in plants for nitro- 
gen fixation at Muscle Shoals. The Chief of Ordnance 
is charged with securing and maintaining an adequate 
supply of munitions for the Army; ?.nd at present, 
as in the past, his only source of nitrate is in a foreign 
country, Chile. There is no nitrogen-fixation industry 
now actively functioning in this country, capable of 
furnishing the Chief of Ordnance with a supply of 
nitrate in case of emergency. From this point of view 
and this one alone, Chemical & Metallurgical Engi- 
neering has seen sufficient justification for the creation 
of some agency for the utilization of the Muscle Shoals 
plants by the War Department. Until there is an 
active nitrogen-fixation industry in this country which 
can function for the Ordnance Department in case of 
emergency, just as the steel industry can and does, the 
Government is justified in controlling so complete an 
agency for the production of nitrate as the plants at 



98 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



Muscle Shoals. The purpose of such control and oper- 
ation is nitrogen preparedness. If the original provi- 
sions of S. 3390 will not accomplish this purpose, let us 
discover and support some other measure that will. In 
our judgment the bill might as well die as pass in its 
amended form, because the corporation could not pos- 
sibly function under the conditions imposed. Let us not 
forget that the issues involved relate primarily to 
national welfare. From that viewpoint it is inconceiv- 
able that after our war experience we should be guilty 
of the indefensible folly of dependence on Chile. 

Chemists May Become 

Chemical Ambassadors 

THE chemical profession needs more ambassadors in 
industry. Not chemical politicians, not talkers and 
salesmen of the chemical idea, but rather ambassadors 
who, by their action in everyday business relations, indi- 
vidually propagandize the doctrine of technical control 
of plant operations. The number of men available for 
this work is large, but few hold to the thought. 

Between the two fields of chemical activity — pure re- 
search on one hand and betterment of industry on the 
other — it rests with the individual chemist to choose. 
Should he decide on the former he is to be congratulated, 
for all the delights of meandering through the dream- 
land of technical philosophy, all the honors for original 
discoveries, all the pleasures of independent thinking 
and of exploration for new ideas, will be his. The beauty 
of nature's contour, color and music, and all man-made 
imitations of these, are formless, achromatic and dis- 
cordant compared to the joyous travels of the inner 
scientific mind. 

But all cannot follow this beacon light of pure science. 
The majority must occupy themselves with industry ; for 
industry must eventually support research, that research, 
in turn, may advance industry. Pure science burdened 
with sordid matters of money cannot climb the peaks. 
The great host traveling the industrial highway have, 
however, one ideal in common — namely, that the chemist 
may become the top executive with each business organi- 
zation so he can properly apply the principles of his 
partner, the research man, to the forwarding of the 
industry in question. 

Accomplishment of this object demands that he seem- 
ingly depart far from the ways of theoretical science 
while inwardly clinging to the ideal. For industry 
thrives best on practical common-sense sort of pro- 
cedures. On leaving school after a year or two occupied 
in a rounding out of the theoretical side of his train- 
ing, the chemist should enter the production department 
of his chosen industry and start a new training in com- 
mon sense. He will learn to appreciate that a large 
amount of work has been done even by rule-of-thumb 
methods, and see how he may gradually inculcate tech- 
nical procedure without disturbing the financial equi- 
librium of the plant operations. He should never forget 
that he is the servant of the stockholders, who are 
vitally interested in cash profits. 

Many times a new invention cannot be immediately 
adopted because of the enormous loss involved in scrap- 
ping the equipment of the less remunerative process. 
If a man were hungry and had only the price of a bak- 
ing oven, he would not buy the oven but rather spend 
the money on flour and fuel to make his bread by the 
open fire. New apparatus is often nice but too expensive. 
Plain thinking rules industry. , 



The Opportunist 
In Research 

EXPERIENCED research directors of real achieve- 
ment condemn the opportunist in research, for such 
a man will do only that which he sees as promising for 
increased dividends tomorrow. He cannot see as far 
ahead as next week and he never thinks of the problems 
of next year. The condemnation of the opportunist is, 
indeed, frequent among those who really know how to 
organize and carry through a research program. On 
the other hand, the commendation of one who knows 
how to plan and "gets away with it" is not so frequent, 
though fully as well deserved. It is a pleasure, there- 
fore, to emphasize examples of successful far-seeing 
reseai'ch programs. 

One of the most striking examples of this sort re- 
cently came about in the work of .the research division 
of a large organic chemical corporation whose name is 
knovm throughout America wherever the language of 
chemists is spoken. This research division had under 
way for several years a program of investigation for 
which it had been rather criticized by the management 
of the company. How the director of research managed 
under the circumstances to keep the work going is a 
secret which he alone could tell. But in any event he 
did so. 

The reward of the effort which had been made through 
several years came in full measure recently. With 
changing relation between costs of materials, the ex- 
pense for wages and the margin of profits possible in 
the plant processes, this corporation found it wholly 
impracticable to continue upon the war-time basis of 
plant operation. The directors threw up their hands 
in horror at the situation. They were virtually helpless 
when confronted by the new industrial problems. That 
they were thoroughly terrified by the situation is evi- 
dent by the fact that they took the initiative in con- 
sulting the director of research as to what they should 
do. Then it was that they learned the purpose of all 
the research upon which they had previously frowned. 
They found it possible to abandon the old processes 
which had previously been financially successful, even 
to the extent of scrapping equipment and structures on 
an extensive scale. The new program promises to be 
even more handsomely successful than the old, simply 
because the research department had fully worked out 
through all stages of laboratory and semi-commercial 
scale the industrial requirements of a new economic 
situation. 

Had this corporation been successful in discouraging 
the far-sighted research program and had the program 
of an opportunist been insisted on, it is very doubtful 
whether the research staff could possibly have answered 
the appeal when this distressing situation was en- 
countered by the management. Some other organiza- 
tions, which have not been so sympathetic in research 
and development work upon a scale suited to long 
periods of successful plant operation, can only take their 
losses and hope that their conversion to the newer 
thought may be sincere and permanent. If they are not 
converted fully, they can rest assured that they will 
sooner or later be eliminated from consideration. With 
conditions which demanded close figuring only the best 
processes and the most efficient utilization of bM)roducts 
and wastes can successfully continue under present con- 
ditions in competition with other well-planned and scien- 
tifically-controlled business. 



Jammry 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



99 



Presentation of Perkin Medal to Willis R. Whitney 



Addresses Made at the Fourteenth Award of the Perkin Medal by the Society of Chemical Industry — 

Personal Remembrances by Elihu Thompson and Arthur D. Little — Presentation by C. F. Chandler — 

Acknowledgments and "The Biggest Things in Chemistry" by Willis R. Whitney 



THE fourteenth PerRin Medal presentation meeting 
of the American Section of the Society of Chem- 
ical Industry was held in Rumford Hall Friday 
evening, Jan. 14. In the course of his introductory 
remarks Sumner R. Church said: "It is my own 
privilege as chairman of the Medal Committee to state 
simply that at the meeting when the selection was made 
there was no word spoken save in unanimity of choice. 
Since then we have heard no words save of approval 
and heartfelt pleasure concerning this award. I can 
festify that Whitney's example has inspired every man 
in this country who has to do with the direction of 
chemical research. Whenever he could he gave freely 
of his time to advise and encourage those who visited 
him, however slight their claims might be." 

Twenty Years op Research 

Prof. Elihu Thompson gave an excellent review of 
the work of the General Electric research laboratories, 
using as an illustration the development pf the incan- 
descent lamp. The original carbon filament lamp was 
not very satisfactory. When operated at a temperature 
which gave a high ratio of light to energy input, the 
vapor pressure of carbon was so high that carbon was 
condensed too rapidly on the bulb. The physical prop- 
erties of carbon were somewhat improved in the G-E- 
metallized filament which was the basis of the G-E-M 
lamp. Tantalum, molybdenum, osmium and tungsten 
were investigated successively. Coolidge's process for 
making tungsten ductile so that standardized wires 
could be drawn is the foundation of the modern incan- 
descent lamp industry. 

Biographical Reminiscences 

By Arthur D. Little 

From the point of view from which I see this 
audience it is in the main a gathering of young men. 
To them I am glad to say that years bring their 
compensation. It is pleasant to be able to remember 
the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of mauve, 
to recall its modest and benign discoverer, to have 
participated in the festivals which were designed to do 
him honor and to have shared the desire to perpetuate 
the memory of that discovery and its momentous con- 
sequences by the foundation of the Perkin Medal. 

Someone has said that an institution is the elongated 
shadow of a man. Never was this more true than in 
the case of the General Electric Laboratory. Its 
achievements have been discussed with authority by 
Prof. Thompson and will be fully itemized by Dr. 
Chandler. They are the work of many men to whom 
they have brought deserved distinction. None the less, 
the laboratory as the entity and organization which has 
made this achievement possible is a projection of the 
personality of Willis R. Whitney, and in this sense its 
achievements are his achievements. 



Whitney returned from Europe in 1896 with a Ph.D. 
from Leipzig. He had left home a good American and 
he came back a truer one. He had absorbed in Ger- 
many what were then advanced and difficult theories in 
chemistry and physics and to their application to the 
solution of chemical and industrial problems he now 
brought vision and a contagious inspiration. To him 
a problem was an opportunity and his reaction to it 
was as reflex and immediate as a knee jerk. I remem- 
ber that he once told me after a pleasant dinner in 
Syracuse, when the conversation had reached the eternal 
verities, that he didn't want to go to heaven unless 
there were problems there. 

Naturally, therefore, he began at once the brilliant 
experimental work which has added much to our knowl- 
edge of solubility, colloids and the corrosion of metals. 
His fundamental research demonstrated the effect of the 
positive and negative ions on the precipitation of col- 
loids. He found that the corrosion of metals was an 
electrochemical process and he was perhaps the first 
to focus public attention upon the great economic 
wastes resulting from preventable corrosion. 

Whitney is a pragmatic scientist, and the essential 
and innate practicability of his mental processes found 
early expression in the successful method which he 
developed in association with Dr. A. A. Noyes for the 
recovery of ether and alcohol from collodion, a process 
which not only assured the commercial position of the 
photographic film, but which also in its subconscious 
and later influence upon the mind of Mr. Eastman 
undoubtedly played its part in effecting that gentle- 
man's reincarnation as the mysterious and benevolent 
Mr. Smith to whom the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology owes its present superb equipment. 

I happen to know, for T had the honor of making 
the bid, that prior to 1900 he refused a doubled salary 
and remained an instructor at Technology, because he 
"would rather teach than be President." At the time I 
thought it an extraordinary example of devoted self- 
denial, but since then I have seen what happens to our 
Presidents and I would, without self-adulation, take the 
same position myself, much as I hate t^^aching. 

Academic Life 

Dr. Whitney's relation to the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology has been intimate and concurrent with 
his professional career. Immediately upon graduation, 
in 1890, he was appointed assistant instructor in sani- 
tary chemistry in that institution. He had, we may 
assume, no strong directive impulse toward that branch 
of the science, but he demonstrated at once his char- 
acteristic ability to adapt himself to the job, and with 
it to identify himself. In 1892, by the slow process of 
academic preferment, he was promoted to instructor,, 
but after serving for two years his desire for the 
advanced training and broader contacts with the scien- 



100 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



tific world then offered by Germany caused him to enter 
the University of Leipzig. Upon his return to the 
Institute in 1892 he was appointed instructor in theo- 
retical chemistry and proximate analysis. Fortunate 
indeed were those students whose schedule brought them 
under his influence. It would be interesting to know 
how many of them appreciated the quality and recog- 
nized the potentialities of their instructor. 

He became, in 1901, assistant professor of theoretical 
chemistry, in 1904 non-resident professor of theoretical 
chemistry, and in 1908 non-resident professor of chem- 
ical research. More recently he has become a member 
of the Corporation of the Institute and he has served 
as chairman of its committee on the department of 
chemistry and chemical engineering, and is now active 
as chairman of the committee on the department of 
physics. It is a matter of general comment and satis- 
faction within the instructing staff that he has never 
lost interest in the school. Visiting committees of the 
Corporation too often do not visit. But Dr. Whitney 
came upon the job determined to know its every aspect. 
He spent days in the laboratories. He sat down by 
students; into them he injected his own enthusiasm. 
He studied the needs of the departments and he fol- 
lowed his studies by helpful suggestions and construc- 
tive criticism. 

Ideal Characteristics 

One very conspicuous element in Whitney's character 
is the sincerity of his indifference to monetary rewards. 
It is the more striking because of the clarity with which 
he visualizes the economic aspects of research results. 
He went to the General Electric Co., as I confidently 
believe, not for money, but because it offered an environ- 
ment and opportunity for broader and more effective 
service. I am no less confident that he would return 
to Tech. tomorrow and readjust his expenditure within 
the narrow boundaries of a professor's salary if he felt 
that there he could do a better job. 

I wonder how many of you have realized how closely 
in appearance Whitney resembles Lizst. One expects 
of him — and is not disappointed — the same fire and 
enthusiasm, a kindred brilliancy of performance, a 
similar exothermic quality. Whitney can talk to a man 
three minutes and inject into him enough enthusiasm 
to last three months. He can recognize genius and he 
is big enough to allow the man of genius to develop 
at his side. He has no wish and makes no effort to 
dominate. He scrupulously apportions credit where it 
belongs. Jealousy is alien to his nature. These are the 
characteristics of the ideal director of research, and 
it is because they are possessed in superlative measure 
by Willis R. Whitney that we are present here tonight. 

Human Elements 

Willis R. Whitney is a great scientist, but he is not 
the scientist of fiction or of the stage. He is an in- 
tensely human individual. He is extremely fond of 
outdoor life and it keeps him sane and wholesome. He 
is a farmer, not a gentleman farmer but a dirt farmer 
who knows hog cholera and manure and what to do 
when his hens have the pip. He has hobbies and rides 
them. He can tell you more about arrowheads than an 
Algonquin Indian ever knew, and if necessary he can 
make them. He usually prefers to pick them up in 
Central Park or Long Acre Square, or at church. He 
can find them anywhere. He enjoys the lighter things 
of life and has even been known to sidestep a meeting 



of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
go to a girl and music show instead. Biological sub- 
jects (and I am not now referring to those just men- 
tioned in association with music) interest him keenly. 
He raises flies and kills them with X-rays to cure their 
cancer. Some day he may kill the cancer first. He is a 
Serious student of heredity and knows exactly how much 
red hair is required to tint a large family unto the 
third and fourth generation. But do not let me convey 
the impression that Whitney approaches these voca- 
tional interests in the spirit of the dilletante. His 
knowledge of them is not broad and thin, it is both 
broad and deep. When he cultivates a subject, he does 
it intensively with all the energy in him. Better than 
all this, however, Whitney has a genius for friendship. 
He knows you but likes you. 

With this interest in his fellowmen so dominant and 
characteristic, it is not surprising that Whitney should 
have proved an ideal teacher or that no later absorp- 
tion has turned his thought from education. He inspires 
whole departments in the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology; he is the prime mover of Albany Medical 
College, and as trustee of Union College at Schenectady 
has so tied his laboratory to the college that they con- 
stitute a joint educational institution. 

In a very striking way and more nearly, as it seems 
to me, than any of his contemporaries, Whitney has 
the mental attitude and scientific breadth of an earlier 
generation in the scientific world, the ability to corre- 
late and integrate observations and deductions in wide 
and different fields. 

The Perkin Medal is the badge of knighthood in 
American chemistry. It has never been more worthily 
bestowed. Its latest recipient has inspired numberless 
young men; he has brought distinction to a great cor- 
poration and proved to financiers that research pays; 
he has brought new luster to American chemistry. The 
spirit of research has laid her hands upon him, and the 
spirit of youth as well. 

Presentation Address 

By C. F. Chandler 

It is my privilege and very pleasant duty as senior 
past-president of the Society of Chemical Industry, 
residing in this country, to present to Willis R. Whitney, 
S.B., Ph.D., the fourteenth impression of the Perkin 
Medal, in recognition of his most original and valuable 
work in applied chemistry. 

Dr. Willis R. Whitney was born in Jamestown, N. Y., 
Aug. 22, 1868, and was the son of John and Agnes 
(Reynolds) Whitney. He was graduated from the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology with the degree of 
S.B. in 1890, and in 1896 received the degree of Ph.D. 
from Leipzig. 

Research Laboratory of the General Electric Co. 

His most notable achievement has been the creation 
and development of the Research Laboratory of the 
General Electric Co. at Schenectady. This laboratory, 
one of the earliest of its kind in this country, the 
embodiment of the application of science to industry, 
has gained a world-wide reputation by the quality of 
its work and the importance of its results. These 
results speak for themselves, but only those associated 
in the laboratory with Dr. Whitney can realize to what 
extent they are due to him personally, or how truly 
the story of the laboratory, from its inception with 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



101 



a small staff to its present development with 275 people 
on its payroll, has been the story of his personal achieve- 
ment. Its growth has followed naturally from the value 
of its accomplishment, but its accomplishment has been 
due primarily to him. His broad scientific knowledge, 
his ability as a chemist, his resourcefulness in experi- 
ment, his energy, enthusiasm and optimism, combined 
with a clear sense of proportionate values, laid the 
foundation for, and guided and inspired, all the work 
of the laboratory, while his democratic and magnetic 
personality created an esprit de corps in his staff which 
has been a powerful factor for success. This must be 
realized " fully to appraise justly his personal achieve- 
ments in considering the success of the laboratory. 

These successes have often been recited specifically 
to prove the value of the application of organized re- 
search to industiT- In electric lighting the first radical 
improvement in the carbon 
incandescent filament, since 
Edison first produced it, 
was due to Dr. Whitney's 
personal work. The "met- 
allized" filament, or "Gem" 
lamp, which he developed 
and which embodied a new 
form of carbon, gave 25 
per cent more light for the 
same wattage than the 
standard carbon filament 
lamp. Millions of these 
new lamps were sold in a 
single year. A little later 
the laboratory made a still 
greater contribution to 
electric lighting, by solving 
the problem of mechani- 
cally working tungsten and 
taught the world how to 
make the drawn wire which 
has given the tungsten 
lamp its universal applica- 
tion. The latest achieve- 
ment of the laboratory in 
incandescent lighting is the 
gas-filled or half-watt lamp, 
which, in its larger sizes, 
has twice the efficiency of 
the vacuum lamp, and 
nearly equals the most effi- 
cient arcs. In arc lighting 
the laboratory developed the magnetite electrode, and 
thereby produced the most successful arc lamp of today. 

The laboratory has produced many new and useful 
forms of insulations and molded compounds, many new 
alloys for resistance units and other purposes, new 
processes, like "calorizing," for giving metals protective 
coatings; new articles of manufacture, like "sheath 
wire," with its core of resistance alloy, its mineral 
insulation and its metal sheath, adapted for heating 
devices; new materials, like "water japan" and "Gen- 
elite" ; new electric-furnace products, like boron carbide, 
useful as a fiux for casting copper, and titanium car- 
bide for arc lamp electrodes ; new laboratory tools, such 
as the Arsem vacuum furnace, the tungsten tube fur- 
nace and the Langmuir condensation vacuum pump; 
high-resistance units for lightning arresters, improved 
carbon and graphite and Metite brushes. 




The development of wrought tungsten has been fol- 
lowed by several important applications worked out 
entirely in the laboratory. Tungsten contacts have 
practically replaced platinum in spark coils, magnetos 
and relays, and tungsten targets have replaced platinum 
in X-ray tubes. 

As a result of a study of high vacuum, the laboratory 
devised means and methods for producing much higher 
vacua than before obtained, and the study of the 
phenomena of electron discharge in high vacuum has 
produced a number of new types of vacuum tubes which 
have revolutionized more than one art. The Coolidge 
X-ray tube was the earliest result of this investigation 
and has practically displaced all other types of X-ray 
tubes. It has made possible many results not otherwise 
obtainable, as, for instance, the development of a truly 
portable X-ray outfit. Another result was the pliotron, 

the first real power tube 
suitable for radio transmis- 
sion. The pliotron practi- 
cally created radio teleph- 
ony and has revolutionized 
radio telegraphy. Other 
types of these tubes re- 
sulting from this investi- 
gation are the dynatron, 
magnetron, pliodynatron, 
etc. The contributions of 
the laboratory to pure 
science have been numer- 
ous, varied and important, 
as is indicated by the titles 
taken from the list of 
laboratory publications: 

Factors Affecting Rela- 
tions Between Photo-elec- 
tric Current and Illumina- 
tion. 

Structure of the Atom. 
Theory and Use of the 
Molecular Gage. 

Theory of Unimolecular 
Reaction Velocities. 

Absorption and Scatter- 
ing of X-Rays. 

New Method of X-Ray 
Chemical Analysis. 

New Method of X-Ray 
Crystal Analysis. 

Roentgen-Ray Spectra. 
High - Frequency Spec - 
trum of Tungsten. 

Arrangement of Elec- 
trons in Atoms and Mole- 
cules. 

Chemical Reactions at Low Pressures. 
Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids 
and Liquids. 

Dissociation of Hydrogen Into Atoms. 
Effect of Space Charge and Residual Gases on Ther- 
mionic Currents in High Vacuum. 

Evaporation, Condensation and Reflection of Gas 
Molecules. 

Fundamental Phenomena in Electron Tubes Having 
Tungsten Cathodes. 

Isomorphism, Isosterism and Covalence. 
Mechanism of the Surface Phenomena of Flotation. 
Octet Theory of Valence and Its Applications With 
Special Reference to the Organic Nitrogen Compounds. 
Properties of the Electron as Derived From the 
Chemical Properties of the Elements. 
Structure of the Helium Atom. 

The Structure of the Hydrogen Molecule and the 
Hydrogen Ion. 

Dr. Whitney is a trustee of the Albany Medical Col- 
lege and of Union College, and a member of the Cor- 




W. R. WHITNEY 



102 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



poration of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He 
is a member of the U. S. Naval Consulting Board, 
National Research Council, American Chemical Society 
(president in 1910), American Electrochemical Society 
(president in 1911), American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers, American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, American Physical Society and British Insti- 
tute of Metals. He received the Willard Gibbs Medal 
in 1916 and the Chandler Medal in 1920. 

Publications 

Dr. Whitney's translation of Le Blanc's textbook of 
electrochemistry is well known. Among the papers 
which he has personally published, are the following: 

1. The Rate of Solution of Solid Substances in Their 
Own Solutions (with A, A. Noyes). J. Am. Chem. Soc, 
vol. 19, pp. 930-34 ('97). 

2. The Nature of the Change From Violet to Green 
in Solutions of Chromium Salts. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 
vol. 21, pp. 1075-84 ('99). 

3. The Precipitation of Colloids by Electrolytes (with 
J. E. Ober). J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. 23, pp. 842-63 

COl). 

4. An Investigation of Ammonio-Silver Compounds 
in Solution (with A. C. Melcher). J. Am. Chem. Soc, 
vol. 25, pp. 69-83 ('03). 

5. The Corrosion of Iron. J. Avi. Chem. Soc, vol. 25, 
pp. 394-406 ('03). 

6. Electrolysis of Water. J. Phys. Chevi., vol. 7, pp. 
190-93 ('03). 

7. The Migration of Colloids (with J. C. Blake). 
J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. 26, pp. 1339-87 ('04). 

8. Colloids. Trans., Am. Electrochem. Soc, vol. 7, 
pp. 225-36 ('05). 

9. Arcs. Trans., Am. Electrochem. Soc, vol. 7, pp. 
291-9 ('05). 

10. Suspensions in Dilute Alkaline Solutions (with 
Alonzo Straw) . J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. 29, pp. 325-29 
('07). 

11. Organization of Industrial Research. J. Am. 
Chem. Soc, vol. 32, pp. 71-8 ('10). 

12. Some Chemistry of Light. J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. 
32, pp. 147-59 ('10) ; Presidential Address, American 
Chemical Society, Dec 29, 1909. 

13. Alloys. Amer. Foundrymen's Assoc, 1910. 

14. Chemistry of Luminous Sources. Johns Hopkins 
University, 1910; Lectures on Illuminating Engineering, 
Vol. 2. 

15. Research as a Financial Asset. Electrical World, 
vol. 57, p. 828 ('11); -/. Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 3, pp. 
429-33 ('11); Science, vol. 33, pp. 673-81 ('11); Con- 
gress of Technology. 

16. Mental Catalysis. Met. & Chem. Eng., vol. 9, 
pp. 179-82 (April, 1911). Opening Chemists' Build- 

' ing, New York. 

17. Theory of the Mercury Arc Rectifier. G. E. Rev., 
vol. 14. pp. 619-21 ('11). 

18. Carbon Brushes. J. Ind. Eng Chem., vol. 4, pp. 
242-46 ('12) ; J. Frank. Inst., vol. 176, pp. 239-50 
('12). 

19. Electrical Conduction. Trans., Am. Electrochem. 
Soc, vol. 21, pp. 19-26 ('12) ; Presidential Address, Am. 
Electrochemical Societv, April 19. 1912. 

20. Some Uses of Metals. N. F. L. A. 35th Conven- 
tion, vol. 1, pp. 336-76 ('12) ; Publications of the Re- 
search Laboratory, vol. 1. 

21. Vacua. Trans., A. I. E. E , vol. 31. (1), pp. 
1207-16 ('12) ; Publications of the Research Labora- 
tory, vol. 1. 

22. Phenomena of Catalysis. Science Conspectus. 
vol. 3, pp. 84-8 ('13). 

'23. Lipht. G E. Rev, vol. 17. pp. 171-4 ('14). 

24. Relation of Research to the Progress of Manu- 
facturing Industries. .Avnals, Amer. Acad. Polit. and 
Social Sci. No. 870 ('15). 

25. Research. G. E. Rer., vol. 18, pp. 1012-14 ('15). 

26. The Corporation. Trans., Am. Electrochem. Soc. 
vol. 29, pp. 36-8 ('16). 

27. Preparedness. ./. lod. Eng. Chem., vol. 8. p. 298 
('16). 

28. Water Power and Defense. A. I. E. E. (Advance 
Paper) (16). 



29. Two untitled papers. One was published in 
American Defence. 

30. The Call for Research. National Defense Digest, 
1916. 

31. Research and the Newlands Bill. Met. & Chem. 
Eng., vol. 14, pp. 565-66 ('16). 

32. Research as a National Duty. Science, vol. 43, 
pp. 629-37 ('16); J. Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 8, p. 533 
('16). 

33. Incidents of Applied Research. J. Ind. Eng. 
Chem., vol. 8, pp. 560-4 ('16); Willard Gibbs Medal 
Address. 

34. Research Organization. G. E. Rev., vol. 19, pp. 
572-78 ('16). 

35. The Newlands Bill and National Research. Mett. 
& Chem. Eng., vol. 14, pp. 621-3 ('16). 

36. Practical Significance of Pure Research. Paper 
for American Mining Congress, Chicago, November, 
1916. 

37. The Undeveloped Powers of the South. Manu- 
facturers' Record, vol. 70, pp. 58-9 (September, 1916). 

38. The Great Need of Promoting Research in 
America. Electrical World, vol. 68, pp. 12-14 (Jan. 
6, 1917). 

39. Research. G. E. Rev., vol. 20, pp. 114-20 (Febru- 
ary, 1917) ; Address at Alumni Dinner of Mass. In- 
stitute of Technology, Jan. 6, 1917. 

40. National Need of Scientific Research. Yale Re- 
view, April, 1917. 

41. American Engineering Research. Proc, A. I. 
E. E., vol. 37, p. 115 ('18). 

42. Patent Renewal Fees, .7. Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 11, 
p. 936 ('19). 

43. What is Needed to Develop Good Research 
Workers? Electrical World, vol. 75, p. 151 ('20). 

44. The Littlest Things in Chemistry. J. Ind. Eng. 
Chem.. vol. 12, p. 599 ('20) ; Chandler Medal Address. 

Conferring the Medal 

Willis R. Whitney, Bachelor of Science and Doctor of 
Philosophy : 

It gives me the greatest pleasure, as the representa- 
tive of the Affiliated Chemical and Electrochemical 
Societies of America, to place in your hands this beauti- 
ful Perkin Medal, as a token of the appreciation and 
affection of your fellow chemists. 

The Biggest Things in Chemistry 

By W. R. Whitney 

If I were to try to justify my receiving the Perkin 
Medal I think I would begin by assuming that now 
good intentions are being rewarded. As the aim of the 
award is to promote or stimulate research, I must find 
the ways by which I can most directly do so, and so I 
ought to say something about the biggest things in 
chemistry. No matter how irrelevant some of my 
remarks may seem, I hope you will believe that they 
are aimed with that high intent. While it is a great 
honor, it is also a wonderful opportunity to write some- 
thing which may be read by 15,000 or more American 
chemists. 

In America patents are granted to individuals for 
their new disclosures. Such patents are not granted 
to organizations, to companies, nor even to laboratories. 
This is really an antique limitation, for discoveries are 
often the result of combined efforts. And so I look at 
the Perkin Medal, in my case, as an award directed to 
me, but belonging to the Research Laboratory to which 
I belong, it having not yet become customary to award 
such medals to laboratories. In any case, I heartily 
thank the various men and organizations which made 
this medal possible, and the committee of award who 
have chosen that my name shall stand on that honor 
list headed by Perkin. 

I am not going to tell of the specific researches in 
which I may have co-operated, nor of the good fellows 
who have carried them out in our laboratory, though 



January 19, 1921 



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103 



I should like to do so. One reason is that this is, to a 
considerable extent, being done all the time, through 
our laboratory system. We have always followed the 
plan of individual publication as completely as seemed 
desirable from the scientific point of view and as rapidly 
as consistent with fair commercial conditions. More- 
over, I, being almost the only man in our laboratory who 
does not often personally carry through separate 
researches, have already summarized the work of others 
until it is overdone. 

What I have to say oscillates about a central point. 
This point I see so well that I am surprised that every 
one does not see it too, and make more use of it. I am 
also at a loss to know why so many men go through 
college keeping their eyes mainly on a ball of some kind 
or other when the world is so full of greater interest. 
Perkin's life contains all the data which we need in 
analyzing scientific research, and shows at once what 
I will repeat throughout this paper — that our great 
"advances are usually made by men who are trained in 
their particular line of work and are working diligently 
just beyond the boundaries of the known. 

Perkin was a student of chemistry in one of the best 
college laboratories in England, under a great teacher 
(Hofmann), who was so imbued with the chemical re- 
search spirit that he tried to keep Perkin from stopping 
to develop technically his discovery of mauve. He 
actually left such an impression on this young man's 
mind that after years of commercial success Perkin 
returned to pure scientific research and enjoyed it for 
the rest of his life. 

The essentials appear to be : First, the teacher, enthu- 
siastic pioneer, hunting and fishing along that ever- 
expanding outer rim of knowledge; then the laboratory 
and equipment, supported by some far-sighted govern- 
ment, individual or organization. And then the school- 
boy with shining morning face. Don't say it can't be 
done, and that Perkins, Faradays and Pasteurs are bom, 
not made, for the process is entirely standardized. We 
in our schools have not realized the proper sequence, 
because we have used so much of our energy in bringing 
large numbers of men part of the way only. 

On receiving the first Perkin Medal at the time of the 
Jubilee Celebration Sir William Perkin said that he had 
all his life insisted on the importance of research and 
that this medal would accomplish a valuable result if it 
helped to encourage and stimulate activity in that direc- 
tion. He then proceeded to tell the interesting story of 
his own discoveries. Such a story is the strongest 
force he could have used to support his wish to promote 
research, and it is true that, although it would have 
been more agreeable to him if some one else could have 
told the story, everyone who heard it and the countless 
chemists who live to read it are glad no one else told it. 

Early Interest in Chemistry 

No greater satisfaction in connection with my own 
life's work could come to me than to contribute to the 
encouragement and stimulation of research. If I can 
help it to an appreciable extent by telling any unpub- 
lished portions of my own story I will willingly 
disregard for a few moments a natural reluctance to 
talk about myself, 

I learned that Prof. Perkin became a chemist through 
the influence of an Englishman named Hall, with whom 
he came into contact when under fifteen years of age, 
and, moreover, an event which increased his desire to 
become a chemist was seeing an experiment showing 



the growth of certain crystals. I have the honor to have 
started as a chemist in this identical manner, and I 
will tell a little more about it, because I have always 
wished I had some way of expressing my gratitude to 
my particular Mr. Hall. 

When I was about fifteen years old an English mill 
owner and one of the leading citizens of my home town, 
William C. J. Hall, assisted in establishing a Young 
Men's Christian Association. He had also long been 
interested in the microscope and was a scientist such 
as we seldom find among business men today. He 
formed a free evening class for about half a dozen 
boys — all that could work together around the rotating 
table on which he placed his immense microscope. This 
was so arranged that specimen, instrument and illu- 
minating system did not have to be disturbed as they 
passed from one boy to another for observation. He 
did not merely show his specimens, of which he had 
thousands, but taught us how to prepare them in all 
the various ways now more or less common. They were 
all wonderful to me, and still are. 

My mother gave me some money which, combined with 
that of one of the other boys, purchased a small micro- 
tome, and my father gave me $75 for a microscope. 
Under Mr. Hall's guidance I bought the instrument, with 
the understanding that whenever I wanted a better one 
the old one would be taken back at the original price. 
I later procured one for $250 which, throughout thirty- 
five years, I have used almost daily. One of the first 
experiments I tried with the microscope was to pre- 
cipitate metallic silver from silver nitrate solution onto 
a speck of copper filings. Anyone who has watched 
these beautiful crystals grow knows that they are sur- 
passingly wonderful. They constituted my first 
chemistry. It was those little bottles of salts and bugs 
in alcohol that led someone to call me a chemist, and it 
apparently determined my future work. 

It does not seem now as though anyone else ever 
enjoyed a tenth of the pleasures my old microscope 
introduced to me. I find them inseparably interwoven 
with about everything I know. Even the barren North 
Pole reminds me of Andree and Amundsen and micro- 
scopic algffi which drifted across the polar circle from 
the Lena delta. The equally barren Sahara reminds me 
of Darwin and De Vries and the diatomes which were 
carried by the wind from central Africa and fell on the 
deck of the Beagle, hundreds of miles away. 

Concentrating on the Ideal 

In trying to put the truthful personal and human 
element into these notes, as previous Perkin medalists 
have done for the help of would-be research men, I find 
I cannot lay valid claim to the insurmountable difficulties 
nor to especially commendable earlv struggles which 
have helped so many others. Perhaps even this admis- 
sion, however, may have its place for the encourage- 
ment of some research man. I was early taught that a 
dollar a day was a fair wage and that frequently was 
unearned, and I quit worrying about pay so long ago 
that the date is not important. I once asked the presi- 
dent of a large technical school for a salary increase of 
$75 a year and was shown that it could not be done. 
Perhaps that wise president convinced me that financial 
rewards are not the main thing. At any rate I believe it. 

In mapping milestones not mentioned before I want 
to express my indebtedness to Prof. A. A. Noyes, who 
showed me some of the interesting things in the science 
of chemistry. He let me work with him on some 



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physicochemical researches, and this work was respon- 
sible for my later spending two years with Ostwald in 
Leipzig and a summer with Friedel in Paris. Work 
with these men gave me a feeling of surety in chemistry 
that no mere talk could ever have done. I ought to say 
that one of our first joint researches, so far as publica- 
tion was concerned, had the peculiar effect of freeing me 
forever from the wiles of college football, and if that 
is a defect make the most of it! Dr. Noyes and I 
conceived an idea on sodium aluminate solutions on the 
morning of the day of a Princeton-Harvard game ( as I 
recall it) that we had planned to attend. It looked as 
though a few days' work on freezing point determina- 
tions and electrical conductivities would answer the 
question. We could not wait, so we gave up the game 
and stayed in the laboratory. Our experiments were 
successful. I think that this was the last game I have 
ever cared about seeing. I mention this as a warning, 
because this immunity might attack anyone. I find that 
I still complainingly wonder at the present position of 
football in American education. 

The Bigger Things 

I would prefer now to talk about the biggevSt things 
in chemistry, not so that I may be facetious, nor yet 
to form a companion piece to a talk on the littlest 
things. Far from it. In fact, so far from it that after 
having some of my thoughts in preliminary notes for 
years, with a conviction that they ought to be expressed, 
I have always deferred it. I feared that I was not just 
the man to say it. 

We are all interested in the detailed and specific 
advances which constitute our science. We know that 
it is from these little things that the largest ones grow. 
We see a certain similarity between the history of Prof. 
Perkin's mauve, with its subsequent enormous develop- 
ment of the dye, medicine and explosive industries, and 
the development of the living acorn into the spreading 
oak tree. But we should sometimes look at the forests 
from the plains, without obstructions. And we want 
to know our chemistry, too, in its relation to the genera! 
landscape. Some kind of an inner man advises us not 
to think exclusively of the littlest things, the parts of 
some whole, but sometimes to give constructive thought 
to the ultimate objects, to our aims at large, our chief 
pretensions, our real ambitions, our main direction of 
motion. Are these consistent with or independent of 
our temporary and apparently vacillating movements? 

I know from experiment (as we usually say) that no 
two chemists would agree at first as to what constitute 
the most important things of chemistry. I have found, 
however, that if we say that the "possibilities" are the 
biggest things, then today there is some agreement 
among experts. 

Tested Laws 

Chemistry is one of those branches of human 
knowledge which has built itself upon methods and 
instruments by which truth can presumably be deter- 
mined. It has survived and grown because all its pre- 
cepts and principles can be retested at any time and 
anywhere. So long as it remained the mysterious 
alchemy by which a few devotees, by devious and dubious 
means, presumed to change baser metals into gold it 
did not flourish, but when it dealt with the fact that 
56 g. of fine iron, when heated wUh 32 g. of flowers 
of sulphur, generated extra heat and gave exactly 88 g. 
of an entirely new substance, then additional steps could 



be taken by anyone. Scientific research in chemistry, 
since the birth of the balance and the thermometer, has 
been a steady growth of test and observation. It has 
disclosed a finite number of elementary reagents com- 
posing an infinite universe, and it is devoted to their 
inter-reaction for the benefit of mankind. The rate of 
this advance in chemistry is in our day almost incredibly 
great. 

The History Path 

Mark Twain's little history game has given me a 
view of our rate of development, and particularly of 
modern as compared with ancient affairs, that I want 
to pass along to you. Possibly some of you have thought 
of the rate of mental development, of material develop- 
ment and of power developments as involving only a 
fairly uniform change through all time. This is not so 
at all. But to shorten this story: I started from a 
certain point in the woods with a measuring tape and 
marking tools and laid out a winding path 1,000 ft. 
long. I cut smooth marking places on all trees along the 
way and on some large rocks. I appropriated 1 ft. length 
of this path for each year's history since Willia:m the 
Conqueror (the year 1000), and spent the rest of my 
time properly locating prominent events along the path, 
down to 1,920 ft, 

I was impressed by the 45-ft, length of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, near the middle of the way, and such a 
short distance from Columbus and the discover^' of 
America, Stockings and pins and sugar (except as 
medicine) came into the path about there. But of 
interest to us particularly is that all the great chemists 
began to arrive together near the 1,850-ft. point. This 
seemed very recent. It meant that most of the super- 
stitions about matter began to disappear only about 250 
ft. back, so to speak. You all know the story, but for 
75 or 80 per cent of my measured path, and for the 
interminable portion representing all time prior to 
1000 A,D, (which I let wind without construction or 
destruction back the mile or more which might still 
have been historically illustrated), there had been no 
need for more than four supposed elements, earth, air, 
fire and water. It was not the old facts but the dimen- 
sions which impressed me. While a foot is ample space 
in which to erect monuments to everything we know- 
about any year chosen in the fifteenth century, and a 
single tree could be signpost for all the cards on events 
for any century a little earlier, there was great lack of 
space for descriptive matter beyond the 1,800-ft. point. 

All down the line, to within a stone's throw of the end, 
individual man-power had been the important energ>-. 
and then as power it almost disappeared. Within 200 
ft. of the end, which stood for the present day, steam 
had been put to use, and there came in turn the myriads 
of machines which multiplied a thousand-fold the pre- 
vious constant and limited muscular power of man. No 
one can accurately determine the added spread of effort 
due to this substitution of coal for human strength, and 
then of machines, one for another. 

Within 30 ft, of the end of the path a score of new- 
chemistries had grown into activity, and every single 
one seems more promising than the original stem: 
physical, colloidal, subatomic, radio, metabolic, biologic, 
enzymic, piezo, therapeutic — all growing infants. Thus 
the time seems almost near when, to quote Carnegie, 
"the mind, like the body, can be moved from the shade 
into the sunshine." 

This interesting game of Mark Twain's actually 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



105 



chokes itself off mechanically when one tries to post 
modern chemical work at one foot per year. New facts 

f. now take about that space when posted edgewise in 
abstract journals, a dozen items per page. What this 
game, applied to chemistry, had done for me is to show 

|. me the almost inconceivably great strides in countless 
lines which constitute our modern chemistry, and it 
leaves me with the feeling that no one in the world has 
ever had such possibilities open to him as the present- 
day student of chemistry. 

Creative Chemists 

Perkin was a well-prepared research chemist when 
he made his discoveries. He was just the kind of man 
of which we produce too few. Only a very small number 
of our students get so far in the science as he went under 
Prof. Hofmann, and nowadays, in order to go so far, one 
must go much farther, for, as Wendell Phillips said, "to 
be as good as our fathers were, we must be a good deal 
better." The process Perkin followed is the same one 
which has led to most of our discoveries. It is the 
_. encouragement of natural inquisitiveness under the best 
conditions. It is using the newest knowledge and best 
tools in exacting pieces of work. No short-cut and 
easy process would have produced dyes from tar. Such 
efforts could not even find a way to make tar acceptable 
for road material. 

One of the biggest things in chemistry for us today 
is to learn how to bring about the productive teaching 
of chemistry. The desirable qualities are illustrated by 
the life of Wohler, who prepared the first organic com- 
pound when the consensus of opinion (and infinite 
argument) favored the theory that organic compounds 
were only producible through a mysterious vital force. 
Pasteur's work is another case of a trained research 
chemist, and every American should learn his ways. 
What such explorers seek are not imaginary points on 
a drifting field of perpetual ice in an uninhabitable 
world, but something which may possibly help every 
individual who lives after them. 

We might have similar results developing in chemistry 
today, but they call for the good teachers and the highly 
trained observer, with well-backed faith. These two, 
high training and faith, are an uncommon pair with us. 
They seldom grow within the same Yankee. 

Expansion of Inorganic Development Work 

I need not repeat what is known about the many 
disclosures of inorganic chemistry. How, within the 
past few years, chemical science has at least doubled the 
number of available metals, and so raised to the wth 
power the possible alloys. All these new metals are 
generally coming into use, as you know. 

I am often reminded of metallic calcium in this con- 
nection, because it is really still being born, but the 
process is the old one. It was produced by high-grade 
electrochemical research, and the discoverer in de- 
scribing the process said : "We do not know now of any 
use for this new metal, but when its properties and pro- 
duction are understood it will probably find its place." 

It is almost useless to think otherwise. Here is a 
chemical element the compounds of which are as 
numerous and whose ores are as rich as those of any 
element known. The isolation of the metal is not so 
simple as in the case of zinc, copper, iron or tin, and 
its properties are different, but, as usual, it is differing 
properties which determine the new use. It is worth 
telling in passing that during the war we made this 



metallic calcium and found two widely different uses for 
it. One was as a suitable generator of hydrogen to main- 
tain very high pressure of this gas inside certain deep- 
sea sound-detecting devices, where the sea water itself 
was the other reagent. The reaction was slow and well 
suited for this work. The other use is as a continuously 
reacting purifier for argon in the tungar rectifier. This 
latter is now the basis of a considerable manufacturing 
business. It is interesting, from the chemical research 
standpoint, because it consists of a bulb made of a 
special new glass, a tungsten wire spiral, an artificial 
graphite electrode, a little argon gas and some metallic 
calcium. Within the spread of my brief experience 
there was a time when any part of this combination 
would have been an impossibility from lack of every one 
of these chemical materials. And so I note such re- 
searches as Prof. Lehner's on selenium oxychloride. and 
I say to myself, "Watch it grow." To add such a liquid 
to our little category will prove an ever growing utility. 

We ask ourselves. Can there be greater fields of new 
organic chemical research than that which met Perkin 
as a student? Is not tar the last big raw material? The 
answer is simple. New fields are greater in number 
because the territory of chemical knowledge is so 
greatly broadened and the new tools are so numerous. 
The results will depend solely on mentality — not tar. 
Is it not within reason that another as great a field as 
dyestuffs will be developed directly from carbon itself, 
for example? The entering gates to organic chemistry, 
reached by the shortest road, were apparently opened 
when calcium carbide was first made. Thus, starting 
with two of our most abundant mineral products, coal 
and limestone, and adding water alone, we are supplied 
with the endothermic gas, acetylene. From this point 
almost anything organic seems possible. When we 
realize that the manufacture of acetone, alcohol, etc., has 
been thus made possible from these inorganic raw 
materials we might as well expect, by the same road, 
useful food as certainly as medicaments. 

I am repeatedly pointing to need in our country for 
the highest class of chemical preparation. It is not 
enough to talk of the importance of fuel, of the con- 
servation of coal, of the possible use of benzene or 
alcohol in our motors. Such nave already become prob- 
lems, and we have a hundred thousand engineers in the 
country capable of solving them. Some of these men 
have already carried out the manufacture and use of 
hexahydrabenzene in motors, for example, but the chem- 
istry itself, as a science, though still infinitely promis- 
ing, is relatively neglected. 

Experiments in Agriculture 

Possibly one of the biggest things in chemistry lies 
in agriculture, but it would be futile fo^ me to treat 
of its research by the modern truthful but standardized 
method. It is admitted that we need more and better 
fertilizers. We now use nearly $200,000,000 worth 
annually. It is true that we have recently spent many 
million dollars on nitrate plants. We also think we 
need half a million tons of potash annually, and of this 
we can see how to produce locally only about 10 per 
cent. We want synthetic ammonia and we can get it. 
because during the war we were forced to adopt pro- 
duction methods derived from foreign chemical research. 

I do not need to go farther with agriculture in order 
to prove that I am not a real farmer, but I insist on 
doing so because I want to make clear the thought that 
possibly our troubles in general with Nature are some- 



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Vol. 24, No. 3 



times due to our personal limitations, not to the limita- 
tions of Nature. 

It looks to me as though possibly man had developed 
most of the cultivated fruits of the field along the line 
of maximum human exertion and immunized them to 
everything else. I draw this hasty conclusion from a 
single experiment of my own. Last year I procured 
some special high-grade seed corn and treated portions 
of it in widely different ways. In one case the kernels 
were planted, properly spaced, through holes in large 
sheets of paper placed on new ground which had had 
its grass killed by a year's covering with gravel, which 
was then removed. The paper was to discourage the 
weeds and make hoeing unnecessary. Other hills were 
planted without the paper, and still others in which 
the soil was taken up, softened and replaced. None of 
these new-type gardens was disturbed during the sum- 
mer. Less radical experiments, including nothing at 
all but muscular effort, were tried on other hills in an 
old type garden. 

Knowing how corn had been produced through thou- 
sands of years of applied work, the results could have 
been foreseen. All that grown on new soil, protected 
by paper from weeds and from evaporating winds, took 
the whole summer to grow about a foot high. It looked 
very mature, but didn't bother to produce any ears. 
That which had been about buried in modern artificial 
fertilizer, and well hoed, pulled through somehow, and 
that which had been manured and most energetically 
hoed did the best and gave a normal corn crop. 

The growing of corn and grain is an older process 
than making wire nails and cannot be so easily im- 
proved. It has developed with no fair regard to human 
labor, and will take more novelty of effort to change it 
than was employed in freeing manual labor from nail, 
screw and bolt making, or from the production of arti- 
ficial indigo or synthetic camphor. 

When one reads of the experiments of Loeb on the 
rate of grovvi;h of bryophyllum shoots as influenced by 
various schemes of cutting leaf from stem, etc., one can 
hardly doubt that new truth, learned for itself alone, in 
some such way, may at least rearrange some parts of 
future agricultural research. Anyone who has annually 
tried to kill a burdock by any means short of complete 
eradication, or who has watched the persistency with 
which a lot of wild chicory will grow to maturity in the 
almost imaginary crack between a reinforced concrete 
road bed and the adjoining separate curbstone, will 
appreciate the thought that some time, somehow, man 
may successfully direct his researches toward the growth 
of useful vegetation with reduced, not increased, human 
labor. 

Medical Research 

Many biggest things in chemistry are coming from 
chemical research in the field of life and health. When 
I recall the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 
and think of the international character of its men and 
work I incline to the belief that through such re- 
searches in chemistry and allied sciences the countries 
of our world may be more certainly finally allied than 
by the system of countless peaceful words coupled with 
increasing armaments. There I have seen Carrel, 
French scientist of the purest type, keeping chicken 
tissues growing on microscope slides for nearly a decade 
in order that he may carry out those quantitative experi- 
ments which lead to exact medical science. In such an 
institution a class of refined and exhaustive research 



work can be done whose results stand as foundation 
stones on which doctors and surgeons of all lands may 
build at once. The diplomacy of such institutions leaves 
no room for international spies. The results, as soon 
as verified, are published to all quarters of the globe. 
Jacques Loeb, studying the amphoteric properties of 
gelatine or the temperature coefficient of the life-reac- 
tions of fruit flies, is putting permanent points of 
observation on the graph of human knowledge where 
all may see, confirm and use them. The little Japanese 
Noguchi, a most attractive enthusiast and a co-worker 
of Dr. Flexner's for nearly twenty years, is now all 
wrapped up in yellow fever work. He has isolated the 
germ and prepared the preventive vaccine and the im- 
munizing sera. Thus he adds some of the finishing! 
touches to that story of a fight which has been under) 
way since 1900, when Dr. Lazear knowingly risked andL 
lost his life by letting a certain mosquito bite him. 

Wonders of the Brain 

If we think of the brain as the workshop of the mind, 
and then look back over the history of the growth of 
brains, we find that this workshop first appeared as a 
relatively very small portion of the mass of the early 
animals. All the prodigious vertebrates of the mesozoic 
period had exceedingly small brains in proportion to 
their bodies. The brain size in comparison to the size 
of the animal has always been on the increase. In man 
and his forerunners this is also well known. But it is 
significant that even with man there is no continuing 
brain growth when he is kept from doing or thinking 
something new. The Egyptian fellaheen, who were kept 
at unchanging labor for many centuries, possessed the 
same size brain cavity at the end as at the beginning 
of that period. But the diameters of the brain cavities 
of the early man-forms after the chimpanzee (the 
Trinil, Piltdown and Neanderthal men) stand to man as 
at present in about the relation of the numbers 12, 13, 
14 and 15. 

And yet, in this most modern workshop, the energy 
which is consumed is so small, when compared to the 
work done by other organs of the body, that it cannot 
be measured as energy at all. It is easy to measure the 
work done by the little finger and express it in calories 
consumed from the food eaten. The most extensive 
mental exercise is much more economical of energy. In 
other words, we have not yet taxed the mind's work- 
shop from the energy or work point of view. All this 
means that, following the direction of natural develop- 
ment, there need be no lack of that brain power oi 
mentality which is needed to handle all that we may 
wish to know and think. 

Mentality 

The biggest thing of all in research is the mental 
effect, the projecting of a beam of light into the infinite 
and the growth of man's appreciation. I can scarcely 
touch the many connections here. But in delicacy and 
sensitiveness the mind far transcends the wireless re- 
ceivers which yet read, half around the world, a message 
sent by a few watts of energy. And I need say nothing 
about its possibilities as a power producer or controller. 
In co-operative woi*k minds multiply, instead of adding 
together, and growth of mind depends on the experi- 
ments or the reactions with things. Whether mind is 
polarized energy, or merely a long habit, may still be in 
doubt, but there can be little doubt as to what expands it. 

Not very long ago it was safer to conceal new truths 



Janv/iry 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



107 



than to disclose them. If a man wished to die by some 
horribly ingenious method he had but to discover some- 
thing like the rotundity or mobility of the earth and 
insist on it. For advocating justification by faith alone 
he would be burned alive. Dabbling with intangible 
matters which led only to disputation was gradually 
displaced by increased attention to immediate surround- 
ings. 

Is it too much to say that through research into 
materials the main advances in physical and mental 
welfare take place? Where do we meet contradiction if 
we say that, except for research or experimental study 
of matter, we stand still or mill about in circles filled 
with superstitions? Particular attributes of the human 
mind may well have reached higher altitudes in some 
previous age, as is usually claimed. In specific lines of 
human undertaking we can but accept this as true. We 
have no Homer among our poets, no Cellini nor Angelo 
nor Da Vinci among our artists. Plato and Aristotle and 
many others ages ago equaled our present-day logicians. 
Such are the nuggets of truth which the seeker for 
values in history is apt to dig up. As architects or 
sculptors or hewers of stone we may be retrogressing, 
and in any selected development we may have passed 
zeniths, but all the time the knowledge of the universe 
and of each atom of it, from the tiny flower of the 
crannied wall to the sun which brings it forth and the 
stars which so immensely exceed this, has been rapidly 
increasing. The only perpetual motion is the growth 
of truth. Possibly faith, hope and love are not at a 
maximum in our age, but they may be, and through all 
ages there seems to run Tennyson's one "increasing 
purpose." Only one sure line of continuing increments 
can be traced. It is not the line of the search for 
waters of eternal youth. It is not the series of phi- 
losopher-stone experiments, though a few of them con- 
tributed to the steady growth of our horizon. It is 
not the line of ascetism, stoicism, religious tolerance 
or intolerance of any form, nor yet the political systems 
of the widest variety. They are now useless except as 
they added to the accumulating mass of truth. Appre- 
ciation of environment has always increased. 

Religion 

Ihe natural desire for religious truth has been re- 
sponsible for most colleges and universities. They 
served first to encourage learning and prepare religious 
teachers, but only recently has it become the recognized 
duty of universities to seek truth by investigation of 
material things. Goldwin Smith wrote of Oxford in the 
early days that, "For the real university students the 
dominant study was that of the school of philosophy, 
logical and philosophical, with its strange jargon; an 
immense attempt to extract knowledge from conscious- 
ness by syllogistic reasoning instead of gathering it 
from observation, experience, and research, mocking 
by its barrenness of fruit the faith of the enthusiastic 
student. The great instrument of high education was 
disputation often repeated, and conducted with the most 
elaborate forms in the tournament of the schools, 
which might beget readiness of wit and promptness of 
elocution, but could hardly beget habits of calm investi- 
gation or paramount love of truth." 

The uptrending curve of recognized facts might be 
called Nature's appreciation curve, or the growth of 
mind. While cattle eat, drink and die with no more 
appreciative attitude toward their surroundings than 
shown in previous ages, mankind has accumulated, by 



experiment, everything that distinguishe.s him. But 
certainly the end of this growth is far away and .still 
out of sight. When men can talk so glibly about their 
closeness to a Creator and yet uniformly show, by de- 
structive warfare, their extreme remoteness, surely the 
great undertaking, whatever it means, is not nearly 
complete. We have much to learn. 

May it not be possible that the human urge for new 
tinith, the world trend for clearness of vision in ma- 
terial thingi-, will be justified? Can there be a better 
way of appreciating the wonders of creation than by 
looking into them, uncovering, understanding and appre- 
ciating them? 

I should identify all search for scientific truth with 
the highest religious aim, no matter what the cult. I 
would point out here that our inactivity and inappre- 
ciation in the presence of infinite, undeveloped truth is 
the most inexcusable type of error and unfaithfulness. 
It is intense faithlessness, no matter what conception of 
a Creator we adopt. 

There is no better (perhaps no other) way of going 
forward in the new paths which instinctively attract us 
than by using new material knowledge. Is it not pos- 
sible that words of affection, of sympathy and promise 
of all kinds, helpful, heartfelt and beautiful as they 
may be, are only the paper money of our transactions, 
and that behind them there should be gold of service in 
which to pay the promises? 

I do not look at this as crass materialism. We all 

know that the mere chemical reactions of the brain are 

not the whole story. A measuring machine repeating 

automatically all the motions of the scientist would not 

interest us at all. Appreciation of the infinite is not 

mechanical, but truth is necessary for appreciation. 

John Burroughs has said: "Every day is a Sabbath day 

to me. All pure water is Holy Water, and this earth 

is a celestial abode. It has not entered into the mind 

of any man to see and feel the wonders and mysteries 

and the heavenly character of this world." Yet most 

of what even .John Burroughs, sees and appreciates is 

outside of the infinitely beautiful and orderly realms 

of modern chemistry. When we are first old enough 

to ask ourselves questions we are so mature that we 

seem already surrounded by an infinitely complex and 

interesting environment. A persistent and age-old 

instinct makes us want to wander 

"Into regions yet untrod 

And read what is still unread 

In the manuscripts of God." 

And it has developed that in no other way may we hope 
to understand and appreciate. Chemists should natu- 
rally be the first and greatest appreciators. Research is 
appreciation. 

Efficiency of Electroplating Greatly Increased 

Much interest has been aroused by the account given 
at a joint meeting of the Faraday Society and the 
Institute of Metals held in Sheflfield of a discovery made 
in the university of that city which vi^ill increase the 
output of electroplating factories by 100 per cent. Frank 
Mason, the inventor, who is lecturer in electrometallurgy 
and electrochemistry in the university, discovered by 
experiment that by a change in the chemical composi- 
tion of the electrolyte the maximum current of the bath 
could be increased by over 100 per cent and the process 
of electroplating performed in less than half the time 
taken by the existing method. — The Engineer, Nov. 26, 
1920. 



108 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



Swedish Electric Pig Iron Furnace 



Brief Description of the Constructional Details, Methods of Starting and Operation — Gray Iron, Low in 

Sulphur, May Be Had by High Power Input — Operating Figures 
for Long Campaign in 1920 — Estimate of Cost 

By JONAS HERLENIUS 

Secretary-Treasurer Hamilton & Hansell, Inc. 



FOR various reasons the question of electric iron 
ore reduction has lately been of vital interest, not 
only in this country but throughout the v^^orld. 
The increased price of coke and consequently pig iron, 
the higher cost of transportation and the present ample 
development of cheap hydro-electric power in vast terri- 
tories where suitable ores and charcoal are available 
for the production of a higher grade of pig iron, are 
probably the main reasons why this question has been 
brought into the limelight. Another fact, which may 
also have an important bearing on the subject, is that a 
certain type of furnace for this purpose has been suc- 
cessfully used in Sweden, although very little informa- 
tion regarding operating results and performances is 
available to anyone desiring to make a study of the situ- 
ation. It is the object of this article to describe the 
Swedish electric pig iron furnace and to summarize 
briefly some of the results from its use as a commercial 
unit for iron ore reduction. 

Development 

In 1909 the first Swedish electric pig iron furnace was 
installed in Domnarvet, Sweden. It was in operation 
for about three months, but afterward was shut down 
for a long period. On the basis of the results obtained, 
however, a special trial plant was built in 1910 at Troll- 
hattan, Sweden, by "Jernkontoret" (the Swedish Iron 
and Steel Institute), on a government appropriation in 
order to develop an electric-furnace type that would 
satisfactorily replace the ordinary charcoal blast fur- 
nace. The trials were conducted with skill and accur- 
acy by expert engineers for nearly two years and the re- 
sults obtained proved to be very satisfactory, both from 
a practical and economical standpoint. Several of these 
furnaces have since been installed in various steel 
plants in Sweden, so that at the present time a total of 
twelve units are in operation in that country, ranging in 
size from 2,200 to 8,000 kva. transformer capacity. In 
addition, there are also similar furnaces in operation or 
contracted for in Norway, Italy, Japan and Brazil. 

Description of Furnace 

The furnaces are installed in buildings of brick, con- 
crete or steel construction containing the entire fur- 
nace and its surrounding pig beds and provided with 
spacious charging floors. The furnace proper consists 
of a wide melting chamber or crucible, above which is 
a shaft with a bell-charging apparatus at the top. Fig. 
1 is a section of a typical modern furnace; the dimen- 
sions are special for each installation and have to be cal- 
culated for the capacity, the kind of ore, the charcoal 
or coke available and the grade of pig iron to be pro- 
duced. The shaft is thus designed in accordance with 
the general practice for common blast furnaces, except 



for a recent tendency to widen out the lower section, 
making the diameter of the shaft at its junction with 
the crucible even larger than at the bosh. 

The entire brickwork and shell plate of the shaft are 
suspended independently of the crucible. A steel ring is 
attached to the shell plate and rests on brackets and 
cross-girders supported by three or four columns, either 
a part of the furnace building or preferably independent 
of it. The bottom of the shaft is an iron ring, which 
makes a flexible joint with a corresponding watercooled 
ring serving as a skewback for the bricks in the cru- 
cible roof. The shell has an extension of from 6 to 9 
ft. above the stockline and carries the charging bell. In 
this extension openings are made for the gas outlets. 

The crucible is cylindrical and is contained in a mild 
steel shell resting on beams supported by a concrete 
foundation. The electrodes are inserted through the 
thin brick roof at an angle of about 65 deg. to the hori- 
zontal. 

The entire shaft is lined with firebrick and the thick- 
ness of the wall is about 18 in. for the upper and middle 
sections and about 14 in. for the lower. The crucible is 
also usually lined with firebrick, although lately rammed- 
in coke or waste electrodes have been used with good suc- 
cess both in the bottom and in the sidewalls. The roof 
is lined with special shaped firebrick. To prevent it 
from raising, on account of the gas pressure within the 
crucible, an outside latticed steel construction suitably, 
braced and connected to the shell plates is provided. 

Gas Circulation 

The waste gases from the furnace are taken through 
either one or two openings in the throat. They are car- 
ried in gas conduits of sheet iron, with internal water 
sprinkling, to a large dust catcher, and from there to 
suitable washers and scrubbers for cleaning and cooling. 
The gas is drawn from the furnace through these appa- 
ratus by an exhauster having a capacity of 1,700 to 
2,800 cu.ft. per minute at 14-in. water gage. This 
exhauster is direct connected to a 20- to 30-hp. totally 
inclosed variable speed motor. It is specially constructed 
to deal with the gas and has internal water-spraying 
appliances. A duplicate set is always installed in parallel 
for emergency, and one of them is periodically shut 
down for cleaning. 

A portion of the gas is returned to the furnace by 
means of either one of the above-described exhausters, 
or in order to assure a constant supply, by a separate 
rotary blower of the same capacity, but operating under 
a pressure of about 20-in. water gage. This gas is 
forced into the free space between the charge and the 
roof of the crucible, through a number of tuyeres in the 
wall. They are supplied from a bustle pipe and point 
upward to blow the gas directly underneath the roof in 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



109 



order to cool it. There is consequently a certain quan- 
tity of gas circulating through the furnace, which is 
beneficial for the preheating of the charge in the shaft 
and for facilitating the preliminary reduction of the 
ores. The volume of this circulating gas is constant 
and the gas formed during the process is, therefore, 
available for heating auxiliary boilers or furnaces in 
the plant. For this purpose it is of particular impor- 
tance on account of its high B.t.u. value. 

Electrodes 

The electrodes used are almost exclusively made of 
amorphous carbon and number from four to eight, de- 
pending on the capacity of the furnace. They are round, 
24 in. in diameter, have nipple joints for continuous 



Charging Floor. 




FIG. 1. SECTION OF A TYPICAL. SWEDISH ELECTRIC 
PIG-IRON FURNACE 



feed and can be loaded up to about 16,000 amp. Heavy 
water-cooling boxes and gas glands are placed in the 
apertures where the electrodes enter the crucible roof 
and close to them are water-cooled contact clamps of 
copper directly connected to the busbar work. As the 
power input is regulated by changing the potential on 
the transformers, there is no need of electrode adjust- 
ment except as they are consumed. The feeding mech- 
anism for that reason is extremely simple and consists 
cnly of a screw drive with handwheels. The electrodes 
are mostly supplied from Sweden or Germany; Amer- 
ican makes have been used extensively, the price, how- 
ever, being at present too high on account of prevailing 



rate of exchange and the high freight rates. Graphite 
electrodes have been used .successfully, although no 
figures on their cost are available in comparison with 
amorphous carbon. There is a possibility, however, that 
such electrodes will be necessary on account of their 
high current conductivity in larger furnaces requiring 
more power and where consequently a higher amperage 
must be carried. 

Cooling System 

In addition to the electrode coolers and contact clamps, 
there are various other parts of this furnace that must 
be water-cooled. For instance, at the flexible joint 
between furnace shaft and crucible there is a water- 
cooled ring. In the shaft brickwork, at the tap hole, 
tuyeres, etc., there are water pipes and coolers in accord- 
ance with standard blast-furnace practice. Further- 
more, most furnaces lately installed have a complete 
water-spraying device for the entire shell of the crucible. 
In addition water is required for cooling the transform- 
ers, exhausters, gas conduits and for cleaning the gas. 
It is, therefore, of utmost importance that an ample 
water supply be provided at suitable pressure and that 
the operation of the system be safeguarded against 
breakdown. For that reason centrifugal pumps are 
always installed in duplicate, each having a capacity of 
about 200 gal. per minute. In addition a tank of about 
500 cu.ft. capacity is situated on the charging floor at a 
higher level than the furnace. This is desirable to pro- 
vide against any temporary failure of the main supply 
pipes. 

The crucible roof is air-cooled on the outside by means 
of blast supplied from a small rotary blower connected 
to a 5-hp. motor. 

Handling of Slag and Iron 

Usually both cinder and iron notches are provided. 
For very rich charges, however, only the iron notch 
is used. The iron is run in launders to the pig beds, 
as shown in Fig. 2, or may be poured in a ladle for 
transportation to a mixer or bessemer converter. The 
slag is collected in large pots and the arrangements 
for tapping or handling iron and slag do not differ 
from general blast-furnace practice. 

Electrical Equipment 

The operating current for this type of furnace may 
be either two-phase or three-phase, depending upon the 
furnace capacity. The average size furnace has about 
a 3,000 to 4,000 kva. transformer bank, consisting of 
three single-phase transformers which ,are delta con- 
nected on primary. On secondary six independent 
phases are induced, each connected to one electrode, 
making a total number of six. Larger furnaces have 
two single-phase transformers which are Scott-con- 
nected for incoming three-phase, giving a two-phase, 
four-wire system. On secondary each conductor is 
then connected to two electrodes, making a total num- 
ber of eight. 

The transformers are installed as close to the fui*- 
nace as possible in order to use a minimum amount of 
busbar copper and to avoid excessive current loss by 
induction. The transformers are specially constructed 
to withstand the heavy duty imposed upon them. The 
secondary voltage can be regulated in eight to nine 
steps, from 55 to 110 volts for charcoal, or from 35 
to 70 volts for coke furnaces by means of reduced capac- 
ity taps on primary coils. The tap changing is accom- 



110 



CHEMICAL AND METALLUKUlCAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 3 



plished under full load for each phase separately by 
means of eight-way primary selective break switches, 
remote operated with handwheels from outside the 
transformer room. 

The transformers and the above-mentioned selector 
break switches, together with other electrical equip- 
ment required, such as main automatic oil-circuit 
breakers, lightning arresters, power transformers, etc., 
are all installed in a separate transformer room, which 
usually is an extension to the main furnace building. 
The secondary busbar leads are brought over from the 
transformers to the furnace interlaced and are directly 
connected to the contact clamps. 

In order to cut down the cost of copper and the in- 
duction losses installations have also been made where 
one transformer unit is located directly in front of each 
pair of electrodes. Rotary fans are then necessary 
for cooling the transformers. This arrangement, how- 
ever, is not practical from an electrical standpoint espe- 
cially with respect to primary interconnections. 

All instruments necessary for the electrical control 
of the operation are mounted on panels conveniently 
situated on a level with the roof of the crucible. The 
handwheels and handles for operating the primary 
switches are mounted on panels that fit into the wall 
of the transformer room. 

The incoming primary current on the different 
Swedish installations varies from 6,800 to 20,000 volts 
and in each case is stepped down directly to the operat- 
ing voltage of the furnace. The number of cycles does 
not seem to have much bearing on the matter, as there 
are installations on 25- and 50- as well as on 60-cycle 
current. 

Heat Generation 

The heat in the furnace is generated by the passage 
of current between the electrodes and is proportional 




FIG. 2. LOWER PORTION OF FURNACE AND IRON RUNNER 



to the voltage between any pair of electrodes. The 
power input is regulated by changing the potential on 
the transformers, and the connections are arranged so 
that the transformers can operate without injury with 
different phase voltage. This is an important feature, 
as the power input is usually regulated according to 
ammeters or wattmeters which are connected to the 
secondary busbar leads for each electrode. The opera- 
tor must endeavor to maintain an even power input for 
each electrode and must change the potential when- 
ever necessary. As the resistance of the charge be- 
tween the electrodes changes the potential has to be 
adjusted to maintain the same power input. Occasion- 
ally, however, the power at one electrode may have to be 
increased or decreased to obtain an even melting or 
sinking of the charge. 

Charging Floor and Handling of Ore 

It is of great importance in the operation of this type 
of furnace as on all charcoal blast furnaces that the 
charge of ore, lime and charcoal or coke be properly 
distributed in fixed quantities. For this reason a spe- 
cially constructed gas-tight bell is used with double 
conical rings in which the charge is contained. The 
bell is discharged by means of a hoist by a double 
movement whereby the content of each ring is emptied 
separately. The hoist and winding gear for raising 
and lowering the bell is operated by a 4- to 5-hp. re- 
versible and totally inclosed electric motor. 

On one side of the charging floor are installed a 
number of ore bins provided with discharge gates, and 
the bell is charged by hand with a charging bucket. 
The ore bins should have a total capacity of from 70 
to 100 tons per furnace. Fig. 3 is a view of the charg- 
ing floor. 

The ore should be crushed down to 2h in. maximum 
size and preferably less. For this purpose crushers are 
installed on the ground level in a special building. 
Usually one gyratory crusher, driven by a 60-hp. motor, 
is sufficient, but for larger installations two or three 
crushers are employed. The crushed ore drops into 
a loading chute, then into an automatic skip, which 
discharges into a receiving hopper on the feed floor. 
From there the ore is distributed to the various bins 
by means of a larry-car, which can be spotted auto- 
matically. 

For smaller furnace installations the skip hoist is 
usually replaced by an inclined bucket elevator, which 
unloads onto a belt conveyor with a tripper. 

Some installations have also been made where the 
ore bins are located on the ground, in which case the 
prepared charge is hoisted up in a bucket to the charg- 
ing floor and tipped into the bell. 

Charcoal or Coke Storage 

Charcoal or coke should be stored in a special fire- 
proof building of concrete or steel construction, with 
walls and roof of corrugated iron, having a capacity of 
about a year's supply. After screening the fuel is 
loaded into buckets having a capacity of about 30 
cu.ft. and transported to the charging floor of the fur- 
nace by means of an aerial tramway. 

Working Staff 

The operation of the electric pig iron furnace re- 
quires the same class of labor as common blast fur- 
naces. For an installation of two furnaces the follow- 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



111 



ing force is necessary: One superintendent, one as- 
sistant superintendent, two chemists, three foremen, one 
electrician, one crane operator, eight common laborers 
per shift. In addition there will be required two men 
per shift for loading charcoal and fi'om three to five 
men per shift for unloading and crushing the ore. 

Starting of Furnace 

The furnace should be slowly pre-heated with a coke 
or wood fire in the crucible for about two to three 
weeks. After the ash is removed and 2 to 3 tons of 
coke is shoveled into the crucible through the electrodes 
holes about twenty charges of coke, ore and lime are 
filled in and the electrodes inserted. Carbon blocks 
are placed directly underneath each electrode to insure 
a good contact. The entire shaft is filled with charges 
of mixed ore, lime, coke and finally charcoal with slowly 
increasing ore content. The current is then switched 
on, but the gas circulation is not started until about 
two .days after. I 

Operating Data 

Swedish ores are usually very rich in iron and con- 
sist of magnetites and black hematites in the form of 
lump ore or concentrate, either crude, briquetted or 
sintered. The various ores available are mixed with 
suitable fluxes, such as bessemer slag and lime, to ob- 
tain the desired slag. In general the charges will con- 
tain anywhere from 50 up to 60 per cent of iron. Fine 
concentrates can be used dry only and to a limited 
amount, the maximum being about 30 per cent. The 
reason for this is that they have a tendency to pack in 
the shaft and stop the circulation of gas, not only on 
account of their fine character but mainly because they 
easily flux and seem to attach themselves to the re- 
fractories. This may cause scaffolding with subse- 
quent caving of the charge, serious disturbances in the 
furnace operation very difficult to overcome whenever 
they appear. (Increasing the gas pressure as a cor- 
rective would not be feasible, as the thin brick roof 
of the crucible would then give way.) The lime should 
be crushed to the size of a large walnut and usually 
does not have to be burned. In furnaces operating with 
coke, however, burning seems to be of some advantage. 

Charcoal should preferably be of pine, in lump form 
and fist size. The fine material after screening can 
be used only with difficulty and to a very limited ex- 
tent. Charcoal made of refuse from sawmiills is not 
very suitable, as it contains mostly flat pieces that stop 
the gas circulation. 

A typical analysis of Swedish charcoal is as follows: 



H2O 13.21 

Gas 11.72 



Ash 2.18 

C 72.89 



and the average weight is 40 lb. per hectoliter. 

The consumption of charcoal is, of course, dependent 
on the ores and the operation of the furnace, but in 
general will amount to only 35 to 45 per cent of the re- 
quirement in a common blast furnace. It may be of 
interest to know that during 1918 the average consump- 
tion of charcoal in all Swedish blast furnaces was 56.6 
hi. per ton, whereas in the electric pig iron furnaces 
it amounted only to 24.8 hi. 

Operation on Coke 

In regard to the operation on coke very little data 
are available, although furnaces are now running in 
Norway using a mixture of coke and charcoal as re- 



ducing agent. Trials made in Trollhattan led to the 
conclusion that the ' operation on coke was not satis- 
factory. This, however, was due to the fact that the 
furnace and equipment were not suitable for the pur- 
pose. Trials made in Tinfos and Hardanger, in Nor- 
way, showed that the dimensions of the shaft as well 
as the crucible had to be changed materially. Coke has 
a higher current conductivity than charcoal and fur- 
thermore tends to graphitize, for which reason the 
potential mus^ be lower, and suitable taps on the trans- 
formers arranged accordingly. It may, therefore, be 
assumed that a properly designed coke furnace, with 
equipment provided for the purpose contemplated, may 
be a success. An interesting report on the results ob- 
tained with coke in furnace installations in Norway 
has been written by George Stig and appeared on page 
29, July 7, 1920, issue of Chemical & Metallurgical 
Engineering. 

It has been proved that the pig iron produced from 
these furnaces is of a higher grade than the iron from 
common blast furnaces. The reason is probably that 




FIG. 3. VIEW OF charging FLOOR 

electric pig iron is more thoroughly deoxidized and, 
therefore, requires less content in Si and Mn to be suit- 
able for the open-hearth process. 

The iron and slag from electric pig iron furnaces 
are always tapped at a lower temperature than from 
common blast furnaces. This is contrary to what would 
be expected when using electricity for heating, but is 
due to the large capacity 01 the crucible. Directly 
underneath the electrodes the heat is, of course, in- 
tense, but in the center and bottom of the crucible and 
between the electrodes are fields where heat must be 
supplied by conduction. The cold gas and the effec- 
tive cooling of the roof are also features that greatly 
contribute toward lowering the temperature so that 
the average will be comparatively low. 

With an ample power input, however, the tempera- 
ture can be considerably increased so that no trouble 
has been experienced, at least in later installations, 
in producing a pig iron high in carbon and silicon and 
with a gray fracture. 

The operation of these furnaces is very simple and 
requires less labor than common blast furnaces, as 
long as no variations in the charge are made. Any 
alterations, however, in the amount of ore and coke 
must be carried out carefully, as the furnace will react 
very suddenly if the changes are made too violently 
and disturb the equilibrium in the crucible. It must 
also be borne in mind that the means to re-establish 



112 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



normal conditions are very limited for this type of fur- 
nace. Usilally the only remedy is to throw ore or coal 
into the crucible through openings in the roof, as a 
change in the charge would not have any effect until 
a long time after. 

Production of Gray Iron 

On account of the intense heat of the arcs from 
the electrodes a certain amount of calcium carbide is 
formed, which evidently has a deoxidizing effect on the 
iron. This carbide slag will also eliminate some of the 
sulphur, although not to the extent that would be ex- 
pected. As a matter of fact, the desulphurizing in these 
furnaces in usual practice is less than in the ordinary 
blast furnace, which, of course, is due to the lower 
temperature. However, with high-powered furnaces 
lately installed, sulphur has been successfully elimi- 
nated by an ample power input producing an iron of 
gray fracture and high silicon. It is, therefore, obvious 
that the introduction of carbon and silicon and the 
elimination of sulphur is a matter of using coke, power 
and time in the furnace, but can always be accom- 
plished. High-sulphur ores, however, should be roasted 
not only to save power, but to avoid the large charge 
of lime that otherwise would be necessary and that 
would make the slag too basic and sluggish. 

Most furnaces operate with a slag of about 1.4 to 1.5 
.<?ilicate degree (a sesquisilicate), which is satisfactory, 
especially when the bottom is made of crushed coke. 
Preferably, however, the silicate degree should be lower 
and down to 1.0 (a singulo-silicate), in order to avoid 
bad corrosion from a more acid slag. 

Furnace Gas 

The temperature of the gas extracted from the fur- 
nace is, of course, dependent upon the pressure obtained 
from the blower. On late installations, the temperature 
is about 400 to 550 deg. F. The dust contained in the 
gas was investigated in Trollhattan and found to be 4.63 
g. per cu.m. gas (of deg. C.) in the down-comers from 
the furnace shaft. To show the efficiency of the cleaning 
system, it may be of interest to know that after the 
washer and scrubber the content was reduced to 0.88 g. 
and in the bustle pipe to 0.62 g. 

An average analysis of the gas from this furnace 
shows results as follows: 

Volumes Volumes 

Per Cent Per Cent 

COj 23.49 CH« 1.52 

CO 63.15 N 1.49 

H 10.35 

The weight of 1 cu.ft. of dry gas was 0.081 lb. and the 
heat value 2,297 cal. per cu.m., which is equal to 258 
B.t.u. per cu.ft. dry gas. 

The gas circulation has been greatly improved lately 
by the installation of positive blowers that deliver a 
constant volume of gas. This was the key to the solution 
of a variety of difficulties, especially with respect to 
uniformity in operation. 

Repairs and Renewals 

Late figures on electrode consumption are rather high, 
probably due to their war quality. Previous to the war 
it required from 11 to 15 lb. per ton of pig produced and 
the greater part of this consumption is due to the car- 
bon dioxide of the gas being reduced by the incandescent 
carbon to CO. 

In regard to the life of refractories, the weakest point 



in the furnace is the crucible roof, parts of which must 
be renewed as they burn out during the course of oper- 
ation. For a large furnace installation of five units 
during 1917, the total production of pig iron was 29,25b 
tons and the total quantity of brick used was 416 tons. 
For 1918 corresponding figures were 25,791 tons with 
391 tons of brick and for 1919, 22,350 tons, consuming 
380 tons of refractories. 

A complete relining of the crucible roof can be accom- 
plished in about 5 days, using a force of sixteen men, 
and a complete relining of the entire furnace will take 
about one month. 

An installation of one furnace will utilize about 76 
to 77 per cent of the power, whereas for several fur- 
naces the load factor will increase and approximate 80 
per cent. The power factor is, of course, dependent on 
the number of cycles, but will average about 90 per 
cent for 25-cycle current. The efficiency of the furnace 
is about 70 to 75 per cent, based on the experience with 
the Trollhattan installation. 

Actual Results 

The results obtained from the operation of these 
furnaces are naturally greatly influenced by local con- 
ditions at the various plants, as for instance the num- 
ber of furnaces installed, the capacity and the power 
behind each unit, the kind of ore used and the charac- 
ter of the pig iron produced. 

In the following table some actual results during 
the first seven months of 1920 are given from the oper- 
ation of a large plant of several units, having a trans- 
former capacity each of 3,000 to 4,000 kva. 

Furnace 3 Furnace S 

Total amount of ore used, tons 5,733.20 6,310.41 

Total amount of lime used, tons 568.74 742.80 

Total amount of ore and lime used, tons.. . 6,301.94 7,053.21 

Total amount of charcoal, lb 2,957,440 3,112,640 

Total amount of current, kw.-hr 9,576,200 9,001,700 

Operating time, hr. and min 3,736 5 2,989 35 

Idle time, hr. and min 167 45 97 25 

Total time, hr. and min 3,903 50 3,087 

Produced pig iron: 

Open-hearth, tons 365,670 3,483.275 

Bessemer 3,307,585 

Total, tons 3,673.255 3,483.275 

Relative figures: 

Electrodes, lb. per ton pig 17.6 19.3 

Charcoal, hi. per ton pig 20.1 22.3 

Electric current, kw.-hr. per ton pig 2,605 2,580 

Average load in kw 2,565 3,020 

Pig iron per day in tons 22.5 27.1 

Per cent pig of ore charged 64.2 55.25 

Per cent pig of total charge 58.3 49.40 

Lime in per cent of ore 9.95 11.75 

Idle time in per cent of operating time. .. . 4.47 3.23 

"Ton" means metric ton of 1,000 kg., equal to 2,205 lb. (ap- 
proximately 1 long ton). 

Cost of Installation 

The total present cost in the United States of a com- 
plete electric pig iron plant with one furnace of 
4,000-kva. transformer capacity is estimated at about 
$150,000. 

New York, N. Y. 

Fire Destroys the Wilmington Leather Co.'s Plant 

The plant of the Federal Leather Co., at Wilmington, 
Del., was practically destroyed by fire which started in 
some unknown way in one of the older buildings and 
quickly spread throughout the entire works. Eleven 
buildings and valuable stock of both raw materials and 
finished leather products wei-e destroyed before the 
fire was got under control. 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



113 



Steel Castings of High Strength and Toughness — I 

A Chapter From a Forthcoming Book Giving Data on the Improvement to Be Expected After Prop- 
erly Heat-Treating Steel Castings, With Illustrative Tests on Strong, Tough Castings 

Which Have Replaced Forgings on Gun Mounts 

By FEDERICO GIOLITTI 

LJessenioi- Medalist 



IT IS useful to illustrate the great variety of results 
obtainable on various types of steel castings by 
applying the processes which have previously been 
studied in theoretical outline,* especially in connection 
with the differences existing between the effects of 
homogeneity quenchings and of mere homogeneity 
annealings. In order not to multiply the examples 
unduly, some of the more characteristic and, so to speak, 
typical instances will be chosen. 

Normalized Mild Steel Castings 

A soft steel casting containing carbon 0.2S per cent, 
manganese 0.66 per cent, silicon 0.21 per cent, phos- 
phorus 0.05 per cent, and sulphur 0.03 per cent was re- 
heated at 850 to 900 deg. C. and allowed to cool very 
slowly, requiring about thirty-six hours to reach room 
temperature. 

It showed the microstructure reproduced in Fig. 1 
and physical properties shown in Table I determined 
by pulling a tensile test-piece 12 mm. diameter and 40 
mm. long between reference points. 

A prismatic test-piece 20 mm. square tested under 
static flexure broke at an angle of 130 deg. with a 
coarsely crystalline fracture reproduced in Fig. 4. 

The same steel reheated during twelve hours at 800 
to 850 deg. C. and left to cool, requiring ten hours to 
reach atmospheric temperature, showed the microstruc- 
ture reproduced in Fig. 2 and somewhat better physical 
properties (Table I). 

The tension test revealed a "mixed" structure con- 
taining part crystalline and part fibrous texture, as 
shown in Fig. 4. The static bending piece bent into a 
U shape. 



Finally, another casting of the same steel — after 
undergoing the first treatment above mentioned — was 
reheated at 800 deg. C. during twenty minutes, 
quenched in boiling water, and finally drawn during 
one hour at 650 deg. C. Its properties, especially the 
ductility, as shown in Table I, are still better. 

The microstructure of the steel thus treated is re- 
produced in Fig. 3. The fracture of the broken test- 
piece reproduced in Fig. 4 was entirely fibrous. 

TABLE I. physical PROPERTIES OF HEAT-TREATED 



0.23 C STEEL 

Tensile Elastic 

Heat-Treatment Strength Limit 

Reheated to 875 deg. C, cooled in 

36 hr 61,600 34,300 

Reheated 12 h--. to 825 deg. C, 

cooled in 10 hr 68,000 41,000 

Complex (see text) 73,600 47,000 



Elonga- Reduction 
tion in Area 



13 

17 
17.5 



13.9 
24.8 



*"Heat Treatment of .Soft and Medium .Steel.s, 
Graw-H:il Book Co. 



Press of Mc- 



The prismatic flexure test bent into a U, similar to the 
previous one. 

Effect of Insufficient Annealing 

Another mild carbon-steel may be cited, made by the 
acid process and having the following composition : 

Per Cent 

Carbon 0.25 

Manganese 0.85 

Silicon ...;'.... 0.15 

Sulphur 0.02 

Phosphorus 0.03 

It was cast in ingots 15|- in. (400 mm.) square. Fig. 
7 shows the structure of this steel as cast. Rectangular 
bars 3^ x 5§ x 111 in. (80 x 150 x 300 mm.) were taken 
from the lower half of those ingots and subjected to 
the heat-treatments indicated in the first column of 
Table II. In the next four columns of the same table 







--v^S-"'- 



j^'- 



V 



.1 •• 



"*<.• 

/. V 



WA{*^'^. 







V?-y > ^ 





-.♦r^-^' 






FIGS. 1 TO 3 
Structure f,f 0.23 C. steel casting after various heat-treatments. 



114 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 




Fig. 4. Fracture in static bending 
after very slow cooling. 



Fig. .5. Tensile fractuio 
after normalizing 



are noted the principal tests on tension pieces 13.8 mm. 
in diameter by 100 mm. long taken from the bar after 
being subjected to the heat-treatments indicated in the 
first column. 



TABLE II. TESTS ON 0.25 CARBON CASTING 



Heat-Treatment 



— < fl a s 
£-1 



■ Physical Properties - 



Annealed at 940° C. during 45 
min. followed by slow cooling in 
the furnace 79,600 

Annealed at 850° C. during 45 
min. followed by slow cooling in 
the furnace 76,800 

Heated and cooled as No. 1 fol- 
lowed by a drawing at 700° C. 
during one hour and subsequent 
slow cooling in the furnace 

Heated and cooled as No. 2, fol- 
lowed by a drawing at 700° C. 
during one hour and subsequent 
slow cooling in the furnace 74,500 



m 13 t. 
C8—; a 



42,700 



44,200 



£3 

a t. 
o o 



17.5 
14 



C *;> 

° ^ t: 



73,200 39,800 21.5 



42,700 



26 



18 
13 

27 

35 






Fig. 8 
Fig. 9 

Fig. 10 

Fig. 1 1 



The tabulated data particularly exhibit what has been 
said relative to new heterogeneities induced by recrys- 
tallization of ferrite from a system of austenite crys- 
tals in which the greatest part of the original chemical 
heterogeneities has been undisturbed by insufficient an- 
nealing. Inherited non-uniformities are especially evi- 
dent in the large variations in ductility due to ferrite 
accumulations accentuated by the drawing operations. 
To be convinced on this point, compare structure and 
the figures for elongation and the reduction of area of 
the first and second test-pieces with the third and 
fourth. 

Limited Effect on Very Soft Castings 

In order to confirm the relatively limited effects 
which homogeneity heat-treatments produce upon the 
physical properties of very low-carbon cast steels which, 



Fig. 6. Tensile fracture 
after complex heat- 
treatment. 



by the way, never present 
the real phenomena of ingot- 
ism, I may add in Table III 
some comparative data be- 
tween the effects produced 
upon the physical properties 
of one of those steels by a pair 
of homogeneity quenchings 
of considerable energy. The 
steel examined was of follow- 
ing composition: 

Per Cent 

Carbon 0.09 

Silicon 0.028 

Manganese 0.47 

Sulphur 0.01 

Phosphorus 0.02 



TABLE III. NORMALIZATION OF 0.09 PER CENT 




CARBON STEEL 


T).- — „,*;„o 






Tensile 


Elastic 






Strength, 


' imit. 




Reduction 


Heat-Treatment 


Lb. per 


Lb. per 


Elongation, 


of Area, 




Sq.In. 


Sq.In. 


per Cent 


per Cent 


Heated at 850° C. for 3 hr., 










followed immediately by 










quenching in water and then 










drawn at 650° for 2 hr 


50,500 


30,000 


31 8 


55 8 


Heated for 14 hr. at 1100° C. 










followed immediately by 










quenching in water. Re- 










heated at 850° C. for 3 hr., 










followed immediately by 










quenching In water. Finally. 










drawn at 650° C. for 2 hr. . . . 


54,500 


33,700 


33 


60.2 



How Ingotism Exhibits Itself 

When steel is cast in quite large masses, either in 
ingots or in formed castings, the phenomena of ingot- 
ism always appear with a great deal higher intensity 
than when it is cast in smaller sections. This is due 
to the well-known fact that the slowness of cooling 
during the solidification range enhances the phenomena 
of intercrystalline liquation and segregation. Ingotism 
also shows a greater intensity when massive castings 
contain large quantities of emulsified inclusions. Evi- 
dently the steel then feels the effects of even a mild 
homogeneity heat-treatment a great deal more than it 
would were it cast in smaller masses. 

As an example of this fact, take the case of an acid 
open-hearth steel having the following composition: 

Per Cent 

Carbon 0.47 

Manganese 0.63 

Silicon 0.27 

Sulphur 0.029 

Phosphorus 0.03 

Rough castings weighing more than ten tons each for 
381 mm. gun cradles were made with this steel. One 
of these castings was heated for twelve hours at 750 



»:>- 




FIGS. 7 TO 11 
Structure of 0.25 C acid steel Ingot after various heat-treatments. X 100. Etched with alcoholic solution of picric acid. 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



115 



j:r=;^;.-:7m-- .-^■■■^'7] 




FIGS. 12 AND 13 

Impact fractures of massive 0.47 C steel casting after 
different heat-treatments. 



deg. C. Tension test-piece (cylindrical bars 13.8 x 100 
mm.) and Charpy impact samples (30 x 30 x 160 mm., 
with a cylindrical notch 4 mm. in diameter) were then 
cut from the body of this casting. 

The results of these first physical tests are contained 
in Table IV. The pulled test-piece was stretched 
throughout all its length, and the fracture of the impact 
bar revealed a coarsely crystalline structure, Fig. 12. 
These properties correspond well to the microstructure 
and are indicative of strong ingotism partly due to the 
presence of a large proportion of inclusions.' 

The same casting was reheated for seven hours at 
850 deg. C. and then left to cool in the air, so that its 
temperature dropped to 400 deg. C. in about three hours. 
The effect of the heat-treatment upon the structure 
consisted of a remarkable dissemination of the massive 
ferrite. Equally remarkable are the effects upon the 
physical properties, as shown in the table. 

The tension test-piece did not show the least stretch- 
ing along its length which produces the characteristic 
dappled surface, and the impact fracture exhibited a 



'An extended contribution on the effect of oxidized inclusions 
in steel will be published shortly in Chemical & Metallurgical 
Engineering. 




finely crystalline and partly fibrous structure shown in 
Fig. 13. 

These data well indicate the mechanical character- 
istics by which ingotism appearing in thick masses of 
cast steel exhibits itself, especially when the metal con- 
tains large quantities of emulsified inclusions. In fact 
we must conclude that the "normal" properties of this 
steel are still altered or disguised even after the long 
heating at 750 deg. C. ; denoting by the term "normal" 
properties tl e average resulting from the superposition 



TABLH !\. HKAT-THEATMEXT OF MASSIVE CASTINGS 
CO.\TAI.\I\G 0.47 PER CENT CARBON 



Tensile 
Heat-Treatment .Strength 

Heated for 1 2 iir. at 730 deg. C 76,200 

.\.s above, then reheated 7 hr. at 850 

deg. C. and air-cooled 88,000 



Elongation 
19.0 

24.0 



Charpy 

Impact, 

Kg.-M. 

per Sq.Cni. 

12 

3 61 



of the specific properties of its individual normal struc- 
tural constituents. Were this not the case, there can 
be no doubt that the effect of the second heating at 
850 deg. C, followed by slow cooling, should have 
changed the physical properties of steel, in an opposite 




FIG. 14. TESTS ON RAW 0.21 C STEEL CASTING 



FIG. 15. TESTS ON 0.21 C CASTING AFTER NORMALIZING 

AT 850 DEG. C. 

direction to those which in reality it has produced. 
The above examples confirm the idea that the average 
properties as usually determined on steel affected by 
ingotism are most probably due to the distribution and 
the continuity of the structural constituents rather than 
to the specific properties of the constituents themselves. 

Tests on Special Steels 

We should now sum up the conclusions we have 
reached regarding the results obtainable by various 
homogeneity heat-treatments when applied to castings 
for machine parts when manufactured of the types of 
steels more frequently used for such purposes. 

In order to give examples which conform to normal 
industrial conditions, I shall select steels of the average 
purity usually attained in steel foundry operation. This 
observation holds not only for "structural" or (improp- 
erly called "metallic") impurities such as sulphur, phos- 
phorus, copper, etc., but also for the "foreign" or "non- 
metallic" impurities, especially the solid inclusions. 

Results will be given for the usual physical tests — 
i. e., tensile, static bending, and impact upon a nicked 



IIG 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 3 




FIG. 16. TESTS ON 0.21 C CASTING AFTER 
AIR-QUENCHING 

bar. In addition to these it will be useful to add the 
results of a impact tension test, made by the well known 
method using Charpy's pendulum striking a fixture 
holding a cylindrical test-pipe 10 mm. in diameter by 
50 mm. long between the conical heads. The breaking 
work will be indicated in kilogram-meters, and refers 
to the initial cross-sectional area of the test-piece. All 
the static tensile tests referred to in the following 
paragraphs of this chapter were made upon cylindrical 
test-pieces 13.8 mm. in diameter by 50 mm. between 
reference points. Static bending tests were made upon 
rectangular prismatic bars 9.5 x 20 x 160 mm. The 
test-pieces were placed horizontally upon one of its 20- 
mm. faces, upon two parallel hard steel rolls 70 mm. 
in diameter, spaced 140 mm. apart on centers, and free 
to turn around their axes. The test-piece was forced 
to bend by pressure imposed upon the upper face by 
means of a 40-mm. steel cylinder whose axis was placed 
parallel to the end supports and so arranged that it 
could move up and down a vertical plane passing mid- 
way between. Pressure was maintained until the two 
ends of the test-piece were bent enough to slip between 
the two supporting cylinders, so that at the end of the 
test the piece was bent like a U with almost parallel 
legs. 

The examples to be mentioned in the following para- 



graphs are especially interesting when the physical 
properties obtainable by means of simple homogeneity 
leheatings are compared to those resulting from homo- 
geneity quenchings. 

Effect of Carbon 

Starting with ordinary carbon steels for making cast- 
ings, data relative to two steels containing 0.21 per cent 
and 0.34 per cent carbon are gathered in Tables V and 
VI. Merely for comparison, data obtained from forged 
test-pieces of the same steels have been added. Work- 
ing was done at about 1,000 deg. C, bringing a square 
bar 100 x 100 mm. down to 35 x 35 mm. Pieces for 
the various physical tests were always cut from the 
forged bars in a longitudinal direction — that is to say, 
with their long axis parallel to the direction along which 
the steel had been extended by forging. 

In the figures reproducing the appearances of the 
tension and bending tests the two tension tests shown 
on the left are those broken under a gradual pull, while 
the two at the right are those broken under longi- 
tudinal impact. The slow bend test is shown above in 
the center, while below is the fracture of the piece 
broken by the Charpy impact pendulum. These figures 
are reduced to about half natural size. Microstructure 




FIG. 17. MICROSTRUCTURE OF FORGED 0.21 C BAR. 

NORMALIZED. X 80. ETCHED WITH HXO3 

IX AMYL ALCOHOL 



TABLE V. STEEL "A," CONTAINING 0.21 PER CENT CARBON 

Statin Tensile Test ■ 

Tensile Elastic Impact Tensile Test Charpy 

Strength Limit, Elonga- Reduction Tensile Elongation Impact 

Treatment Lb. per Lb. per tion . of Area, Strength per Kg.-M. per 

Sq.In. Sq.In. per Cent per Cent Kg.-M. Cent Sq.-Cm. 

Raw casting 75,700 42,700 25 33 5 121 32 4 62 

Castmg heated at 850° C .for 3 hr. and cooled slowly 77,700 53,000 27 42 124 5 33 8 13 

Castmg heated at 850° C. quenched in air anddrawn at 550° 

,S' 79,600 55,800 28 45 128 31 9.89 

I'orgcd bar, reheated like casting No. 2 for 3 hr. at 850° C. 

and cooled slowly 80,600 55,800 32 60 112 8 29 17 12 



Static 
Flexure 

Good 
Good 

Good 

Good 



Micro- 
structure 
and 
Test.s 

Fig. 14 

Fif . 1 5 

Fif. 16 
Fig. 17 



TABLE VI. STEEL "B," CONTAINING 0.34 PER CENT CARBON 

■ ; Stat'c Tens'le Test ■ 

Tensile Elastic Impact Tensile Test 

Strength Limit, Elonga- Reduction Tcn-ile ICIongation 

Treatment ' b. per Lb. per tion of .\rea. Strength per 

Sii.In. Sq.In. per Cent per Cent Kg.-Nl. Cent 

Raw casting 86,800 51,200 18 21 29 5 7 

('a.sting heated at 850° C. for 3 hr. and cooled slowly 85,500 54,800 25 33.5 83.3 18 

Casting heated at 850'' (\ quenched in air and drawn at 

„550°C 90,600 t3.300 24 40 5 135 27 

lorged bar, reheated like "asting No. 2 for 3 hr. at 850° C. 

and cooled slowly 88,900 59,000 30 53 132 34 



Charpy 
Impact 
Kg.-.\1 . per 
.Sq.-Cm. 

17 

6 15 

7 41 
11.75 



Static 

Flexure 

Broke 

Good 

Good 

Good 



Micro- 

struc urc 

and 

Tests 

Fig. 18 
Fig. 19 

Fig. 20 

Fig. .'1 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



117 



is at an enlargement of 60 diameters, after etching 
with nitric acid in amyl alcohol. 

Two steels, which will be indicated with the letter A 
and B respectively, had the following chemical com- 
position : 

A B 

Per Cent Per Cent 

Carbon 0.21 0.34 

Manganese 0.94 96 

Silicon 0.19 0.19 

Sulphur 0.03 0.02 

Phosphorus 0.07 06 

Copper Traces Traces 

Arsenic Traces Traces 

Evidently they can be considered as differing only in 
carbon, inasmuch as the variations in all the other ele- 
ments are within analytical accuracy. 

It is easy to see that all the numerical data contained 
in the two tables, >as well as all the structures repro- 
duced in the fourteen corresponding figures, find a clear 




Fit;. 19. TESTS OX ().:'A C CASTING AFTER XORiMAI.lZING 

AT 850 DEC. C. 




FIG. 18. TESTS ON RAW 0.34 C STEEL CASTING 

interpretation in the considerations developed in the 
preceding chapters. 

The general fact may again be pointed out from the 
two examples that the differences between the effects 
produced by annealing and those produced by quenching 
are less remarkable the lower the carbon content, all 
other conditions being equal. For confirmation, com- 
pare the data contained in the tables and the corres- 
ponding half-tones. 

Comparing the microstructure and the physical prop- 
erties of the cast sample No. 3 (rapidly cooled in air 
and drawn) with those of the same steel when forged 
and annealed (No. 4) gives a concrete example of what 
has been said regarding the possible errors resulting 
whenever it is thought that the average homogeneity 
of all components in a steel can be judged on the basis 
of a microscopical examination which, in reality, re- 
veals only the distribution of the carbon. In the present 
case, for instance, the results of the physical tests re- 
veal a greater persistency of the original chemical heter- 
ogeneities in tests 3 of both steels than in tests 4, while 
the microstructure of tests 3 actually appears much 
more uniform than that of tests 4. 

Tests on Complex Nickel-Steel Casting 

Information will now be given for a nickel steel more 
responsive to homogeneity heat-treatments. Contrary 
to the experiments upon simple test-pieces described 



previously, the present results were obtained by subject- 
ing a casting of intricate form to various heat-treat- 
ments. For this reason the following data will give an 
idea of the results which can be readily obtained in the 
practical application of homogeneity heat-treatments. 

Steel used for these experiments was made in the 
acid open hearth and had the following composition : 

Per Cent 

Carbon . 26 

Manganese 0.90 

Silicon 0.18 

Sulphur . . 0.02 

Phosphorus . 0.04 

Nickel ... 1 .76 

Twenty-three pieces like that detailed in Fig. 22 were 
cast from the same heat. Pieces for physical tests 
were taken from the thicker part of the wall of the 
partly square partly cylindrical bore shown in section 
in the lower right part of the drawing. The whole 
casting had previously been subjected to a given heat- 
treatment. 

For information and as a datum, I might add that a 
bar taken from an ingot of the same heat, after being 
forged and reheated at about 850 deg. C, gave the 
following results in tension when using a cylindrical 




FIG. 20. TESTS ON 0.34 C CASTING AFTER 
AIR-QUENCHING 



118 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



TABLE VII. TESTS ON NORMALIZED CASTING OF MILD NICKEL STEEL 

-^— Static Tensile Te:t ■ 



Tensile 

Strength 

Treatment Lb. per 

Sq.In. 

Heated at 800° C. for 4 hr., followed by rapid cooling in air, completely 

cooled in 1 hr 96,000 

Heating and cooling as No. I, then drawn I hr. at 700° C, followed by 

cooling in 6 hr 86,800 

Heated at 800° C. for 4 hr., followed by a slow cooling in the furnace, 

requiring 18 hr 92,200 

Reheating and cooling as in No. 3, then drawn at 700° C. for 1 hr., fol- 
lowed by slow cooling (6 hr.) 9L700 



Elastic Elonga- 
Limit, tion. 

Lb. per per 

Sq.In. Cent 



56,000 
52,500 
52,000 
52,600 



15 
21 

28.5 
33 



Reduc- 
tion 
of 
Area, 
per Cent 

14 

22 5 

39 8 

52 8 



— Impact Tensile— Resiliency 

Test 

Tensile El^rga 

Strength, tion. 

Kg.- per 

M. Cent 



t06 

117 
145 
142 



12 

27 
35 
33 



Kg.-M. per 
Sq.Cm. 
(Charpy 
test- 
piece) 



5.1 

7 5 

8 22 
33 



Test 
Piece 

of 

Static 

Flexion 



Good 
Good 
Good 
Good 




FIG. 21. MICROSTRUCTURE OF FORGED 0.34 C BAR. 

NORMALIZED. X 80. ETCHED WITH HNO3 

IN AMYL ALCOHOL 

test-bar 20 mm. in diameter and 200 mm. long between 
reference points: 

Tensile strength 99,500 lb. per sq.in. 

Elongation 17 per cent. 

The results of the physical tests made on castings 
subjected to various indicated heat-treatments are 
gathered together in Table VII. The numerical data 
contained in this table do not need explanation and find 
easy interpretation in the body of considerations 
developed in the previous part of the book. However, 
it is useful to point out that these data, especially when 
compared with those just given, clearly substantiate a 
phenomenon known to be related to the relative fre- 
quency of the centers of ferrite crystallization. Special 
steels of this type are characterized by centers of 
secondary crystallization closely packed together. It 



^... , 





is therefore a great deal less dangerous to cool 
such special steels through the transformation range 
slowly, after a given homogeneity heat-treatment, than 
it is to do the same thing with an ordinary carbon steel. 
From this special point of view it is especially inter- 
esting to compare the differences between No. 2 and 
No. 3 of Table VII with the corresponding values con- 
tained in Tables V and VI. 

(Part II will he published in a subsequent issue.) 



Reparation of War Damages in the Pas-de-Calais 

District 

The Pas-de-Calais district was one of the principal 
sufferers from the war. The amount of damage done, 
exclusive of the heavy losses to the mines,, estimated 
on a basis of values in 1914, reached 325,000,000 fr., 
apportioned approximately as follows: Damages to real 
estate, 138,000,000; for tools and appliances damaged 
or removed, 122,000,000; for the destruction and req- 
uisitioning of raw materials, 54,000,000; and for the 
destruction or requisition of manufactured articles, 
11,000,000. 

As the greater number of the establishments damaged 
were completely destroyed, large sums will be necessa- 
ry for the reconstruction of this department. Already 
the amount for clearing away alone has reached over 
8,000,000 fr., and advances of all kinds accorded to in- 
dustrial companies for war damages exceed 200,000,000 
fr. Of this, 120,000,000 has been allotted in money for 
urgent reparations, the reconstruction of buildings, 
transportation, administration expenses and the direct 
purchase of machinery, raw materials, etc. Of 1,551 
industrial companies damaged, 400 have been set going 
again and 16 per cent of the labor employed before the 
war is now re-employed again. 

Most of the reconstruction work already done has 
been in those industries connected with the manu- 
facture and use of construction materials. Although 
much affected by the lack of coal, the brick and tile fac- 
tories and the limekilns and quarries are producing to 
their utmost. The products of these industries are 
being used as rapidly as possible in the rebuilding of 
the 66,000 houses totally destroyed and valued at 
1,320,'^00,000 fr., and the 29,000 houses partly destroyed, 
valued at 290,000,000 fr. 



FIG. ::: 



( 

DETAILS OF NICKEL STEEL TEST (' VST1X(". 



French Beet and Sugar Output 

The official forecast for the French production of 
sugar beets for the 1920-21 period, as recently published 
in the Revietv of the American Chamber of Commerce 
in France, is placed at 1,919,538 tons of beets, as com- 
pared with 1,130,907 tons for the previous year, or an 
increase of 69.7 per cent. Refined sugar production is 
estimated to be 244,260 tons, as compared with 143,328 
tons in 1919-20. Thi.^ represents an increase of 70.4 
per cent. 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



119 



The Rise and Development of the Electrolytic Alkali and 

Chlorine Industry in Europe — II 



An Outline of the Electrolytic Cells Employed in the Electrolytic Alkali and Chlorine 

Industry of the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, France, Italy, 

Switzerland, Russia and Belgium* 



By JOHN B. C. KERSHAW, F. I. C. 



I 



Electrolytic Alkali and Chlorine Industry 
in Germany 

AS STATED in Part I of this article, the first suc- 
L\ cessful electrolytic alkali works was that started 
I JL in the year 1890 at Griesheim, near Frankfort, 
in Germany, the cell used being a diaphragm type of 
cell patented by the Elektron Co. According to Lunge, 
the experimental work which led up to the design of 
the Elektron cell was initiated by three German elec- 
trical engineering firms in 1884, a common fund being 
raised for this research work. The success which 
crowned the effort gave the Germans a distinct lead 
for many years in this new branch of the chemical 
industry. 

The original Elektron works, at Griesheim, started 
with only 200 hp., but in 1892 it was doubled in size. 
At this period the writer was studying chemistry at 
Bonn University, and while there he heard with great 
surprise that success had been achieved at Griesheim 
in the manufacture of alkali by electrolytic methods, 
for at this date no one connected with the older LeBlanc 
alkali industry believed in the practicability of the 
electrolytic processes. 

The Griesheim works having proved the value of the 
cell and process, a larger works was planned at Bitter- 
feld, in Saxony, where extensive lignite deposits are 



COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCIES OF THE LEADING TYPES OF 

ELECTROLYTIC ALKALI AND CHLORINE CELLS 

(Allmand & Kershaw's figures) * 

Cathode Energy Emf. Cone, of Kw.-Hr. 

Efii- Efii- in Caustic per 

Type of Cell ciency ciency Volts Liquor Kg. NaOH 

Finlay 98 75 3.0 2N 2.0 

Billiter-Siemens 92 68 3.1 3N 23 

Vorce 97 62 3.6 ? 2 5 

Billiter-Leykam 95 59 3.7 3 to 4N 2.6 

Allen-Moore 91 59 3.5 2^ 2.6 

Whiting 92 53 4.0 5N 2 9 

Hargreaves-Bird 85 3.7 3N .. . t 

Nelson 86 53 3.8 3N 2.9 

Castner (rocking-cell) . . . 92 50 4.2 5N 3.1 

Kellner(C anodes) 95 49 4.5 5 to 6N 3.1 

Bell-jar (Aussig) 85 49 4.0 2N 3.1 

Griesheim (carbon) 70-80 45-51 3.6 I to 2N' 3.0 to 3.4 

Wilderman 97 45 5.0 5 to 6N 3.4 

Kellner(Pt. anodes) 97 45 5.0 5 to 6N 3.4 

Townsend 94 45 4 8 4N 3.4 

Griesheim (magnetite). .70 to 80 40 to 46 4.0 I to 2N 3. 3 to 3. 8 

Outhenin, Chalandre.. .. 66 41 3.7 2N 3.7 

Theoretical figures 100 100 2.3 .. 1.54 

* Copyrighted by the author. 

t This ceil produces NajCOj not NaOH. 



found, and this plant commenced work with 2,000 hp. 
in 1894, and was doubled in size in 1895. 

The developments of the Elektron cell and process in 
Europe since that year have been remarkably rapid 
and have proved the value of being first in the field, 
for although the financial results of the subsidiary 



♦For Part I see Chemical & Metallurgical Kngineering, vol. 
24, No. 2, Jan. 12, 1921, p. 77. 



companies have not always been satisfactory, the orders 
for plant and machinery which have been placed with 
German firms and the demand for German chemists 
and managers to take charge of these works in France, 
Russia, Austria and other European countries have 
no doubt amply compensated for the cost of the original 
research work carried out between 1884 and 1888 by 
the Allgemeine and other German electrical engineer- 
ing companies. According to the writer's own figures, 
there were in 1907 already nine works in operation 
using the Elektron cell and process, the aggregate 
power utilized in these being 18,800 hp. Allmand, in 
1912, estimated the aggregate capacity of the Elektron 
works at 33,000 hp., and stated that the Elektron or 
Griesheim cell was the most important of its type in 
use in Europe at that date. Its success is ascribed 
chiefly to its simplicity of design and low costs for 
repairs and maintenance, since its current and energy 
efficiency are comparatively low. (See accompanying 
Table.) 

The Griesheim Elektron Cell 

The following description of the Griesheim cell is 
based largely upon that given by Allmand in the works 
already referred to. 

The cell (Fig. 9) consists of a rectangular iron vessel, 
steam-jacketed, and covered externally with some non- 
heat-conducting material. This outer vessel contains 
a series of inclosed porous cement boxes about 1 cm. 
thick, which contain the carbon or magnetite anodes, 
and themselves act as diaphragms. 

The advantage of magnetite as anode material for 
electrolytic alkali cells is thnt the chlorine gas is ob- 
tained free from CO^; and it is claimed also that mag- 
netite electrodes have a life of two years, even under 
the unfavorable conditions obtaining in the Griesheim 
cell. The magnetite anodes are of cylindrical shape, 
and are cemented to the lids of the anode boxes. 

The chloride of sodium or potassium used in these 
cells is introduced into the anode chamber in the solid 
state, by a pipe reaching almost to the bottom of the 
cell, and is used in the pure form. The walls of the 
outer vessel act as cathodes, and in addition pieces 
of sheet-iron are suspended between each couple of 
anode cells. 

The anodes and cathodes in each set of cells are con- 
nected in parallel and a current of 2,200-2,500 amp. is 
employed. The working temperature is high (90 deg. 
C.) and the concentration of caustic soda obtained in 
the cathode chamber is low, owing to the low current 
density employed and to the action of the current upon 
the sodium hydrate as it is formed. The solution in 
the anode boxes is kept saturated with NaCl (or KCl) 
and the caustic alkali solution is drawn off intermit- 



120 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, .Vo. 3 



tently from the outer compartment of the cell. The 
emf. used varies from 3.6 to 4 volts. This low voltage is 
due to the fact that only a comparatively low current 
density can be employed and that the conductivity is 
increased by heat. When producing a liquor in the 
cathode chamber containing 80 g. NaOH per liter, in 



5o//d 

,5aH- 



Chlorine 



5team 




Alkaline-' 
Liquc'rs 

FIG. 9. THE GRIESHEIM OR ELEKTRON CELL, 

fact, the current efficiency of the cell is only 70 per 
cent. This can be raised to 80 per cent if liquor of 
only one-half of this strength is produced. The high 
temperature of the anode chamber causes the produc- 
tion of chlorates, which can be separated by crystalliza- 
tion when potassium chloride is being electrolyzed, 
since the potassium salt is not a very soluble product, 
but the sodium chlorate cannot be separated in this 
manner and is therefore lost. 

The electrochemical works at Bitterfeld is operated 
entirely with electric power, derived from the very 
extensive beds of lignite which occur in the vicinity. 
The site of this woi'ks was chosen by the promoters 
because it was believed that the cheapness of the power 
would more than counterbalance the distance of the 





FIG. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILERS FOR BURNING 

LIGNITE IN GERMANY, WITH STEP-GRATES 

BELOW FLOOR LEVEL 

works from the usual markets for the manufactured 
goods. Very few details of the power plant have been 
allov/ed to appear in print. 

Air-dried lignite is finally burned under tubular 
boilers with step-grates. Fig. 11 shows a general view 
of the charging floor of the boilers. The grate is sunk 
below the floor level, and the lignite is tipped directly 
into the charging hoppers from the tip wagons, in 
which it is brought into the boiler house. A sliding 
door, divided into three sections, regulates the admis- 
sion of the fuel to the grate of each furnace. The 







FIG. 1- 



THE BILL1TER-SIE:MENS CELL 



FIG. 10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTROCHEMISCHE 
WERKE at BITTERFELD 



angle of the step-grate can be altered from the ground 
level. The whole of the lower part of the grate is in- 
closed and the admission of air is regulated by levers 
which open or close the doors in front of the under- 
furnace space. The air required for combustion is 
drawn through a system of pre-heating stoves. As the 
use of the step-grate causes a very gradual evolution 
of the gaseous matter of the fuel, little or no smoke is 
produced and a secondary air supply, though provided 
for, is seldom required. 

Trials carried out with this equipment have shown 
efficiencies ranging from 67 to 69.71 per cent. When 
using a fuel having a low heating-value, from 2.66 to 
3.01 lb. of water were evaporated per lb. of fuel, the 
rate of burning varying from 3.1 to 4.1 lb. per sq.ft. 
of heating surface. 

The Billiter-Siemens Cell 

This cell was patented in 1907 by an Austrian chem- 
ist, Dr. -J. Billiter. The patent rights for Europe then 
Dassed into the hands of Siemens & Halske of Berlin. 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



121 




KIG. 13. BILLITBR-SIEMENS CELLS AT Si'lRO & SOHNE 
PAPER WORKS, BOHEMIA 

and the cell is now known as the Billiter-Siemens cell. 
Before the war it was in operation in two works in 
Germany, two in Austria and one in the United States. 

The cell is of the submerged diaphragm type (see 
Fig. 12), but the diaphragm is placed horizontally and 
not vertically, and it lies practically on the bottom of 
the cell, resting upon the iron gauze which forms the 
cathode of the cell. Above the diaphragm are placed 
inverted boxes or bell-jars, constructed of cement or 
slate, cemented at their lower edges to the diaphragm 
and containing large horizontal graphite anodes. The 
anode chambers are provided with pipes for feeding in 
the fresh brine solution, for leading away the chlorine 
gas liberated and for heating the electrolyte. The dia- 
phragm of the cell is formed of asbestos-cloth, covered 
on its upper surface with a mixture of asbestos wool 
and fine barium sulphate, which prevents convection 
and diffusion losses and yet possesses a low electrical 
resistance. This horizontal layer of fine but well- 
graded inert material is the novel feature of the 
Billiter diaphragm. The cathode net, with the dia- 
phragm resting upon it, is bent slightly upward in 
order to permit the escape of the hydrogen formed on 
its under surface. Several of these anode boxes or 
bells are contained in the outer vessel, which may be 
square or oblong in shape. 

At Aschersleben long, narrow troughs are employed, 
with granite side-walls and iron bottoms, which thus 
serve to make electrical contact with the cathode net 
resting upon them. There are ten cells, each designed 
to utilize a current of 2,000 to 2,500 amp. and to yield 
a caustic potash liquor containing 18 to 23 per cent, 
with an expenditure of 1,000 kw. The chlorine obtained 
from the cell is remarkably pure, and the current effi- 
ciency is as high as 95 per cent, with an emf. of only 
3.66 volts per cell. 

Another form of the Billiter-Siemens cell had 



been introduced before the war at the sulphite paper- 
pulp works of Spiro & Sohne, at Krummau, in Bohemia. 
The cells are very much reduced in size from the earlier 
trough type. They are constructed of boiler-plate, with 
a thick cement lining along the four inner sides, in 
order to confine the current to the bottom of the cell. 
This bottom, as before, is in contact with the iron- 
gauze cathode upon which the diaphragm rests. Each 
cell contains twelve graphite anodes, connected in par- 
allel, the cells themselves being connected in series. 
Each cell takes 500 amp. and the total power used in 
the thirty-two cells installed is 65 kw. The chlorine 
produced at this plant is absorbed by milk of lime and 
is used in the form of calcium h\T)ochlorite solution for 
bleaching purposes. The caustic soda liquor produced 
is sold in the liquid form, as facilities for concentrat- 
ing it and obtaining the solid product are lacking. 

The only other type of electrolytic alkali cell in use 
in Germany before the war was the Solvay mercury cell,' 
at the works of the Deutsche Solvay Co., at Osternien- 
berg. This works was started in 1896 and utilized 
1,500 hp. for the manufacture of caustic potash and 
bleaching powder. 

Manufacture of Hypochlorite of Soda in Germany 

As regards the manufacture of hypochlorite of soda 
by electrolytic methods in Germany, only two forms 
of cell have been used extensively — namely, the Haas 
& Oettel cell and the Kellner cell. 

Electrolytic methods of producing bleaching solu- 
tions have been widely adopted in Continental Europe. 
Before the war many hundreds of these installations 
were to be found scattered all over the Continent, wher- 
ever cheap electric power was available. More recently 
the tendency in Germany has been to produce the 
chlorine in the ordinary type of electrolytic alkali cell 
and to absorb this chlorine in milk-of-lime before using 
the calcium hypochlorite as the bleaching agent.. Sie- 
mens & Halske have convinced themselves, by actual 
trials, that this plan is the more efficient and economical. 
The high price of platinum has of course operated to 
prevent the further adoption of the Kellner electrolyzer, 
but the Haas & Oettel type is stated to be still employed 
in Germany, where sodium hypochlorite solutions are 
required for bleaching fine cotton or linen goods. 

Electrolytic Alkali and Chlorine Industry 
in Austria 

In Austria four types of cell have been employed for 
the electrolysis of brine solutions — namely, the Aussig 
bell type of gravity cell, the Billiter-Leykam cell, the 
Billiter-Siemens cell and the Kellner mercury cell. 

The Aussig Gravity Cell 

In the Aussig gravity cell no diaphragm is employed 
to separate the anode and cathode compartments of the 
cell, but the greater density of the caustic soaa formed 
at the face of the cathode is relied upon to effect its 
separation from the unaltered brine solution in the 
remainder of the cell. Fig. 14 shows a sectional eleva- 
tion of the Aussig bell cell; a representing the anode, 
c-c the two sections of the ring-shaped cathode and 
d the bell which surrounds the anode and serves to 
collect the cathode gas. The successful operation of 
a cell of this type depends chiefly upon very careful 
control, not only of the specific gravity and of the rate 

iSee Chem. & Met., vol. 24. p. 79, where this cell is described. 



122 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINE2RING 



Vol 24, No. 3 



of flow of the brine solution but also of the current 
density and of the relative positions of the electrodes 
to each other and to the lower edge of the bell. 

The failure to study all the conditions required to 
obtain success with gravity process led to the failure 
of this type of cell at St. Helens in the years 1896-1900 ; 
but at the works of the Oest. Verein f. Chem, Produk- 
tion, situated at Aussig, the open bell cell has been in 
successful operation since 1899, and a current eflSciency 
of between 85 and 90 per cent is said to be obtainable 
with it. The strength of the solution of caustic soda 
obtained runs from 100 to 150 g. per liter Na^O. 

The costs for maintenance and repairs are of course 
very low and the absence of a diaphragm reduces the 
emf. required to. work the process to 4i volts. On the 
other hand, a low current density must be employed, 
and the bell can be constructed only of small dimensions, 
so that a large number of bells are required to produce 
a large output. 

The Billiier-Siemens and Billiter-Leykam Cells 

The Billiter-Siemens diaphragm cell, which has been 
already illustrated and described,^ was operated before 
the war at Bruckl, in Bosnia, by the Bosnische Elek- 
tricitats Gesellschaft, with sixty-four 2,500 amp. units, 
similar in type to those installed at Aschersleben. 




FIG. 14. THE AUSSIG CELL 

Dr. Billiter, however, in 1910, designed and patented 
another cell which dispenses with the diaphragm of 
his earlier type and is known as the Billiter-Leykam 
cell. According to Allmand, this was one of the most 
efficient cells that had been operated technically before 
the war. The cell is shown in Fig. 15 and is seen to be 
a modification of the Aussig bell type of gravity cell. 

The chief feature of the cell is the design and ar- 
rangement of the cathodes underneath the bell-jar. 
These cathodes are constructed of T-iron, inclosed in 
woven asbestos bags or tubes, and are sufficiently in- 
clined to allow the hydrogen to pass away readily by 
the opening marked 16 in the diagram; while the 
caustic liquor descends to the bottom of the cell, and 
passes away by the channel marked 4. 

According to Allmand, it is unnecessary to purify the 
brine at all with this type of cell; and the asbestos 
sheath of the cathodes is woven as coarse as is con- 
sistent with its purpose of collecting and leading away 

»Seo p. 120. 



from the anode bell or hood the hydrogen gas formed 
underneath it at the cathodes. In this way all dis- 
turbance of the liquor within the bell by the escaping 
hydrogen bubbles is avoided. 

The Austrian rights of this cell were purchased in 
1911 by the firm of paper manufacturers, Leykam 
Josefsthal Gesellschaft, and an installation of fifty-six 
1,200-amp. units was started at its factory, at Grat- 
wein, near Gratz, in 1912. Allmand visited this plant, 
which utilized 500 hp. in 1912, and has published a 
detailed description of it in a paper read before the 
Faraday Society in November of the same year. The 
current efficiency is about 92 per cent, and the emf. 

t 

rlaNaOH 




FIG. 15. THE BILLITER-LEYKAM CELL 

required at 65 to 70 deg. C. is 3i volts. The cathode 
liquors contain en an average 12 to 13 per cent NaOH; 
but by decreasing the rate of flow of the brine, 16 
per cent NaOH can readily be obtained. 

Tii7. Kellner Mercury Cell 

The Kellner type of mercury cell has been worked by 
the Consort, fur Electrochem. Industrien at GoUing, in 
Austria, and at Jaice, in Bosnia, since 1900; but again 
there is no information available as to what has hap- 
pened to these works during the war period. 

The first-named works was only a small one of 
200 hp., but at Jaice, in Bosnia, there was a large 
hydro-electric installation capable of producing over 
10,000 hp. 

The Kellner mercury cell at both of these works dif- 
fered from that used at Weston Point in that com- 
pressed air was employed to circulate the mercury. 
The cell was a large but shallow vessel, constructed of 
cement, and was divided into three compartments by 
transverse partitions, dipping into the layer of mercury 
on the floor of the cell. 

The center compartment formed the anode division, 
and contained a number of cement hoods carrying the 
anodes. The two end compartments of the cell were 
the cathode compartments, and in these the decomposi- 
tion of the sodium amalgam occurred with the aid of 
iron, exactly as in the original Castner-Kellner cell. 

The cathode compartments were, however, provided 
with outside troughs in which the mercury collected, 
and by means of a pump this mercury was forced to 
travel backward and forward from the anode to the 
cathode compartment of the cell. The circulation is 
reported by Allmond to be very efficient, and to permit 
the use of a high current density with the cell (15 to 
20 amp. per sq.dm.) ; but no other data concerning the 
operation of Kellner cell or of the works at Jaice are 
available for publication. 

(The third and laf.t part of the article, dealing with 
the Electrolytic Alkali and Chlorine Industry in France, 
Italy, Switzerland, Russia and Belgium, will be pub- 
lished in a subsequent issue.) 



January ID, 1D21 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



123 



A Comparison of Various Methods of Water Purification 



An Impartial Discussion on the Respective Merits and Disadvantages of Methods of Water-Softening 

by Filtration Through Zeolites, by Chemical Precipitation and by 
Rectification With Boiler Compounds 

By WILLIAM MACKLIN TA\LOR 



IN THE face of the claims and counterclaims set up 
by the manufacturers of the various processes of 
water purification, the layman and the chemist who 
have not specialized on this subject frequently experience 
difficulty in deciding which process is best adapted to 
their needs. The purpose of this article is to outline the 
strong and the weak points of these processes, drawing 
conclusions which will enable the uninitiated to decide 
more intelligently which process will solve his problem 
most successfully. 

The term "water purification" is susceptible of two 
entirely different meanings. Water may be purified 
from a sanitary viewpoint and still remain as impure 
as before from an industrial standpoint, and vice versa. 
This article will deal exclusively with the purification 
of water for industrial uses. 

Broadly speaking, the purification of water for indus- 
trial purposes may be divided into five classifications, 
which are as follows: 

Distillation. 

Removal of suspended matter by filtration. 

Water-softening by filtration through zeolites. 

Water-softening by precipitation. 

Rectification by the use of boiler compound. 

This article will deal principally with the last three 
methods mentioned and will touch on the first two very 
lightly. 

Distillation 

Wherever a water of highest purity is an imperative 
requirement, distillation is the only method whereby it 
can be produced. The cost of its production is so high, 
however, that its commercial use is very limited, as 
compared with the other methods of purification. Where 
the entire absence of all impurities (dissolved and sus- 
pended) is not an absolute requirement, it is frequently 
possible, by the use of one or more of the other methods 
of purification, to obtain a water which will satisfac- 
torily meet the requirements, and thereby effect a 
marked economy. 

Filtration 

Generally speaking, when a filter has removed all of 
the suspended matter which a water carries, it has ful- 
filled its mission. The processes of filtration are too 
well known to justify taking the time to describe them 
in detail here. 

There are cases where filters which would hardly fall 
into the third classification are used for other purposes 
than the removal of suspended matter. The most 
notable of these are the filters whose beds are composed 
of marble chips, whose purpose is the removal of free 
acid from acid waters, and the filters whose beds are 
composed of various forms of charcoal, whose purpose 
is the removal of organic coloring matter. 

The water in the clouds is as pure as any natural 



water can be ; but in passing through the air, as it falls 
in the form of rain, it commences to absorb impurities. 
As it travels over or through the earth before being 
used, it absorbs other impurities. The most trouble- 
some of these are the salts of calcium and magnesium ; 
and there is no natural supply of water known which 
is entirely free from them. 

In cleansing operations as carried on in laundries and 
textile mills, the calcium and magnesium present in the 
water destroy soap, necessitating the use of larger 
quantities than would otherwise be necessary, thereby 
increasing the costs of operation. They form an 
insoluble curd-like precipitate with the soap, which 
adheres very tenaciously to the fibers of cloth or yarn 
and which causes trouble in various ways. In the 
laundry it causes a dirty yellowish gray appearance on 
the finished work, and later the organic acid to which 
the calcium and magnesium are united decomposes, 
giving off an unpleasant odor. In the textile mill it 
causes unevenness and breakage of the yarns in weav- 
ing, increasing the amount of "seconds." In the dye- 
house it forms lakes with the dyestuffs, causing streaked 
and uneven dyeing. In the preparation of certain 
chemicals, dyes, extracts, etc., the presence of calcium 
or magnesium salts causes precipitates, or lowers the 
quality of the finished product in other ways. In the 
boiler room the presence of calcium and magnesium in 
the water is a sure forerunner of boiler scale, which, if 
allowed to accumulate in the boiler, causes an enormous 
loss of heat and thereby a proportional excess consump- 
tion of coal. By acting as a neat insulator on the wrong 
side of the boiler shell, it allows the metal to become 
overheated, shortening its life and increasing the 
repair bill. 

Hence, from the standpoint of nearly every industrial 
user of water, the salts of calcium and magnesium are 
trouble-makers and their elimination is desirable. Since 
it is these salts that make water hard, their elimination 
renders the water soft. 

There are two well-known processes by which these 
salts may be more or less completely removed from the 
water. They are : Water-softening by filtration through 
a zeolite filter, and water-softening by precipitation. 

Zeolite Filters 

There are several kinds of zeolites in use today; some 
are of natural origin, some are produced by the 
fusion of several components, and others are produced 
by a precipitation process. All, however, work upon the 
same principle, taking advantage of the same chemical 
law of mass action, the details of operation alone being 
different. It is not my purpose here to state any pref- 
erence for one over another, for all do good work and 
efficient work in the fields to which they are adapted. 

In general, the zeolite water-softener is a pressure 



124 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. a 



filter, whose bed consists of granules of a zeolite. This 
zeolite is usually a hydrated silicate of aluminum carry- 
ing a large amount of loosely-bound and chemically 
active sodium. By the law of mass action, when water 
containing salts of calcium and magnesium is passed 
through this bed of zeolite, the sodium is exchanged for 
the calcium and magnesium, and the water in the efflu- 
ent contains only very small amounts of the substances. 
If we use "R" as the symbol of the acid radicals to 
which the calcium and magnesium are joined, and "Z" 
as the symbol of the zeolite, the reaction which takes 
place might be written as follows: 

CaR (or MgR) + Na,Z = Na,,R + CaZ (or MgZ) 

This reaction, while very efficient from a commercial 
standpoint, does not proceed to theoretical completion, 
for a very small amount of calcium and magnesium 
remains in the filtered water, this amount usually rang- 
ing from 0.3 to 1.4 grains per gal., calculated to calcium 
carbonate. Water carrying less than the latter figure 
is usually referred to by manufacturers of zeolite water- 
softeners as water of zero hardness, although this term 
is really misleading. 

In the author's library of water analyses, compiled 
during many years of work as a chemical engineer 
specializing on water purification, there appear many 
analyses of waters treated by the zeolite process. Some 
of these are accompanied by analysis of the same water 
before treatment. Probably the most representative of 
these is a sample of the city supply of Des Moines, la., 
taken July 3, 1917, and completed July 7, 1917. It runs 
as follows : 

Dissolved Substance Raw Water Treated Water 

Sodium chloride 0.58 0.88 

Calcium carbonate 9.50 0^25 

Magnesium carbonate 5.29 0.21 

Magnesium sulphate 0.42 

Sodium carbonate 17.44 

Sodium sulphate 8.52 8^59 

Iron and aluminum oxides - -iO 14 

Silica.; 1.14 i 24 

Total 25.85 28.75 

Hardness, calculated to calcium carbonate 16.15 6 50 

Alkalinity, calculated to calcium carbonate . 15.77 16.94 

It is obvious that the time soon comes when all of the 
available sodium in the zeolite has been given up in 
exchange for the calcium and magnesium, and an ex- 
change can no longer take place. When this time comes, 
it is not necessary to replace the zeolite with new mate- 
rial, for it can be regenerated or restored by reversing 
the law of mass action, for this law operates equally well 
in the reverse direction. This is accomplished by soaking 
the filter bed in a strong solution of brine made of 
common salt. The calcium and magnesium which had 
been absorbed by the zeolite are exchanged for the 
sodium of the sodium chloride, forming calcium and 
magnesium chlorides, and the sodium is absorbed by the 
zeolite. After having been steeped for a sufficient 
length of time— which differs with the products of 
different manufacturers— the brine is drawn off, the 
free salt remaining is rinsed out till the water runs 
sweet, and the zeolite is again in its highly effective 
state. 

Water which has been passed through a zeolite water- 
softener exhibits the following properties: 

It contains a smaller amount of calcium and magne- 
sium srlts than does the water treated in any other way 
except distillation. 

It contains a slightly higher amount of dissolved 
solids than the raw water. 

The alkalinity to methyl orange is slightly higher 



and (except in case of an improperly-processed zeolite) 
no caustic alkalinity is added to the water. It makes 
a vei'y satisfactory potable water and possesses a quite 
acceptable taste. 

The greatest fields for the zeolite water-softener are 
in places where water is used for cleansing, as in 
laundries, textile mills, hotels and homes; or where the 
presence of the calcium and magnesium salts in the 
water cause trouble, as in the preparation of certain 
chemicals, extracts, dyes, etc. 

Precipitation Water-Softeners 
The forms of precipitation water-softeners are many, 
but the principle upon which they operate is the same 
in all : The removal of calcium and magnesium salts 
by precipitation and filtration. The calcium. is precipi- 
tated as the carbonate, the magnesium as the hydroxide. 
With few exceptions, the reagents used are hydrated 
lime and soda ash, and the precipitations are effected in 
accordance with the following reactions: 

Ca(HCO,), + Ca(OH), = 2CaC0, + 2H,0 

CaSO, (or CaCl.) + Na.CO, = CaCO, + Na.SO, 

(or 2NaCl) 

Mg(HCO.,)., + 2Ca(0H)., = Mg(OH)., -f 
2CaC0, + 2H,0 

MgSO, (or MgCl.) + Ca(OH)., + Na..C03 = 

Mg(6H), + CaCO., + Na.SO, (or 2NaClj 

Some precipitation water-softeners have been sold 
which use caustic soda alone as the precipitant, but 
these had a very limited field, and never attained a very 
wide distribution. Other precipitation water-softeners 
at present on the market make use of barium carbonate 
as a precipitant in place of soda ash. These are valuable 
where the water contains large amounts of sulphates; 
but these constitute a special case, and cannot be con- 
sidered at length here. 

Precipitation water-softeners may be divided into two 
major classes: the intermittent and the continuous 
systems. 

The continuous type of lime-soda ash water-softener 
(which enjoys a very much wider distribution than the 
intermittent type) consists usually of a large sedimenta- 
tion tank provided with reagent tanks in which the 
weighed amount of chemicals to be used in treating the 
water is stirred up with a sufficient amount of water to 
permit of ready flow; and an apportioning device which 
allows the reagents to flow into the raw water in pro- 
portion to the raw-water flow. The water usually flows 
into a downtake, where it is thoroughly mixed with the 
chemicals and where the precipitation takes place. It 
then rises slowly in the sedimentation tank proper until 
it reaches the top, where it overflows through a filter, 
and is then ready for use. The sedimentation tank is 
built sufficiently large to allow such a slow upwai'd 
movement of the water as net to interfere with the 
downward movement of the precipitates formed, as they 
settle in the form of a sludge, to the bottom, where they 
are drawn cfF through a valve as often as may be nec- 
essary. The standard practice is to allow four hours' 
time for the water to pass through this tank — i. e , the 
sedimentation tank is built sufficiently large to accom- 
modate an amount of water equal to four times the 
rated hourly capacity. 

The intermittent type of lime-soda ash water-softener 
consists of two or more large tanks from which the 
water is drawn alternately. As soon as one of the tanks 
is empty, it is refilled with the raw water, the necessary 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



125 



amount of reagents is dumped in, and after a short 
period of agitation the precipitate is allowed to settle 
to the bottom. While this precipitate is settling, the 
water is being used from the other tank or tanks and 
by the time the supply of softened water in the other 
tanks is exhausted, the precipitate in the first tank is 
completely settled, and the water in this tank, now 
softened, is ready for use. 

Water from the lime-soda ash water-softener exhibits 
the following properties: 

It contains a smaller total amount of dissolved salts 
than the raw water. 

Its alkalinity to methyl orange is usually less (except 
in cases of a raw water carrying a very small carbonate 
content), but it exhibits a small amount of "caustic 
alkalinity" (alkalinity to phenolphthalein). This is 
usually sufficient to give it a rather unpleasant, soapy 
taste, rendering it unfit for potable use. 

It is impossible to carry the elimination of calcium 
and magnesium salts to the degree attained in the 
zeolite water-softener, the lowest practicable limit being 
a little over 1.6 grains per gal. of hardness, expressed 
in terms of calcium carbonate. In practice, the hard- 
ness of the treated water will usually run considerably 
above this figure, the average probably being in the 
neighborhood of from 3.5 to 4.0 grains per gal. The 
analyses which follow are those of raw and treated 
water from the city supply of Cedar Rapids, la., and are 
representative of the best results to be obtained from 
the lime-soda ash water-softener : 

Dissolved Substance Raw Water Treated Water 

Sodium chloride 1.46 1.46 

Calcium carbonate 7.43 2.15 

Magnesium carbonate 3.07 0.84 

Magnesium sulphate ... ' 1.74 .... 

Sodium carbonate 2.33 

Sodium sulphate 8.05 10.22 . 

Iron and aluminum oxides 0. 1 1 0.12 

Silica 0.71 0.79 

Total 22.59 17.81 

Hardness expressed as calcium carbonate 12.55 3.15 

.\lkalinity expressed as calcium carbonate 11.10 5.25 

The greatest fields available for the lime-soda ash 
water-softener are in the treatment of water which is 
evaporated for steam and of water which is used for the 
production of raw-water ice. 

Boiler Compounds 

During the past two decades the use of boiler com- 
pounds has fallen into disrepute, due to two causes. Of 
these probably the more important has been the exist- 
ence of manufacturers of unscientific formulae — the 
charlatans and mountebanks of the water-purification 
field. The substances used in the manufacture of these 
compounds are legion, and they include such irrational 
and worthless components as sawdust, potato peelings, 
ground straw, malt, spent tanbark, etc. As a warning 
against these, I would advise every purchaser of boiler- 
compound to shun any compound which is claimed to 
give satisfactory results on every water. It is the same 
proposition to try to treat every human ailment with the 
same medicine as to treat every water with the same 
compound. 

The other cause for the disrepute into which the use 
of boiler compound has fallen is the propaganda dis- 
tributed by the manufacturers of water-softeners. The 
unscrupulous manufacturers referred to in the previous 
paragraph gave good grounds for this propaganda, but 
it was not directed solely against these. Many manu- 
facturers of boiler compounds approach the problem of 
the prevention of boiler scale in a thoroughly scientific 



manner, maintaining well-appointed laboratories where 
the work is carried on by experienced chemical engi- 
neers and where the problem of the proper treatment 
of water is worked out with intelligence' and skill. 

In considering the various methods of water- 
purification, it is these latter boiler compounds to which 
I shall refer. 

Exactly what takes place in a boiler under the com- 
bined effects of heat and pressure we shall never know. 
We can only judge from results as seen from the outside 
and from interior inspection after the heat and pressure 
have been removed. 

It has been learned that the presence of certain salts 
in the water causes scale and the addition of certain 
chemicals will prevent this, causing substances which 
would otherwise form the scale to settle to the bottom 
of the boiler in the form of mud, to be disposed of in 
the blow-off. Certain other dissolved salts have been 
found to induce foaming and priming. The addition of 
other chemicals has been found to exert a counteracting 
force. The number of chemicals used in the boiler- 
compound field are many. A few of those used for the 
prevention of scale by a precipitating action are: soda 
ash, caustic soda, sodium silicate, tri-sodium phosphate, 
hydrated lime, barium hydrate, barium carbonate, 
barium chloride. Other chemicals which prevent the 
adhesion of scale by causing it to lorva in granules or 
in some other way preventing its fastening itself upon 
the metal are : certain mineral oils, graphite and certain 
tannin extracts. Some of those which have a tendency 
to counteract foaming are barium hydrate, barium car- 
bonate, barium chloride, hydrated lime and certain vege- 
table oils. 

To neutralize corrosion from free acid or from the 
sulphates of iron and aluminum, any alkaline salt may 
be used, soda ash probably being the most frequently 
employed. Electrolytic corrosion may frequently be 
overcome by the use of metallic zinc. 

In general, the only field for the use of boiler com- 
pounds is in the treatment of boiler-feed waters. 

General Discussion 

The value of any of these systems of water- 
purification depends entirely upon two considerations: 
1. The nature and amount of dissolved matter present 
in the raw water. 2. The purpose for which the water 
is to be used. 

There are supplies of water which cannot be satisfac- 
torily treated for any industrial use by any method with 
which the author is familiar; as for instance, samples of 
water from parts of North Dakota and Wyoming which 
he has analyzed and which contain magnesium sulphate 
in excess of 1,200 grains per gal. Some supplies can be 
successfully treated by one method .vhere another 
method would fail utterly. It is the purpose of this 
article to help the engineer decide which method will 
give best results on his supply of water, for his purpose. 

Advantages of Zeolite Type of Water-Softener 

Let us consider first the zeolite type of water- 
softener. Its outstanding advantages are the following : 

1. It produces a water which contains a smaller 
amount of calcium and magnesium salts than can be 
obtained by any other method except distillation. 

2. It requires less expert attention than the lime- 
soda ash water-softener. 

3. No chemicals are fed into the water, hence there 



126 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



is no changing of amounts of chemicals to take care of 
fluctuations in the hardness of the water. 

4. The only reagent used is common salt, and this is 
less subject to fluctuation in supply and price than is 

soda ash. 

5. Because no sedimentation tank is required, the 
zeolite water softener requires less space than the pre- 
cipitation water softener. 

Disadvantages of Zeolite Type 

Its outstanding disadvantages are as follows : 

1. The amount of sodium salts present in the water 
is increased and (due to the fact that sodium, ^ monad, 
>ias an atomic weight greater than half that of either 
calcium or magnesium, both of which are diads) the 
total amount of dissolved matter is increased rather 
than diminished. If used for boiler-feed water, this 
would increase the tendency to foaming and priming. 

2. The cost of operation, exclusive of the cost of 
labor, is "greater than with the precipitation water- 
softener. 

3. The capacity fluctuates with the fluctuation in 
the amounts of calcium and magnesium salts present in 

the water. 

4. Disintegration of the zeolite by attrition and 
solution, although it may be very slight, increases the 
upkeep or depreciation of the installation. 

5. Many waters that could be easily handled by the 
lime-soda ash water-softener cannot be handled by this 
system. Large amounts of calcium or magnesium salts 
or large amounts of sodium salts render its use either 
inefficient or impossible. A zeolite softener cannot sat- 
isfactorily handle any water containing a larger amount 
of iron than the average. The presence of minute 
quantities of manganese will in a short time render a 
zeolite softener incapable of softening water. If the 
raw water carries an appreciable amount of suspended 
matter, it must be filtered before passing it through the 
zeolite machine. 

It is not my intention to weigh these advantages 
against the disadvantages for specific applications, but 
rather to point out a few general considerations gov- 
erning their operation. 

Type of Laundries, Textile Mills, Etc. 

In laundries and textile mills, where the presence of 
calcium and magnesium salts causes the destruction of 
soap, and the curds formed by the interaction taking 
place between soap and these salts cause a lowering of 
the quality of the work turned out, for the average 
water the zeolite system is the logical system to use. 
In the preparation of chemicals, dyes, extracts, etc., 
where calcium or magnesium causes precipitates or 
lowers the quality in other ways, the zeolite system is 
the better system, provided only that the presence of 
increased quantities of sodium salts does not affect the 
quality. This rule holds good only for waters whose 
hardness is not greatly in excess of the average. For 
a water whose hardness ranges above about 40 grains 
per gal., the advisability of installing a zeolite softener 
presents a special problem which would have to be 
decided separately for each separate case. The reason 
for this lies principally in the fact that the raw water 
used to rinse out the salt used for restoring or regen- 
erating a zeolite must be u^ed in such quantities that 
with such a hard water the tendency is to reduce the 
capacity of the softener beyond the economical point. 



Where a water contains a large amount of sodium 
salts, there is a tendency for the law of mass action to 
act in both ways during the passage of the water 
through the filter bed. It is as if the upper layers of 
the zeolite removed the calcium and magnesium, and 
then the water with the addition of the sodium which 
replaced the calcium and magnesium, being so high in 
sodium salts, partially restored the zeolite in the lower 
layers, just as the brine does. The amount of sodium 
salts which would cause trouble varies in different 
cases, and it would be difficult to formulate any rules 
which would hold good in all cases. The presence, how- 
ever, of more than 40 grains per gal. of sodium salts or 
of more than 50 grains per gal. of dissolved solids is 
sufficient to cause the water to be viewed with suspicion. 

Where a water carries a higher amount of iron than 
usual, or even a minute quantity of manganese (this 
latter is comparatively rare), or where the water con- 
tains any free acid, it is necessary to pre-treat the water 
before passing it through the zeolite machine. Iron or 
manganese dissolved in the water is absorbed by the 
zeolite, and in time forms a coating over the granules 
which interferes with the contact between the water and 
the zeolite ; and without this contact, the exchange of the 
sodium for the calcium and magnesium is impossible. 
Free acid present in the water causes the zeolite to dis- 
integrate more rapidly than is the case with the normal, 
slightly alkaline water. In addition to this, the acid 
water which does not carry a comparatively high 
amount of dissolved iron is indeed a rarity. Acid 
waters, however, are rarely met with outside of districts 
where mining is carried on or where steel mills are 
located. 

Water Should Be Analyzed Before Decision Is Made 

This may be a good place to state that it is a wise 
move on the part of a prospective purchaser of not only 
the zeolite but of any type of water-purification appa- 
ratus to have an analysis made of his water by some 
responsible laboratory. If the proposed installation is 
a large one, the prospective purchaser can well afford to 
protect his interests by obtaining the opinion of a 
reputable consulting chemical engineer; for it will fre- 
quently mean the prevention of costly trouble in the 
end, compared with which the consulting chemical engi- 
neer's fee would be a mere trifle. 

In many cases zeolite water-softeners have been 
installed in private homes, in apartment buildings and 
in hotels and have given complete satisfaction, water 
treated in a zeolite machine having a pleasing flavor, 
and the removal of the hardness makes the water much 
pleasanter to use for bathing or for any cleansing oper- 
ation, besides leaving the skin in better condition. Some 
claims have been put forth to the effect that boiled foods 
will cook more quickly in softened water than in the 
raw water, but I question it. 

Advantages of Precipitation Water-Softener 

Now let us turn to the precipitation water-softener. 
Its prominent advantages are : 

1. Lower cost of operation. Ignoring the question 
of labor (for the grade of labor used to operate the 
softener varies so widely with different owners of water 
softeners that a just comparison is impossible), with 
rare exceptions, the lime-soda ash water-softener can 
be operated at less cost per thousand gallons of water 
treated than is the case with the zeolite softener. 



Janitary 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEEKING 



127 



2. Capacity remains the same, regardless of fluctua- 
tion in the hardness of the water. The fluctuations are 
taken care of by increasing or decreasing the proportion 
of chemicals to the amount of water treated. 

3. The treated water carries a smaller amount of 
dissolved solids than the raw water and there is not as 
great an amount of sodium salts added to the water as 
with the zeolite softener. This lessens the tendency to 
foaming and priming, when the water is used for boiler 
feed. 

4. There is no depreciation on account of attrition 
of mineral-, as with the zeolite water-softener. Given 
equal care, the life of a precipitation water-softener 
should exceed that of the 100 per cent performance of 
the zeolite filter bed. 

5. The limits of hardness or amount of sodium salts 
present in water which can be treated are considerably 
higher than with the zeolite water-softener, 

6. If the water contains an appreciable amount of 
suspended matter, it is not necessary that it be filtered 
before being treated. 

7. Waters containing free acid or high amounts of 
iron or manganese can be as effectively treaced as if 
these substances were not present. 

Disadvantages of Precipitation Water-Softener 

The notable disadvantages of the precipitation water- 
softener are: 

1. Where space is an item, the precipitation water- 
softener requires a much larger space than does the 
zeolite softener, 

2. It is an impossibility to produce as soft a water 
as can be produced in the zeolite softener. 

3. Its operation is more complicated than that of 
the zeolite softener; hence it requires greater intelli- 
gence on the part of the operator to make the changes in 
the treatment necessitated by fluctuations in the hard- 
ness of the raw water. 

4. The soda ash used fluctuates in price, and is fre- 
quently difficult to obtain at any price. 

5. It is difficult to obtain a water through a lime- 
soda ash water-softener that will be suitable for human 
consumption. 

The water obtained by treatment through the pre- 
cipitation water-softener is pre-eminently a water suit- 
able for boiler feed or for the manufacture of raw-water 
ice. Prior to the commercialization of the zeolite water- 
softener, the precipitation system secured a wide 
distribution among laundries, textile mills, etc. But for 
ordinary waters, the zeolite water-softener soon demon- 
strated its superiority in these fields. In laundries and 
textile mills every grain per gallon of hardness left in 
the water represents the destruction of soap and the 
formation of the sticky curd caused thereby, and the 
fact that a softer water can be obtained with the zeolite 
water-softener enabled it to appropriate these fields 
almost exclusively to itself in territories whose water 
supply was not impossible of treatment by this method. 

In boiler feed, however, it is not necessary that the 
water be softened down to the last grain per gallon in 
order to prevent boiler scale. The presence of a small 
amount of caustic alkalinity (alkalinity to phenol- 
phthalein) in the water is not only sufficient to prevent 
the formation of new scale by the treated water, but it 
will also, in most cases, help soften and remove scale 
that had already formed. It is necessary, however, to 
watch the performance of the precipitation water- 



softener quite carefully to see that the water is treated 
properly, and that the treated water conforms to the 
standards of tests for such a treated water. Any 
fluctuation in the amount of proportions of the dissolved 
solids calls for a corresponding change in the amount or 
proportions of the chemicals fed to the water. The 
standard practice calls for hardness slightly less than 
the alkalinity to methyl orange, and for the alkalinity to 
phenolphthalein to be slightly greater than half that 
to methyl orange. The hardness may reach 5 to 6 grains 
per gal, in the treated water without causing scale 
to form. 

Laundries, textile mills and other users of water 
whose supply is of such a nature that the zeolite water- 
softener cannot handle it properly may frequently 
obtain very satisfactory results by the use of the pre- 
cipitation water-softener. As a matter of fact, one 
distinction between the performance of the two types 
of water-softeners is the fact that the zeolite machine's 
efficiency (within reasonable limits) increases in reverse 
proportion to the hardness of the water, while that of the 
precipitation type of machine (within reasonable limits) 
increases in direct ratio to the hardness of the water. 

In the manufacture of ice, the smaller the amount of 
dissolved solids present in the water the better is the 
water for freezing and the less will be the necessity for 
core-pulling. Water treated in the precipitation water- 
softener contains a smaller amount of dissolved solids 
than does the raw water, hence the value of the pre- 
cipitation water-softener in this industry. Water 
treated by a zeolite water-softener will contain a larger 
amount of dissolved solids than does the raw water, 
hence the zeolite machine is of no value here. This is 
one case where there can be no argument as to the 
relative values of the two types of water treatment. 

There remains now the question of the relative value 
of water treated by boiler compounds to that treated 
by water-softeners. As indicated above, the only field 
where boiler compounds come into competition with 
water-softeners is in the treatment of water for use in 
boilers to make steam. 

Advantages of Boiler Compounds 
The principal advantages of boiler compounds are: 

1. No expensive apparatus is necessary for the treat- 
ment of the water. 

2. It is much simpler and easier to handle than is 
treatment through water-softeners. 

3. More accurate proportioning of chemicals is 
possible. 

4. A greater variety of chemicals may be used, 
effecting better results with many waters than could be 
obtained by the use of a water-softener. 

5. There is no loss of water due to disposal of 
sludge, backwashing filters, etc. 

Disadvantages in the Use of Boiler Compounds 

The more prominent disadvantages in the use of 
boiler compounds are: 

1. Difficulty in obtaining uniform treatment of all 
the water used. 

2. The amount of mud collecting in the boiler is 
increased, rendering more frequent blowing-down 
necessarj\ 

3. Actual cost per thousand gallons treated is 
usually greater than is the case with softened water. 
This is to some extent offset by interest on investment 
in a softener, depreciation, repairs, etc. 



128 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



The salesmen for water-softeners are prone to con- 
sider boiler compounds as more or less of a joke, an 
unscientific way of treating water — making a water- 
softener out of the boiler. And, as has been intimated 
before, there are frequently good grounds for this 
attitude. 

The scientific boiler compound of today, however, is 
really an efficient method of treating boiler-feed water, 
and in many cases a more scientific method than by 
treating the water through a water-softener, for there 
are frequently cases where conditions are met with 
which cannot be effectively handled with a merely soft- 
ened water. Among these are the conditions which cause 
foaming and priming. The use of a water-softener will 
not prevent these troublesome conditions ; water treated 
in a zeolite water-softener has an increased tendency to 
cause foaming; and in a water exhibiting a tendency to 
foaming great care must be taken in treating it with a 
precipitation water-softener, for the slightest over- 
treatment increases this tendency. On the other hand, 
an intelligently prescribed boiler compound will intro- 
duce chemicals into the boiler which have an active anti- 
foaming effect, and will actually prevent foaming. 

Pound for pound, boiler compounds cost considerably 
more than the chemicals used for treating in a precipi- 
tation water-softener, but under the influence of heat 
and pressure the chemicals used carry the reactions 
which take place nearer to completion and a smaller 
amount of chemicals can be used to secure a similar 
effect. 

Boiler compounds will have a palliative effect on 
waters which cannot be satisfactorily treated in either 
the zeolite or the precipitation water-softener. 

On account of the fact that the precipitation takes 
place inside the boiler, it is necessary to keep closer 
watch on the blow-off and to prevent accumulations of 
mud on the flues and other heating surfaces of the 
boiler, for such accumulations would allow overheating 
of the coated surfaces which would render repairs 
necessary. 

Precautions to Prevent Corrosion 

Corrosion is usually met with in cases of acid waters. 
This may be as easily remedied by the use of boiler 
compound as by treatment in the precipitation water- 
softener. Soda ash is frequently the neutralizing agent 
employed, although in many cases where the acid 
present is sulphuric acid, barium carbonate or hydrate 
is used. This eliminates the danger of foaming which 
the formation of an excess of sodium sulphate would 
cause. 

Corrosion from electrolysis is a matter of occasional 
occurrence in stationary boilers. In marine boilers it is 
nearly always present. It has been found that the use 
of metallic zinc will overcome corrosion by electrolysis. 
When metallic zinc is present in the boiler, the zinc, 
being electro-positive to the steel of the boiler shell, acts 
as the anode and is corroded in place of the steel. This 
fact is made use of by one manufacturer of boiler com- 
pounds by using finely pulverized metallic zinc mixed in 
the compound. 

Methods to Insure Treatment of All the Water 

In order for boiler compounds to do their work 
effectively, it is necessary that all of the water shall be 
ti'eated. This is frequently difficult of attainment. 
Some manufacturers make their compound in the form 



of a liquid and snuff it in through the injector at stated 
intervals. Others manufacture their compounds in the 
form of bricks or of balls, and feed it through some 
device whereby a small stream of the water is diverted 
through a section of pipe containing the solid com- 
pound, dissolving a small portion and then returning to 
the main stream of the feed-water inlet. This requires 
a nice adjustment of the stream which passes over the 
solid compound, so that it shall dissolve enough, but not 
too much, but it is probably the most satisfactory 
method of feeding the compound. 

In the small installation, the boiler compound has an 
immense advantage over the precipitation water- 
softener, for the original cost of the water-softener is 
greater in proportion to the rated capacity in a small 
installation than in a large one. In addition to this the 
precipitation water-softener does not work so satisfac- 
torily on small amounts of water — say from 100 to 250 
gal. per hr. — as it does on larger amounts — from about 
500 gal. per hr. up. 

Local Conditions Decide Method to Be Used in the 
Case of Large Installations 

On larger installations, the question of the super- 
iority of one or the other method of treatment depends 
upon local conditions. Under average conditions, boiler 
compound will produce better results with water-tube 
boilers. The author has, just this morning, inspected the 
turbining of a large water-tube boiler at the plant of 
a large chemical manufacturing concern. This boiler 
was in excellent condition, there being slightly less than 
#2 in. of scale in the tubes, and about s^ in. on the plates. 
The chief engineer of the plant told me that this was 
the first time in over a year that this boiler had been 
turbined, that they had been operated twenty-four hours 
per day and had been run on an overload averaging 
at least 25 per cent, and that during the peak of the 
day's run the overload frequently reached 100 per cent. 
The water used in these boilers is Lake Michigan water, 
which carries 7.6 grains per gal. (slightly over 1 lb. per 
1,000 gal.) incrusting salts; and it was treated solely 
with boiler compound. The reason that boiler com- 
pounds will produce better results with a water-tube 
boiler than will the precipitation water-softener is the 
fact that foaming preventives can be incorporated into 
the compound, whereas they cannot in the softener, and 
a very slight over-treatment of the water in a precipi- 
tation softener will cause water to be carried over with 
the steam from a water-tube boiler, especially at times 
when the boiler is carrying an overload. 

For locomotive boilers the same consideration will 
obtain as with the water-tube boilers, for they are more 
subject to trouble from foaming and priming than even 
the stationary water-tube boilers. 

Best Method for Fire-Tube Type of Boiler 

On the fire-tube type of boiler, where there is not so 
great danger of foaming and priming, for average 
waters ( those running over 8 grains per gal. of incrust- 
ing salts) the precipitation softener exhibits its best 
results; and it is usually superior to boiler compounds 
on the larger installations where it is possible to give it 
the proper attention. Accurate statistics are not avail- 
able, but this will probably cover over 50 per cent of 
the stationary boiler horsepower in this country. For 
waters which run unsually high in incrusting salts (60 
grains per gal. and over) or which run high in sodium 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



129 



salts, boiler compounds will usually prove superior, as 
also is the case with waters whose incrusting salts run 
much lower than the average (less than 8 grains 
per gal.). 

General Summary 

For laundries, textile mills, dyeing plants, manufac- 
tories of chemicals, extracts, etc., the quality of whose 
products is lowered by the presence of calcium or mag- 
nesium salts, the zeolite water-softener is preferable if 
the raw water is such that the zeolite water-softener 
can handle it and if the presence of sodium salts in the 
water has no injurious effect. 

If the water for the above industries cannot be 
handled by a zeolite water-softener, treatment by the 
precipitation water-softener will usually prove econom- 
ical and valuable. 

For the manufacture of raw-water ice, the precipita- 
tion water-softener is the only satisfactory method of 
treating. 

In larger installations, with an average hard water, 
which shows no tendency to foaming or priming, for 
fire-tube boilers, the precipitation water-softener pro- 
duces the best results. 

In smaller installations, or with a low hardness, or an 
extremely high hardness, for fire-tube boilers, properly 
prescribed compounds are preferable. 

For water-tube boilers of any size and for locomotives 
boiler compounds usually show best results. 

Where high amounts of sodium salts predispose the 
water to foaming and priming, boiler compounds give 
best results. 

In cases of electrolytic corrosion, the use of a zinc- 
bearing boiler compound will frequently correct the 
trouble. 

From the above conclusions it is apparent that each 
type of water purification has a fairly well-defined field 
in which it is unquestionably best. The fields, however, 
where either of two different methods of treatment 
would give good results are quite frequently met with, 
and in these cases individual considerations would 
decide which of the two methods would be better. If the 
proposed installation be large enough to justify such 
action, it would be to the best interests of the user of 
water to obtain the impartial advice of some reputable 
consulting engineer. 

Hammond Industrial Laboratories, 
Hammond, Ind. 

The Calcium Requirement of Man 

Prof. H. C. Sherman of Columbia University has 
reported in the Journal of Biological Chemistry (vol. 
44, pp. 21-7, 1920) a series of figures on the calcium 
content of various diets, and found that in 227 sup- 
posedly typical American diets, while only one was 
deficient in protein, 37 were deficient in calcium. If 
all diets furnishing less than 3,000 calories had been 
increased to that level — i. e., to furnish 3,000 calories 
— none would have been deficient in protein, but 7 per 
cent would still be deficient in calcium. Prof, Sherman, 
who is acting head of the department of chemistry and 
is one of the leading authorities on food chemistry, 
emphasizes the importance of increasing the intake of 
calcium by adding calcium carbonate or phosphate to 
the diet, or, better still, by increasing the intake of 
milk and other foods which are rich in lime. Milk has 
the advantage of increasing the high-grade proteins 
and of providing the fat-soluble vitamine. 



Legal Notes 



By Welungton Gustin 

Device Having "U. S." as Most Prominent 
Feature Not Registrable 

The Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia has 
affirmed the decision of the Commissioner of Patents 
denying to the United States Rubber Co. registration 
as a trade-mark for shoes the letters "U. S.," written 
on a disk, with other less conspicuous wording around 
the border. 

The Patent Office had said that the meaning of "U. S." 
was too clearly established to permit of registration 
of any mark having that as the most prominent feature. 
This was agreed to, the decision being based upon sec- 
tion 5 of the trade-mark act, which denies registration 
to any mark which "consists of or comprises the flag 
or coat of arms or other insignia of the United States 
or any simulation thereof, or of any state or munici- 
pality or of any foreign nation." 

Negligence in Handling of Acids — Care Required 
to Prevent Injuries to Others 

Negligence in the handling of acid is the question 
presented in the recent decision of the Supreme Court 
of Rhode Island in the matter of McHugh against 
Williams & Payton. The latter were manufacturers, 
using acid in connection with their business. They had 
a carboy of sulphuric acid stored on the third floor of 
the building which they occupied. The acid commenced 
to leak and a quantity went through the floor, falling 
upon McHugh, who was working for another manufac- 
turing company on the second floor. Because of the 
severe burns received McHugh brought an action for 
negligence to recover damages sustained on account of 
the negligent handling of acid by the defendants. From 
a judgment against the company an appeal was had 
and the Supreme Court has reversed the judgment, 
granting a new trial to the company. 

In the court's opinion it appears that, under the Rhode 
Island workmen's compensation act, had the employee 
made claim against his employer for compensation and 
had been paid such compensation he would be barred 
from bringing an action for negligence against the 
third party who was responsible for the injury. But 
this defense was not available in this case. 

It was contended for the injured employee that it 
was the duty of the defendants to use '^aasonable pre- 
caution in placing these acids and in the care of them 
so that they might not leak upon persons on the floor 
beneath. The question was presented: What was the 
duty of the manufacturing company with respect to the 
care of handling the acid? The court said that its 
duty was to handle this acid so that it would not injure 
innocent parties in any other section of the building; 
and to accomplish this its duty was to use what would 
be called ordinary care and diligence for the safety of 
others. 

Ordinary Care Defined 

Ordinary care was stated to be such care as a person 
of ordinary prudence exercises under the circumstances 
of the danger to be apprehended. The greater the danger 



130 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGlQAi, ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. a 



the higher the degree of care required to constitute 
ordinary care, the absence of which is neghgence. It 
is a question of degree only. The kind of care is pre- 
cisely the same. " (52 Atlantic, 1090.) 

The trial court held for the employee that, for injuries 
fi-om a latent defect which cannot be discovered, the 
defendant is never liable, but that- defendant was bound 
to make such an investigation of the flasks of acid as 
would lead it absolutely to know that all of them were 
sound and that there was no crack in them that would 
permit leakage. But the Supreme Court held this view 
was erroneous, that the defendants were required to 
use only ordinary care and diligence in making an in- 
vestigation as to the condition of the soundness of the 
flasks, and not make such a particular investigation 
of them as would lead them absolutely to know that 
they were sound. 

The case was reversed on this erroneous ruling of the 
lower court. To require the defendants to make such 
investigation of the flasks as absolutely to know their 
condition would require them to exercise the highest 
degree of care under the circumstances, or to be insurers 
of the condition of the flasks, and this degree of care is 
not required in the case herein, but only ordinary care 
under the circumstances and conditions. 

Secret Processes and Letters Patent — Nature of 
the Rights Therein Distinguished 

The nature of a patent right for a secret process or 
invention and one's property right to discoveries undis- 
closed to the public are considered in a novel case in 
the New York Supreme Court. A judgment creditor 
sought to force his debtor to answer questions that 
would reveal the nature of his claimed invention. Under 
the New York law a debtor may be examined "concern- 
ing his property," and therefore the court said that 
if the subject matter of the debtor's ideas or claimed 
invention constituted property rights then the debtor 
must answer the questions propounded to him. 

It appears that the debtor had constructed some 
models of his ideas but he had not obtained a patent 
thereon, neither had he made an application for patent, 
nor has he made his ideas public. In deciding the mat- 
ter Justice Cropsey gave a clear statement of the law. 

It was said that an inventor may assign or transfer 
his rights to his invention, before making application 
for a patent, but even where that is done the applica- 
tion for the patent must be signed by the inventor. (94 
U. S.,'225).-" ■ ■ _ - ■;-- -■'■ 

■■•/'• ■ VNATtiRE .O^'* a''I»ATENt'' 

The federal Constitution has conferred upon Congress 
the power to secure, for a limited time, "to authors and 
inventors exclusive right to their respective writings 
and discoveries"; and under this clause Congress has 
laid down the rules and regulations for granting of 
letters patent. To obtain a patent the inventor must 
make application to the Commissioner of Patents, and 
file with him a description, "in such full, clear, concise 
and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the 
art or science to which it appertains ... to make, 
construct, compound and use the same." A patent 
grants for the term of seventeen years the exclusive 
right "to make, use and vend the invention or dis- 
covery." This exclusive right is a legal monopoly, en- 
tirely the creature of statute. At common law there 
is no exclusive privilege. (9 Supreme Ct., 168.) 

The inventor always had at common law, as he now 
has under the statute, the right to preserve the secret 



of his inventive genius, and to enjoy the fruits of every 
legitimate utilization thereof, said the court; but upon 
permitting his secret to become known, his exclusive 
rights terminated and his secret became public property,. 
His exclusive right to his invention depended upon his 
success in guarding his secret. 

Now, v/hile a patent confers the right of monopoly 
and the resulting benefits, it grants to the inventor no 
right in the conception of his mind, in the secret of 
his invention that he did not possess before. 

Twofold Purpose of Patent Statute 

A twofold purpose was said to be accomplished by the 
statute authorizing the issuance of letters patent. First, 
it secures to the public forever, after the expiration of 
the patent, the benefits flowing from the inventor's 
genius, and, second, it rewards the inventor by giving 
him, for a limited period, the exclusive privilege of mak- 
ing, using and vending his product. The inventor is 
rewarded, not for making the discovery, but for dis- 
closing his secret to the public. The disclosure by the 
inventor is the consideration for the grant of a monopoly 
by the Government. (30 Cyc, 816.) 

In another case. Federal Judge Sanborn said : 
"A patent is a contract by which the Government 
secures to the patentee the exclusive right to vend and 
use his invention for a few years, in consideration of 
the fact that he has perfected and described it, and has 
granted its use to the public forever after." (106 Fed., 
693.) 

A Secret Process Is Not Property 

Therefore, the right possessed under a patent consists 
in the exclusive privilege or monopoly of making, using 
and vending the physical product of his invention, and 
not in the secret hidden in the inventor's mind. When 
the inventor has made application for patent and has 
described his invention in "full, clear, concise and exact 
terms," he has made the required disclosure to the public 
and is entitled to a patent. This right to patent has 
been held to be a property right. But before the appli- 
cation is made the right is merely a common-law right 
to enjoy the fruits of his invention so long as he may 
be able to keep it secret. Upon discovery being made, 
the secret inures to the benefit of the public. Therefore, 
said the court, this right lacks the primary and essen- 
tials characteristic of property, which is the capability 
of being exclusively owned, possessed and used. And 
before application is made for a patent, the inventor 
has no property right in the invention which can be 
subjected to the payment of his debts. But when a 
patent has been issued, the inventor can be compelled to 
make an assignment of his property right for the benefit 
of his creditors. 

Right of Inventor to Guard and Preserve His Secret 
Is Well Established 

But it does not follow that an inventor can be com- 
pelled to file an application for a patent. The right of 
the inventor to guard and preserve his secret is as well 
established as is his right to secure from the Government 
a monopoly by disclosing his secret, and the inviolability 
of the common-law right of the inventor to preserve his 
secret is guarded by federal statute. 

Therefore the court held, in the instant case, that 
the right of an inventor, before he has disclosed his 
secret, is not property in the general sense requiring the 
judgment debtor to answer questions revealing the 
nature of his undisclosed invention. 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



131 



Motion Pictures in Pliysical Testing Laboratory 

By H. J. French, Met. E. 

In studying the propei'ties of boiler plate at various 
elevated temperatures, including those reached in boiler 
operation, crude oil distillation, etc., it became desir- 
able to determine the effect of variations in rate of 
stress application. The factor considered of greatest 
interest, the limit of proportionality in tension, is gen- 
erally determined at room temperatures from measure- 
ments of elongation under successive increases in load. 
This procedure, which probably requires the simplest 
form of apparatus, has likew^ise been used at elevated 




FIG. 1. COMPLETBt.Y ASSEMBLED APPARATUS 

temperatures,' but is not sufficiently flexible to allow 
much variation in rate of application of stress or meas- 
urement of strain under continuous loading without 
materially affecting the accuracy of the results obtained. 
It is here that the motion picture camera finds its ap- 
plication, makes possible the elimination of a compli- 
cated mechanism and permits a permanent photographic 
record of stress and strain to be obtained under con- 
tinuously increasing load applied at very different rates. 
Thus its purpose becomes the rapidly repeated and 
simultaneous photographing of a number of indicators 
which are always in motion. 

Fig. 1 shows the completely assembled apparatus, in- 



Published by permission of the Director, Bureau of Standards. 

^••Tensile Properties of Boiler Plate at Elevated Temperatures," 
Milling and Metallurgy. No. 158, Section 15, February, 1920. 
Chem. & Met. Exg., vol. 22, p. 392 (March 3, 1920). 




eluding camera, used in de- 
termination of the limit of 
proportionality at room and 
various elevated tempera- 
tures. The load-indicating 
disk is driven by belts and 
pulleys, as shown in Fig. 2, 
from the screw operating 
the rider on the beam of 
the testing machine, while 
the two compen.sating dials 
measuring deformation are 
mounted on frames, shown 
in Fig. 3, which in turn are 
attached to the test speci- 
men by two yokes. The 
dials are turned, however, 
to face in one direction. 
This arrangement is used 
to bring these three instru- 
ments into nearly one plane 
and as close together as 
possible in order that the 
largest images possible may 
be obtained on the film, an 
enlargement of which is 
shown in part in Fig. 4. The testing machine and cam- 
era are operated independently at any reasonable speeds, 
so that a wide variation in rate of loading and number 
of photographs of the dials may be obtained. 

The test specimen is placed in a tubular electric-re- 
sistance furnace and may be loaded at various tempera- 




FIG. 3. DEFORMATION- 
MEASURING DIALS 




FIG. 2. SHOWING BELTS AND PULLEYS OPERATING 
LOAD-INDICATING DISK 



FIG. \. SECTION OF FILM, ENLARGED 

tures. After completion of the test the film is de- 
veloped and then projecced by means of a simple device 
which allows as much time as desired for obtaining 
individual readings from any one exposure. From read- 
ings so obtained a stress-strain diagram is plotted in 
the usual manner and the limit of proportionality is 
obtained. In this case, however, the strain is half the 
algebraic sum of the deformations recorded by the 
two compensating dials. 

By this method the effect of rate loading on the tensile 
properties of firebox boiler plate has been studied. 



132 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



Synopsis of Recent Chemical 
^Metallurgical Literature 



Illuminating and Heating Gas From Wood Distilla- 
tion. — The industry of manufacturing illuminating and 
heating gas from wood distillation has made rapid 
progress in Switzerland during the last few years. The 
disadvantages of wood gas (presence of great quantities 
of acetic acid, which is harmful to the life of the 
pipings, and of carbon dioxide) have been greatly 
reduced by the use of an improvement in wood distilla- 
tion which consists in passing the gas through incan- 
descent charcoal. The consumption of charcoal is from 
1 to 3 kg. per 100 kg. of wood or 3 to 6 kg. per 100 cu.m. 
of gas. Tests have shown that by this improvement the 
following results are obtained as compared with those 
for a simple distillation of the wood: 

The amount of gas produced from a given quantity 
of wood is nearly doubled. 

The carbon dioxide content is reduced 25 per cent. 

The calorific value of the gas is reduced 22 per cent. 

The heavy hydrocarbon content is reduced about 66 
per cent. 

The methane content is reduced 50 per cent. 

The hydrogen content is increased 80 per cent. 

The tar content is decreased 50 per cent. 

The acetic acid content is reduced to a practically 
negligible quantity. The apparatus and pipings are not 
deteriorated by these small quantities of acetic acid. 

The gas produced is much lighter. 

The water content of the tar is greatly reduced, thus 
improving its selling price. — From Journal fiir Gas- 
beleuchtung. See Genie Civil, Nov. 27, 1920, pp. 439-440. 

Brass-Casting Practice. — An important research on 
"The Influence of Gases on High-Grade Brass" was pre- 
sented before the fall meeting of the British Institute 
of Metals by T. G. Bamford and W. E. Ballard. Their 
theoretical studies were supplemented by pouring ex- 
periments in a brass foundry and their conclusions were 
verified in this manner. 

It was judged impossible to discover the exact amount 
of gas present in solid brass by heating it in a vacuum, 
because the total amount of contained gas would not be 
evolved and at the same time a considerable amount of 
zinc would be volatilized. Specially prepared brass was 
therefore heated at a uniform rate in a tight tube con- 
taining a pure gas and the absorption at different tem- 
peratures inferred from the change in pressure. Com- 
paring the curve thus plotted with a blank run with no 
metal, it was found that CO, was apparently not 
absorbed by brass, CO was absorbed to a slight extent, 
and H, showed a fairly large and regular absorption. 
Sulphur dioxide was absorbed in large quantities be- 
tween 300 and 1,020 deg. C, at which temperature 
absorption ceases and an evolution of gas commences, 
becoming more rapid up to 1,100 deg. C. A marked 
chemical reaction takes place, producing heavy scale, 
accompanied by sulphidation, dezincification and the 
formation of blowholes. No results were possible with 
methane due to complex reactions accompanied by 
carbon deposition. 

Experiments were then devised and executed to 



measure the rate of reaction between SO, and brass, 
and the results were interpreted to mean that under the 
small partial pressure of SO, existing in any furnace 
atmosphere this gas could not be absorbed by brass at 
a correct pouring temperature, but would be actually 
eliminated from the metal. 

This implies that the metal must be hot enough to 
remain fluid in the mold for a few minutes after 
pouring, and is one reason why brass cannot be poured 
at too low a temperature. 

Experiments to measure the solubility of H, in brass 
were then undertaken, despite the apparent difficulty. 
Hydrogen-free brass was finally prepared by melting 
the metal in an atmosphere of CO,, bubbling this gas 
through the metal for about half an hour, pouring and 
cooling the metal in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. An 
ingenious experimental apparatus was then devised for 
bringing the brass to the desired temperature in a 
neutral atmosphere, replacing this with an atmosphere 

TABLE I. 70 : 30 BRASS (71.10 PER CENT COPPER) 



Temperature, 

Deg. C 

870 

820 

725 

340 

30 

850 

750 

30 



Solubility. 
Mg. per 100 g 

110 
6 9 
6 7 

2 5 
nil 

3 3 
2 7 
nit 



of hydrogen without involving heavy zinc losses, and the 
measurement of the weight of the hydrogen absorbed. 
The notable and important feature of these experiments 
is that the solubility determinations were made without 
subjecting the brass to any pressures differing largely 
from that of one atmosphere. The results are shown in 
Table I. 

Several different investigators agree that H, is soluble 
in Cu at 600 deg. C, with a solubility rapidly increasing 
with temperature, reaching 0.3 mg. in 100 g. at 920 deg. 

TABLE XL BRUNNER MOND ZINC (CAST IN COs) 



Temperature, 

Deg. C. 

750 

600 

300 



Solubility, 

Mg. per 100 g 

13 

3 5 

4 8 



C. Little information is available on H, and Zn, how- 
ever, so experiments tabulated in Table II were 
performed. 

Evidently 70 :30 brass can absorb much more H, than 
can either of its constituents. 

Having determined the fact that hydrogen was 
absorbed in large quantities, it was important to dis- 
cover how it could be extracted from the metal. This 
was done by heating weighed samples of brass in a 
stream of dry carbon dioxide to oxidize any hydrogen 
in the sample and then collecting and weighing the 
water formed in the reaction. 

It would appear from the results that a large propor- 
tion of the hydrogen retained in the brass is easily re- 
moved by heating at 600 deg. C. or above. The major 
portion of the hydrogen absorbed during heating is 
usually retained on cooling. 

Brass can evidently either adsorb large quantities on 
its surface, or large quantities can actually pass into 
the metal. 

In the former case, clearly, such adsorbed gas could 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



133 



not be responsible for internal unsoundness, and in 
the latter case, since the H^ could difTuse through the 
metal, it could hardly develop sufficient internal pressure 
to be responsible for blowholes. Such an argument does 
not apply in the case of S0,„ which in connection with 
an unsuitable pouring temperature might be responsible 
for unsoundness. 

Investigation was therefore carried out on the rela- 
tionship existing between the casting and pouring tem- 
peratures and the qualities of brass casting. Billets 
were cast in a brass foundry, observing the tempera- 
tures of casting and examining the condition of the 
billets at the end. Furthermore, a special furnace was 
designed and built with the object of obtaining a 
positive answer to the question as to whether any par- 
ticular furnace gas would have a deleterious effect upon 
the quality of brass castings, provided the metal was 
poured at the correct temperature. 

These practical experiments verified the following 
theoretical conclusions completely: 

1. In ordinary foundry practice, using a coke-fired 
natural-draft wind furnace, it is impossible to impair 
seriously the mechanical properties of the casting by 
overheating. 

2. Cooling the metal to within 40 deg. C. of the 
liquidus will certainly ruin the mechanical properties of 
high-grade brass which has been melted in ordinary 
furnace atmospheres, and will probably render the 
casting porous. 

3. In casting tubes a higher temperature is needed 
than when casting solid ingots, and it is not advisable 
to cast 70:29:1 tubes below 1,150 deg. C. 

4. Exceptionally prolonged periods of heating of the 
metal in the furnace do not impair the mechanical prop- 
erties of the resulting casting, but of course are to be 
deplored for commercial reasons, on account of the con- 
sequential high zinc losses. 

5. The furnace treatment is not a deciding factor in 
influencing the quality of the casting, but the pouring 
temperature is the notable factor. 

6. Unsoundness is usually confined to the upper por- 
tion of a casting. 

Carbide in Quenched and Tempered Steels. — In the 

thirty-eighth report of the Japanese Iron and Steel 
Institute Seizo Saito determines by means of magnetic 
and X-ray analysis that it is immaterial whether one 
says that cementite or carbon is dissolved in iron to 
form austenite, since both these phrases refer to the 
same atomic configuration. If free carbon does dis- 
solve in iron when the mass is heated above the trans- 
formation it is reprecipitated as cementite. When 
tempering a quenched steel at about 300 deg. C. cemen- 
tite is first set free, but owing to the extreme fineness 
of the particles the greater part readily decomposes. 
(Eutectoid steel first separates cementite on tempering 
at 130, and precipitation is complete at 360 dep ) 
Honda had previously found that the amount of precip- 
itated cementite reaches an asymptotic value at about 
400 deg. C, further heating to 700 not appreciably in- 
creasing its quantity ; the amount is less than the value 
before quenching, possibly by a value equal to that 
which decomposes when extremely finely divided. 
Coagulated cementite forming a comparatively large 
grain (pearlite) or massive cementite in hypereutectoid 
steels does not decompose below A, to any extent, but in 
the latter case free cementite does partly decompose 
above Ac,. 



Recent Qiemical 
^MetaDui-^ccd Patents 

American Patents 

Complete specifications of any United States patent may be 
obtained by remitting 10c. to the Commissioner of Patents, 
Washington, D. C. 

Ammonia-Soda Process. — In the usual ammonia- 
soda process the mother liquor obtained by filtering 
out the sodium bicarbonate contains, small proportions 
of sodium and ammonium bicarbonates and large 
proportions of sodium and ammonium chlorides. This 
liquor is treated with lime in the ammonia stills for 
the recovery of am.monia. Nearly one-half of the 
original sodium chloride is lost in the calcium chloride 
brine, so that the process cannot be worked commer- 
cially except at places where salt can be very cheaply 
obtained. According to a modification proposed by 
TORANOSKE NiSHlGAWA of Tokyo, Japan, more sodium 
chloride is added to the filtrate after the separation of 
sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride is precipi- 
tated by cooling to below 5 deg. C. Prior to cooling, 
sufficient ammonia is added to the liquor to convert 
the small proportion of bicarbonates into normal car- 
bonates. This ammonia is prepared synthetically from 
the gas from the scrubbers and carbonators, which is 
almost pure nitrogen. Either the cyanamide or the 
Haber process may be used. After filtering off am- 
monium chloride, the mother liquor (containing am- 
monium carbonate, sodium chloride and some ammonium 
chloride) is returned to the absorbers to form am- 
moniacal brine. (1,359,097; Nov. 16, 1920,) 

Phosphoric Acid. — Frank S. Washburn of Rye, N. 
Y., has improved the process for the production of phos- 
phoric acid from phosphate rock described in his earlier 
patents— 1,047,864, Dec. 17, 1912, and 1,100,639, June 
14, 1914. An electric furnace is charged with a mixture 
of phosphate rock and silica and the necessary amount 
of carbon is fed in from ? hopper in the top of the 
furnace. Further quantities of phosphate and silica 
are fed from a bin to a rotary kiln and then pass 
through a hearth furnace before entering the electric 
furnace through a side opening. The hot gases and 
vapors from the electric furnace pass through the hearth 
furnace and kiln in the opposite direction and thus serve 
to preheat the charge so that maximum thermal effi- 
ciency is obtained. (1,359,211; assigned to the Amer- 
ican Cyanamid Co.; Nov. 16, 1920.) 

Anhydrous Magnesium Chloride. — Needle crystals 
of magnesium chloride are partly dehydrated by the 
use of large volumes of heated air until the melting 
point of the salt is raised above 250 deg. C. The material 
is then placed in a retort and a current of dry HCl is 
passed through while the temperature is slowly raised 
from 150 to 650 deg. C. The product is 98 to 99 per 
cent MgCl. (1,359,652; Edgar A. Ashcroft of Lon- 
don, England; Nov. 23, 1920.) 

Magnesium. — Metallic magnesium is prepared from 
anhydrous magnesium chloride, made according to the 
process described in U.S.P, 1,359,652, by the use of a 
twin cell electrolytic apparatus. In the primary cell 
the anodes are of graphite, the cathode is a molten mag- 
nesium :lead alloy and the electrolyte consists of fused 



134 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 3 



anhydrous magnesium chloride. Magnesium :Iead alloy 
from the primary cell forms the anode of the secondaiy 
cell and the metallic magnesium which collects at the 
iron cathodes floats on the surface of the fused MgCl, 
electrolyte and is removed periodically. A current effi- 
ciency of 90 to 95 per cent is claimed. The primary 
cell voltage varies from 4 to 6 volts; that of the sec- 
ondary cell from 1 to 2.5 volts. The current density is 
such that the surplus energy maintains the contents of 
the cells in fusion — that is, at about 750 deg. C. When 
magnesium alloys are made^ only the primary cell is 
used. The chlorine gas evolved at the primary cell is 
absorbed in a vv^ater emulsion of lightly calcined mag- 
nesite, forming piagnesium chlorate and magnesium 
chloride in the molecular proportions of 1:5. The 
chloride is crystallized, dehydrated and used as elec- 
trolyte. The chlorate may be used as such or it may 
be converted into potassium chlorate and magnesium 
chloride. (1,359,653 and 1,359,654; Edgar A. AsH- 
CROFT of London, England; Nov. 23, 1920.) 

Magnesium Chloride. — Slaked dolomitic lime is 
treated simultaneously or successively with an amount 
of CO, equivalent to the calcium in the lime and an 
amount of SOj equivalent to the magnesium content of 
the lime: 

Ca(OH),. Mg(OH), + SO, -f CO. = CaCO, + 
Mg'SO, + 2H,0 
Calcium chloride is then added to convert the magnesium 
sulphite into magnesium chloride: 

MgS03 + CaCI, = CaS03 + MgCl 
The precipitated carbonate and sulphite of calcium are 
removed by filtration. (1,359,782; Edwin 0. Barstow 
of Midland, Mich., assignor to the Dow Chemical Co.; 
Nov. 23, 1920.) 

British Patents 

Complete specifications of any Britisli patent may be obtained 
by remitting 25c. to the Superintendent British Patent Office, 
Southampton Building's, Chancery Lane, London, England. 

Recovering Tin and Zinc From Scrap. — Zinc chloride, 
palmitin and tin are recovered from the scruff from 
tinning pots. The scruff is crushed to pieces about i 
in. in diameter, agitated in a tank with about one-fifth 
as much water below 60 deg. F. until the zinc-chloride 
solution obtained has a specific gravity of 1.3, when it 
is drawn off and filtered in a filter press. The remaining 
sludge in the tank contains palmitine, which term in- 
cludes palmitin and palmitic acid, tin, tin oxide and a 
small proportion of chloride of zinc and is ground with 
water to a paste and screened to remove the heavier 
particles of tin. "Tin soap," which consists of tin oxide 
and palmitine, and a proportion of the lighter particles 
of tin are also separated in the screening operation and 
are then agitated in a vessel when the tin sinks and the 
supernatant palmitine and tin oxide are filtered to 
remove water, treated with sufficient hydrochloric acid 
to dissolve any zinc and tin oxychlorides, filtered, dried 
and distilled. The distillate contains a mixture of 
palmitin and oil. (Br. Pat. 151,374. G. H. Clegg, 
Cardiff; Dec. 8, 1920.) 

Cracking Hydrocarbons. — In decomposing heavy 
hydrocarbon oils to yield lighter oils by heating them 
under pressure, the free carbon which is formed is con- 
tinuously removed. The oil is heated in a furnace- 
heated vertical still 30, containing a rotary scraper 44 
and is kept normally full of oil. Vapors and oil from 
the still pass up a pipe 50 to a separating chamber 14, 
from which the oil passes by a pipe 54 to an insulated 



vessel 22 in which the oil rises slowly upward and 
passes through a screen 24. The suspended carbon 
deposits in the vessel or is retained by the screen. The 
oil returns to the still by a pipe 26. The vapors may 
be passed from the chamber 14 by a pipe 56 to a chamber 
12 in which the temperature is controlled by passing 
the oil supply through a greater or less length of the 
coil 10. The heavy oils condensed in chamber 12 are 
passed by a pipe 60 into the vessel 22 and the vapors 
pass to a condenser 64. The oil supply may be pre- 




heated by passage through the coil 10 and a coil 16 in 
chamber 14 and is admitted to the vessel 22 by a pipe 
18. The bases of the vessel 22 and the still 30 are 
fitted with blow-off cocks 70, 74 to remove deposited 
carbon. The circulation of the oil among the still 30, 
the separator 14, and the carbon-removing vessel 22 may 
be assisted by a pump. The pressure within the circuit 
is maintained between 60 and 120 lb. per sq.in., and 
the temperature between 370 and 450 deg. C. (Br. Pat. 
151,925; not yet accepted; R. D. George, Boulder, Col.; 
Dec. 15, 1920.) 

Washing Crystals.^Crystals deposited from a solu- 
tion containing more than one salt are freed from 
mother liquor in a centrifugal machine, the process 
being completed by treating the crystals immediately 
the bulk of the mother liquor has been removed with 
water in a state of fine subdivision, either as spray or 
wet steam, so that no drj'- air can enter the mass until 
all the mother liquid has been removed. The crystals 
are preferably taken from the evaporator and treated 
at the temperature of their formation, the steam being 
introduced at a temperature suitable to bring about 
this result. A centrifugal machine which can discharge 
the crystals without stopping is preferably used. The 
process is described in connection with freeing crystals 
of sodium carbonate from a liquid containing common 
salt. (Br. Pat. 152,041, J. T. Windram, Johannesburg. 
S. A.; Dec. 15, 1920.) 

Dyes. — The products obtained by treating the 
sodium or ammonium salts of nitrated diphenylamine 
compounds with an alkaline cyanide in aqueous solu- 
tion dye wool brown to purple shades. The diphenyl- 
amine compounds should yield water-soluble alkaline 
salts; the examples provided being hexanitrodiphenyl- 
amine, tetranitrothiooxydiphenylamine, 2:4-dinitrodi- 
phenylamine-p-sulphonic acid and 2:4-dinitrodiphenyl- 
amine 7n-sulphonic acid. (Br. Pat. 151,868, British 
Dyestuffs Corporation and J. Turner. London, and 
L. G. Badier, Hudersfield: Dec. 15, 1920.) 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



1S6 




^ 



Current Events 

in the Chemical and Metallurgical Industries 



Fixed Nitrogen Corporation Bill Passes Senate 

By a vote of 34 to 29, the bill providing for the 
creation of the United States Fixed Nitrogen Corpora- 
tion was passed by the Senate Jan. 14 after it had been 
extensively amended. The chief responsibilities were 
vested in the President and the handling of the business 
end of the organization was lodged in the Secretary of 
the Treasury. Originally the bill provided for vesting 
most of the responsibility in the Secretary of War, 
who also was to be in complete charge of operations. 

While the passage of the bill by the Senate is regarded 
as a victory for those favoring it, there is much doubt 
whether it will be passed by the House. If the bill can 
be brought to a vote there, it probably will pass, but 
under the rules it will be difficult to bring it before the 
House without having the consent of the majority 
leaders, and it is doubtful if that can be obtained. 

The debate on the bill was particularly acrimonious. 
Senators Wadsworth, Lenroot, Poindexter and others 
were accused of filibustering against the measure. 
Although this charge was denied, it is evident that the 
opponents of the bill left little unsaid in regard to it. 
For that matter, however, the proponents of the bill 
occupied much time with their arguments. 

The opposition to the administration of the corpora- 
tion by the War Department was led by Senator Wads- 
worth, of New York, chairman of the Committee on 
Military Affairs. In that connection he said : "I think 
the Secretary of War should not be burdened with more 
civil jurisdiction. We have piled him with it in recent 
years. This bill, as drafted, would make him the respon- 
sible head for the carrying on of a great commercial 
business, the manufacture and sale of fertilizer. Mili- 
tary men are suggested as officers of this commercial 
corporation. Army officers are not trained business 
men. Soldiers ought not be assigned to work of this 
character. 

"This enterprise should be put under the Treasury 
Department and business men. The Treasury Depart- 
ment is the business end of the Government." 

The desires of Senator Wadsworth in that connec- 
tion were adopted finally without objection. 

An important amendment embodied in the bill just 
before it was passed provided that: 

"The corporation shall be conducted under the super- 
vision and control of a board of directors consisting 
of not less than five nor more than seven members, 
to be appointed by the President, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate." 

The provision authorizing appointment of army 
officers as directors was stricken out. The bill was 
also amended by denying condemnation power to the 
corporation. 

During the discussion of the bill Senator Smoot 
charged that the principal purpose behind it was not 
national defense or the manufacture of fertilizer, but 
the harnessing of a water power at Government expense 
for the use of the industries and the utilities in the 
territory tributarj'' to Muscle Shoals. 



Sheffield Scientific School Lecture Course 
for Graduate Students 

The following program of lectures at Sheffield Scien- 
tific School, Yale University, by well-known leaders in 
the cheimcal world, has been arranged so as to give 
the graduate students of organic chemistry a broader 
vision of its application in the industries and the 
inspiration, which comes by contact with such men, to 
seek further the truths revealed by research : 

1. Prof. R. H. McKee, professor of chemical engi- 
neering, Columbia University, New York City. 

2. Prof. E. V. McCollum, professor in department of 
chemical hygiene, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

3. Prof. H. N. Holmes, chairman of department of 
chemistry, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 

4. Dr. David Wesson, technical director. Southern 
Cotton Oil Co., Savannah, Ga. 

5. Dr. M. L. Crossley, research director, Calco Chem- 
ical Co., Bound Brook, N. J. 

6. Dr. P. A. Levene, chemist. Rockefeller Institute 
for Medical Research, New York City. 

The first speaker, Prof. McKee, will deliver two lec- 
tures as follows : Jan. 20 at 8 : 15 p.m., on "Tendencies 
in Chemical Engineering Education"; Jan. 21 at 9 a.m., 
on "Plant Problems Falling to a Chemical Engineer." 



Stamford Chemical Society Elects Officers 

The officers elected to take charge of the affairs of the 
Stamford, Conn., Chemical Society are: President, 
G. C. Givens; vice-president, S. D. Shipley; secretary, 
F. B. Wilson; treasurer, R. H. Stevens; director, E. H. 
Smith. 

At the next regular meeting on Jan. 24, Dr. Allen 
Rogers of Pratt Institute will give an illustrated lec- 
ture on "The Utilization of the Shark." 



Fellowships Open at Urban* 

Sixteen research gradual a assistants are maintained 
by the Engineering Experiment Station, University of 
Illinois, some of which are now open, each of which 
carries a stipend of $600 plus fees. Appointments are 
for two years, and require not more than half the time 
at the problem assigned, the remainder being available 
for graduate study. Further information may be had 
from Dean C. R. Richards, Urbana, 111. 



Meeting of the Syracuse Section of the A.C.S. 

The Syracuse Section of the American Chemical So- 
ciety held a very interesting meeting on Jan. 7. Dr. 
C. G. Derick of the National Aniline & Chemical Co., 
Buffalo, delivered a talk on "Methods of Attacking a 
Research Problem." 

Western Canada Pulp & Paper Co. Enlarges 

The Western Canada Pulp &. Paper Co., which 
recently took over the Rainy River Co.'s plant at Port 
Mellon, B. C, has reconstructed and enlarged the plant 
and is adding new' machinery. The enlarged plant will 
have a capacity of forty tons of pulp per day. 



136 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



Metric System Bill Introduced 

A bill providing for the compulsory use of the metric 
system as the single standard of weights and measures 
in the United States has been introduced in the Senate 
by Senator Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey. The bill 
was introduced at the request of advocates of the metric 
system. Senator Frelinghuysen explains that the intro- 
duction of the bill by him does not necessarily carry 
with it any support on his part for the measure, but he 
sees no reason why the measure should not be intro- 
duced so that members of Congress might acquaint 
themselves with its purport. 

Ten years after the passage of this bill the weights 
and measures of the metric system would be the single 
standard for the sale of goods and for computing trans- 
portation charges and wages. In order to accustom the 
public to the new system, all goods in package form 
which are required to be marked in terms of weight or 
measure must use the metric system beginning two 
years after the passage of the bill. From the second to 
the tenth year the customary units may be retained in 
addition to the metric, if desired. After four years, 
weighing and measuring devices shall be manufactured 
in accordance with the metric system. 

Certain exceptions are noted in section 12 as follows : 

Sec. 12. That nothing in this act shall be understood or 
construed as applying to — 

(1) Any contract made before the date at which the pro- 
visions of this act take effect; 

(2) The construction or use in the arts, manufacture or 
industry of any specification or drawing, tool, machine or 
other appliance or implement designed, constructed or gradu- 
ated in any desired system; 

(3) Goods, wares or merchandise intended for sale in 
any foreign country, but if such goods, wares or merchan- 
dise are eventually sold for domestic use or consumption 
then this clause shall not exempt them from the application 
of any of the provisions of this act. 



New Jersey Chemical Society Holds 
Its January, 1921, Meeting 

At the regular monthly meeting of the New Jersey 
Chemical Society held in Newark, Monday evening, 
Jan. 10, further growth of the society was manifested 
by the election of thirty-one new members, thereby 
bringing the total membership to 576, 

Dr. M. C. Whittaker, vice-president of the U. S. In- 
dustrial Alcohol Co., gave a very instructive address on 
"Chemical Organization and Management." He said 
that three factors — the plant, the process and organi- 
zation — had to be considered in dealing with this prob- 
lem, and that the organization factor was the most im- 
portant. The necessity of a one-man power supple- 
mented by disciplined and dependable co-ordinating 
units whose work accrues to the employer's benefit, to 
the successful development of an organization, was 
strongly emphasized. 

Of the various problems pertaining to the smooth 
functioning of the units the following heads were con- 
sidered: Misfits in Organization, Intelligence vs. Brawn, 
Doers vs. Excusers, Materialists vs. Dreamers. Empha- 
sis was laid upon the need of studying the individual 
man so as to place him in a position where he could 
utilize his natural ability in the most eflficient manner. 

Various types of organizations were described and 
discussed. Among these were dry rot, which required 
a sui'gical operation as a remedy; young organizations, 
characterized by what Dr. Whittaker called "the admis- 
trative double pass," where everybody passes his respon- 



sibility on to some one else; the all bosses, with no one 
to do the work; and the lop-sided organization, where 
there exist petty jealousies and a lack of proper balance 
between the technical and practical sides of the work. 

Dr. Whittaker said that a true test of a successfully 
operating organization was when all the units were 
functioning smoothly, and the individuals were all 
working in harmony and in such a way that the man at 
the head could devote his energy to the problems of 
development instead of spending most of his time keep- 
ing the machinery going. 

C. 0. Chan, B. S., of the China Commercial Co., Ltd., 
gave a short resume of the economic and political con- 
ditions existing in China. He said that due to lack of 
transportation and banking facilities large-scale pro- 
duction was impossible. Although there was a great 
deal of money in China, it was so distributed and disor- 
ganized as to prohibit its use in large amounts which 
are necessary for the development of industry by mod- 
ern business methods. The political situation was char- 
acterized as a mixture of ancient Chinese traditions 
and a copy of European and American customs. 

Three fundamental political tendencies have gradually 
been developed since the beginning of the Chinese Re- 
public. They are the vigorous reform tendency repre- 
sented by Dr. Yat-sen, Dr. Wu Ting-fang and the com- 
mon people ; the progressive tendency led by the scholar 
Liang Chao Chu advocating moderate reform, and the 
reactionary tendency represented by the Monarchist 
party. Besides these, there are two other groups repre- 
senting powerful interests and privileges, the military, 
or Pei Yang, group and the Communication, or Chiao- 
tung, group. 

The Monarchist party has become insignificant and 
is on the decline; the leader of the Progressive party, 
although exerting great influence by his pen, lacks 
strong executive ability and consequently the party has 
never been able to stand on its own feet and is depend- 
ent upon whatever other party is in power. The result 
is that the Military and Communication groups control 
the situation in northern China, where they are the 
strongest, and the common people in the southern prov- 
inces, where they predominate. 

Both the economic and the political situations were de- 
picted so as to give the American manufacturer an idea 
of the problems which confront him in doing business 
with the Orient. China, with its 400,000,000 population, 
represents a tremendous potential buying power and is 
a great market for manufactured chemicals. In turn 
she is rich in raw materials such as vegetable oils, 
camphor, coal, copper, gold, iron ore, antimony and 
tungsten. Mr, Chan expressed the hope that the United 
States might grasp this great opportunity to develop a 
chemical trade which would be of such immense benefit 
to both parties. 



C.W.S. Service School Opens 

The Service School of the Chemical Warfare Service 
at Edgewood Arsenal opened on Jan, 10. The purpose 
of the school is to develop officers for the command of 
Chemical Warfare Service troops in the field and to 
act on the staff of division, corps and army commanders. 

In addition to instructing these oflScers in the specific 
military problems arising in connection with the use 
of gas, the men will be schooled in the fundamental 
chemical problems involved and the chemical properties 
of the various gases. 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



137 



The Crocker-McElwain Plan to Help Employees 

The Crocker-McElwain Co. and the Chemical Manu- 
facturing Paper Co. have recently announced a plan for 
the relief of the hazard of unemployment so far as their 
employees of more than five years service are concerned. 
Their idea is to place any employee of more than five 
years service on the salary list. At such times as the 
mills may be closed the employee will receive salary, and 
in turn he obligates himself to do other work about the 
mill than his ordinary position would call for. The 

, nature of this work is to be agreed upon by the employee 

J and his immediate superior. When the mill is operat- 
ing the workman will receive either salary or the regular 
wage scale, depending on which amounts to the larger 

» sum per week. This contract may be terminated by 

I either party on giving four weeks notice. 



Evaporation Plant to Be Erected at Soda Lake 

Tile Sodium Mining & Products Co. will erect a new 
evaporation plant at Soda Lake, near Seventy-Mile 
House, on the old Cariboo stage road. The company has 
appealed to the Provincial Government, which owns and 
, operates the Pacific Great Eastern Ry., for a spur-line 
to the plant. Soda Lake is situated 3,700 ft. above sea 
level, has an area of 100 acres and a sodium carbonate 
content of 6 per cent ; but this, of course, must vary with 
the seasons of the year. There are a number of smaller 
lakes in the vicinity that contain about the same amount 
of sodium carbonate. In 1918 a small evaporating plant, 
capable of producing two to three tons of crystals daily, 
was erected. 



Book Reviews 



PRIESTLY IN AMERICA. 1794-1804. By Edgar F. 
Smith. Philadelphia: P. Blackiston's Son & Co. 1920. 
12mo. pp. 173. 

In this little book Dr. Smith has achieved a work of rare 
literary merit. We knew already that Priestly was an 
English Unitarian minister, that he discovered oxygen, that 
for the faith that was in him he was mobbed and perse- 
cuted so that he fled to America; that to the end of his 
days he held to the phlogiston theory, and that he died and 
was buried at Northumberland, Pa. 

Then, when we have read the book through, we feel as 
though we had at least a bowing acquaintance with the old 
gentleman, who was sixty-one years old when he came here 
and seventy-one when he died. We get also a sense of his 
importance as an international character. He lived in very 
interesting days, at a time when men thought seriously. 
He was a man of great influence in England, as is shown 
by a contemporary caricature on the walls of the Chemists' 
Club which depicts him as aiding in the service of a trou- 
blesome feast for King George IV. We get a sense of his 
importance as a person when we read the addresses pre- 
sented to him on his arrival in New York, and again on 
his advent in Philadelphia. We learn of his scholarship 
and of his familiarity with and practice of the graces of 
life, by reading his replies. Intense democrat that he was, 
he remained to the end of his days a person of quality and 
distinction. He was never commonplace or vulgar. 

He began with a pleasant acquaintance with John Adams, 
but he had no patience with his administration as President, 
whereas his admiration for Thomas Jefferson and his hearty 
friendship with him was of lifelong endurance. 

It does not appear that he ever left the State of Penn- 
sylvania after he settled down there and during the years 
of his life in this country he made but four visits to Phila- 



delphia. He declined a professorship in chemi.stry there. 
He was maliciously attacked by persons of the .same habit 
of mind as those who had persecuted him in England, but 
it did not worry him. He was always ambitious to see a 
college started at Northumberland, where has was content 
to live. A Mr. Bakewell met him in 179.5, and found him 
"a man rather below the middle size, straight and plain, 
wearing his own hair; and in his countenance, though you 
might discern the philosopher, yet it beamed with so much 
simplicity and freedom as made him very easy of access." 
Another said of him: "The doctor enjoys a game at whist; 
and although he never hazards a farthing, is highly di- 
verted with playing good cards, but never ruffled by bad 
ones." 

Very gently Dr. Smith leads us to the Northumberland 
home when his youngest son Harry, who lived with him and 
was clearing .300 acres of land, went the way of all flesh. 
It was among his greatest delights merely to be with thi= 
eighteen-year-old boy. No attempt is made to lay bare the 
old man's heart before us. Indeed, little is said, but that 
little is very subtle, and it carries us into sincere sympathy 
with him. 

Sir Oliver Lodge has said of Priestly that "his experi- 
ments were admirable, but his perceptions of their theo- 
retical relations were entirely inadequate and, as we think 
now, quite erroneous. ... In theory he had no instinct 
for guessing right ... he may also be said to have 
had a predilection for the wrong end." This is borne upon 
us as we read of his chemical activities. There is no doubt 
in his perseverance in what he held to be right. All his 
life he held to the phlogiston theory and fought for it. It 
guided his experiments and led him constantly astray. It 
eflFectively spoiled most of his writings on chemistry. In- 
deed phlogiston seemed to be no less than an obsession with 
him. It had this value, however, that his championship of 
the cause brought out such forceful and competent opposi- 
tion from his fellow chemists in America that it requires no 
stretch of the imagination to say that the ghost of phlo- 
giston was finally and effectively laid for all time by James 
Woodhouse and his colleagues. 

Much of his attention was given to the preparation of 
his Church History and his Notes on the Scriptures, which, 
Dr. Smith says, contain an immense fund of worth-while 
information and knowledge. The infirmities of age weak- 
ened his body, but left his mind clear and vigorous until, 
in the very act of correcting proof of his Church History, 
he quietly breathed his last on Feb. 6, 1804. 

The book is a rare tribute to a great chemist and one of 
the leaders of the thought of his day. And it is another 
token of Dr. Smith's rare gift in literary art. We com- 
mend it heartily to our readers. 

Ellwood Hendrick. 

:;< ^ ^ 

"THE MAKING, SHAPING, AND TREATING OF 
STEEL." By J. M. Camp and C. B. Francis. Second 
Edition. Published by the Carnegie Steel Co., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.* Price $5, cash with order. 
This excellent book is unique in its scope, its accuracy, 
and its lucidity. Those who work with rolled and semi- 
finished steel products or buy or sell them in quantity, who 
by curiosity or ambition attempt to learn something about 
the industry, may rely upon it to give them +he maximum 
amount of information which can be conveyed without 
entering the realm of the specialist and employing his 
oft-unintelligible language. 

Heretofore the literature (other than that contained in 
current periodicals^ might be classed in three groups. 
First is a number of elementary books, written in simple 
language but unfortunately descriptive of a localized in- 
dustry or a particular branch of the steel business — in other 
words, either provincial or specialized — and nearly always 
out of date and out of print. Next is a number of brief 
texts designed to give college students an outline view 
of iron and steel — covering more recent practice, but ordi- 
narily assuming a familiarity with elementary chemistry 

♦Obtainable by non-employees by addressing the Bureau of In 
struction, Carnegie Steel Co.. direct. Not sold by or through book 
stores or dealers. 



I 



138 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 3 



and physics on the part of the reader. Finally there is 
a certain small group of really excellent books treating- 
some phase of the industry in an exhaustive manner — books 
of reference and instruction for the engineer in the industry, 
and requiring advanced know^ledge of its technology on the 
part of the readers. In this group Harboi'd and Hall's 
volumes are the only ones in English which attempt to 
cover the whole field. Unfortunately these are rather ex- 
^^ensive, and are largely occupied by British and Conti- 
nental practice. 

Having these conditions in mind, it is not surprising that 
the non-technical student found much to discourage him in 
his search for information, and the expert was hard put 
to suggest books which were not specialized and yet descrip- 
tive of modern operations. This new volume by Messrs. 
Camp and Francis will supply this need and thus fill the 
great gap. It is not too much to think that it will also 
become very popular in engineering colleges offering courses 
in metallurgy. Doubtless numerous engineers and foremen 
will find it of considerable service in giving notes on many 
milling operations not ordinarily described even in the most 
pretentious works, and in providing clear outlines of related 
phases of their industry. 

It should be easily adopted as a text-book since the volume 
in fact is "the outcome of several years' experience in 
attempting to teach the metallurgy of steel to salesmen and 
other non-technical employees." A passage describing an 
operation which later turned out to be but hazily compre- 
hended could then be recast into more intelligible language. 
Many pages bear marks of such painstaking revision — 
notably in the descriptions of the chemistry of the iron- and 
steel-making processes. While an intelligent reader can 
easily grasp the chemistry involving the combustion of coke 
to CO and CO^, a clear comprehension of the reversible 
reactions which occur whenever the C:C0:C02 equilibrium 
is disturbed is not so easy, nor is it apparent at first sight 
how ores can be reduced, iron carburized and even reoxid- 
ized by the same two gases. Lacking any analogous 
phenomena in everyday life, the student will have extreme 
difficulty in understanding the reactions between slag and 
metal in an electric or open-hearth furnace — in fact one 
could venture the assertion that there are few operators or 
even advanced investigators who have a workable famil- 
iarity with the balanced reactions occurring in steel-making 
processes. 

Naturally the treatment of these matters cannot be 
rigorous and it is a difficult matter to balance lucidity 
against chance of misinterpretation or minor inaccuracies, 
but the reviewer has nothing but praise for the result. He 
can testify to the great pedagogical value of the conception 
of iron as the oxygen carrier in the purification stages, 
even though it is debatable whether- the oxide actually 
exists as a definite and separate entity, and even though all 
oxides appear to be nearly if not quite insoluble in molten 
and solid iron. 

A good discussion of sulphur in the open-hearth is given 
on p. 236, especially the gain in sulphur from impure fuel. 
In this connection, one important limitation to the book 
should be noted — and would probably be instinctively taken 
by the expert, and that is that the practice described is 
Steel Corporation practice. While its plants are numerous 
and its operations tremendous, there are certain very ex- 
cellent and useful metallurgical methods in daily operation 
elsewhere which are not practiced by that corporation. It 
is consequently a record of contemporary practice in the 
corporation (especially the Carnegie Steel Co.) and when 
the authors say (p. 181) that "the removal of sulphur in 
the mixer at all times i& so small as to be of minor im- 
portance" the sophisticated reader will immediately visual- 
ize low-manganese pig iron from the corporation's blast 
furnaces, and perhaps at the same instant remember the 
excellent sulphur elimination between blast-furnace and 
open-hearth described last year by Wheaton of the Beth- 
lehem Steel Co. Hence also the failure to mention the 
excellent acid open-hearth process, and various other 
processes in constant use here and elsewhere — puddling, 
basic bessemer, cementation, and crucible melting. Doubt- 
less for the same reason forging and heat-treating practice 



is confined to a short chapter (pp. 508-515), while steel and 
iron foundry practice and the production of malleable iron 
are not mentioned. 

Is it possible to assume, conversely, that the scant men- 
tion given to heat control is due to a widespread disuse of 
pyrometers in Steel Corporation plants? 

On the other hand, perhaps the fifty pages given to the 
electric furnace and its operation are due to the necessity 
of introducing the reader to the elementary electrical facts, 
and for the benefit of their salesmen selling specialties such 
as highly refined, multiplex, and alloy steels, rather than 
an appraisal of the relative importance of the process from 
a tonnage basis, either present or prospective. 

These deficiencies in scope are compensated by good dis- 
cussions on many lines. First there is a series of chapters 
containing very clear outlines of elementary physics and 
chemistry, refractories, ores, fluxes and slags. Especially 
notable is the chapter on fuels for its full discussion of 
the use of pulverized fuel in open-hearth furnaces, the 
authors concluding a very favorable appraisal with the 
suggestion that while its use was "still experimental," pow- 
dered fuel gives promise to replace gas in the steel plant. 
A description of the installations at Sharon, Clairton and 
Homestead works is included. 

Perusal of the chapters on the constitution, heat-treatment 
and composition of steel at the end of the book should do 
much to dispel the idea that metallography is a highly com- 
plex and difficult subject largely of academic interest. Praise 
is also due the 200 pages of Part II on the shaping of steel. 
They contain the most comprehensive description of all 
modern rolling mill operations known to the reviewer. 
Many topics are covered not to be expected in elementary 
books, notably roll design for rails, the shaping of rail 
joints, rolling of tires and car wheels, inspection of finished 
material for defects, and the scheduling of orders. 

The book itself is bound in limp leather, and can be 
carried around in one's pocket despite its 600-odd pages. 
Unfortunately the thin paper does not reproduce half-tones 
well — in fact, the authors have been too sparing in the use 
of line drawings to illustrate the early portions of their 
book covering furnace design and practice. Their descrip- 
tions are quite full, and in fact the text is a veritable glos- 
sary of terms; but these descriptions would be much en- 
hanced by appropriate sketches. The second half of the 
book does not suffer in this respect. 

From an instructional standpoint, the worst fault in the 
book results from its avowed aim: to describe things as 
the authors found them and why they are so, rather than 
to discuss what they should be. It might be argued that 
in educating a steel salesman, it would not be well to tell 
him that steel might be made better than it is today. The 
present reviewer apprehends more harm than advantage in 
half-truths, and directs his greatest criticism at the result- 
ing sentiment — sometimes definitely stated — that we are at 
the crest of excellence. Thus the statement on p. 130 that 
the "blast-furnace plant is just approaching the uniformity 
of perfection" is bad news for the blast-furnace man, con- 
demning him to a lifetime of merely doing what has been 
done before! Again "the old-time method of charging by 
hand having been entirely superseded by automatic charg- 
ing" is somewhat overoptimistic, since hand-fired furnaces 
of the Shoenberger works may be seen when standing at 
a window in the Carnegie Building. A strong plea is made 
in the book against the "ridiculous" insistence upon low 
limits for sulphur and phosphorus, since "it is becoming 
increasingly difficult to keep the sulphur content below 0.04 
per cent," and when the evidence (Unger's tests probably, 
made by adding sulphur and phosphorus when pouring an 
ingot) "points so strongly to 0.10 per cent as a limit that 
may be made to serve as well, for many purposes, at least." 

Some things get to be accepted as facts by the majority 
of men if they are repeated often enough. It would be 
unfortunate if young engineers, and doubly unfortunate 
to the Steel Corporation if its staff were in this way 
to acquire the idea that further progrress in steel making 
is not to be expected, and that 0.10 per cent sulphur and 
phosphorus are to be accepted without suspicion. 

E. E. Thum. 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



139 



Personal 



Current Maiket Reports 



I 



r 



Dr. C. L. Alsberg, retiring president of the Washington 
Academy of Sciences, will deliver his presidential address on 
"The Relation of Chemical Structure to Physiological 
Action" before the joint meeting of the Washington 
Academy and the Chemical Society of Washington on 
Thursday, Jan. 20. 

Dr. L. H. Baekeland is on a business trip to Denver, 
San Francisco and other Western cities. 

Kenneth E. Baird, formerly chemist at the Pittsburgh 
byproduct coke plant of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., is now chief chemist of the Donner Union 
Coke Corporation, Buffalo, N. Y. 

J. H. Becque resigned his position as assistant superin- 
tendent of the U. S. Gypsum Co., Washington County, Vir- 
ginia, Dec. 1, 1920, to accept a commission in the Chemical 
Warfare Service, Edgewood Arsenal, Edgewood, Md. 

Henry W. Blake, senior editor of the Electric Railway 
Jouiiial, was tendered a dinner by his associates in the 
McGraw-Hill Co. on Jan. 6 in celebration of Mr. Blake's 
completion of thirty years of editorial work on this maga- 
zine. Mr. Blake graduated as civil engineer at Yale Uni- 
versity in 1886 and as electrical engineer at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology in 1888, and consequently 
brought to his editorial work a degree of technical knowl- 
edge unusual in those days. 

F. E. Coombs, consulting engineer, San Francisco, is 
doing supervisory work for the Asti Grape Products Co., 
which is installing a grape-sirup manufacturing plant at its 
winery in Asti, Cal. 

Louis P. Destribats, of Trenton, N. J., has resigned 
as general manager of the Ajax Rubber Co., which operates 
a large plant in Trenton, N. J. The position is now being 
filled by A. J. McMann, of Detroit, who has been con- 
nected with the company for some time. He formerly was 
affiliated with the United States Tire Co. Mr. Destribats 
retains his connection as vice-president and director of the 
company. 

J. A. Hynes, of the U. S. Custom House, spoke before 
the Chicago Chemists' Club recently on "Some Problems of 
the Customs Chemist." 

Alva N. James, of Evanston, 111., has just returned from 
an extensive trip to the Chilean nitrate fields and copper 
properties. 

Walter L. Jordan, formerly chemical engineer of the 
Celite Products Co., has opened an office in New York 
City as a consulting chemical engineer and is now carrying 
on work on filtration. 

Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, 
spoke before the Detroit Engineering Society Jan. 7, on 
"Photographing the Flash From Large Guns and Pro- 
jectiles." 

Stephen Schwartz, formerly of the Empire Refineries, 
is now in charge of the engineering and construction depart- 
ment of the Indiana Oil Refining Co., Columbus, Ind., 
which concern will erect a refinery complete with lubricating 
oil department. 

Paul C. Skinner, general manager of the General Chem- 
ical Co.'s plant, Denver, Col., is making an extended busi- 
ness trip to New York City and the East. 

H. G. Thiele is superintendent of the Borosolvay potash 
plant of the Solvay Process Co. at Borosolvay, Cal. 

R. C. Tolman, director of the Fixed Nitrogen Labora- 
tories, War Department, addressed the Chemical Society 
of Washington, on Jan. 13, on the subject, "The Third Law 
of Thermodynamics." 

Harold VanDoren, formerly with the Grasselli Chemical 
Co., has accepted a position as research chemist with the 
Koppers Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



The Chemical and Allied Industrial Markets 

New York, Jan. 17, 1921. 

Improved inquiries and orders from miscellaneous sources 
resulted in a more active state of business in the chemical 
market. For the first time in many weeks trade sentiment 
is cheerful and it is believed that the continued strength 
among some of the leading chemicals will do a great deal 
to stimulate confidence in the general market. 

Buyers are experiencing great difficulty in placing orders 
on soda ash and caustic soda, owing i,o the pronounced 
scarcity of oflFerings and the advancing tendency in prices. 
At the close of the week light ash was stronger than it 
has been in the past six months and it was exceptionally 
hard to find a resale lot of any sizable dimension. Those 
affiliated with the resale distributors of soda ash had to 
pass up business in several instances and it is known that 
orders were placed with producers at $2.20 per 100 lb. 
f.o.b. works flat. Export parcels in the open market were 
quoted as high as 2ic. per lb., although no sales were 
recorded as far as could be learned above $2.20. As was 
expected, the advance in soda ash was directly reflected on 
the market for caustic soda. Sales for the latter chemical 
have been made as high as 4c. per lb. This is the highest 
price recorded since early November. Some large sellers 
of caustic soda stated that there is only enough resale mate- 
rial available to cover wants for a short time, and that 
unless producers reduce the price of contracts, they will 
be compelled to rely upon first hands to cover their require- 
ments. 

Spot bichromate of soda was quoted firm with sellers 
asking 9J@95C. per lb. for standard material. Dealers 
stated that only a few small lots could be purchased around 
the inside figures. A little better inquiry seems to be 
developing for this material and it looked as though any real 
buying would strengthen prices. Sellers are not inclined to 
accept February shipment orders except at about Ic. per 
lb premium over spot prices. Sales of foreign muriate of 
potash were reported at $75 per ton, basis 80 per cent, 
delivered. Both foreign and domestic muriate appear to be 
on a parity at the present time. Quotations ranged from 
$75 to $80 per ton, according to seller. Some interests 
assert that a keener competition is developing among the 
sellers of this chemical, although prices have not changed 
since the first of the year. Resale lots of bichromate of 
potash were on the market at 16@17c. per lb., spot New 
York. In some quarters it was intimatsd that a firm offer 
of 15c'. per lb. would probably be accepted for moderate 
quantities. Inquiry for this chemical has not been active 
of late and second-hand competition has resulted in the 
lowering of the spot quotations. While in some quarters 
17c. per lb. for prussiate of soda was reported acceptable 
for limited quantities, in others the market was quoted at 
17ic. It is possible that small isolated lots can be pur- 
chased a shade under these figures, but the general tone was 
reported slightly firm with a fair amount of small lot busi- 
ness passing. 

Off lots of oxalic acid were on the market at 80c. per lb. 
Sellers' views covered the same wide range lately recorded 
and some producers are asking 25c. per lb. for material ex- 
store. The general feeling is firm and some intprests assert 
that actual supplies are relatively small. Reports from 
some quarters on the export situation of alcohol are be- 
coming moi-e optimistic and not only is there a greater 
number of scattered inquiries, but shipments to some ports 
are increasing in volume. The domestic demand is confined 
to small lots on the basis of $5@$5.50 per gal. Producers 
quoted denatured alcohol at 68@77c. per gal., depending 
on formula. The demand is of small volume and some 
holders are said to be shading where business was possible. 
Trading in wood alcohol remained quiet, although a better 
inquiry was recently noted. Prices ranged from $1.30 to 



140 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 24, No. 3 



$1.60 per gal., depending on grade. The general aspect 
of the glycerine market was stronger and trading reflected 
more activity. A fair volume of the c.p. grade moved into 
consuming channels on the basis of 20c. per lb. in drums 
and 22c. in tins. 

Coal-Tar Market 

General conditions seemed to have improved somewhat 
during the last week in some of the markets that coal-tar 
products are more or less dependent on. From both local 
and foreign quarters inquiries have been increasing and 
many are of the opinion that these inquiries mean real busi- 
ness in the very near future. 

Crude producers are candid in stating that there is 
nothing in the line of large lot business, but small orders 
are coming in more frequently. Prices are holding steady 
with prospects of a future demand that will further stabilize 
the market. 

Few inquiries were reported for dinitrobenzene and the 
market continued dull. Supplies were abundant, but out- 
side of occasional small lot offerings at reduced prices, 
first-hand quotations were holding fairly steady. Spot mate- 
rial ranged from 25c. to 30c. per lb., depending on quantity 
and sellers. The only activity on dinitroclorbenzene is 
occasional small lot sales. There were few buyers and 
these were interested in small quantities only. Prices, 
however, were held steady at 27 @ 30c. per lb. The market 
in para-dichlorbenzene reflected a firm tendency with sup- 
plies quoted in car lots at 10c. per lb., and ranging up to 
14c. per lb. for lesser quantities. A steady improvement 
in the demand is looked for, now that conditions in the 
textile centers are clearing. 

Consumers showed little interest in the market on para- 
nitraniline. Producers reported regular supplies available 
on spot. Prices ranged from 93c. to $1 per lb. Very little 
paraphenylenediamine is being moved at present on account 
of most of the large fur dyers being closed. Stocks are 
not pressing, however, and prices are fairly well held by 
producers. The average price is $2.20 per lb., with some 
variation noted at both higher and lower levels. Second 
hands are offering naphthalene flakes, 79-81 m.p., Ameri- 
can make, at 8c. per lb. spot. Producers are quoting 
contract and future delivery on the basis of 9c. per lb. 
Trading in beta naphthol continued along quiet lines. Pro- 
ducers are holding steady to the present quotations of 
45@50c. per lb. Offerings in second hands are still hovering 
around the market at much lower prices. Factors reported 
a regular supply of monochlorbenzene on the basis of 14c. 
per lb. in carload lots and while sales are of a light routine 
nature as yet, the conditions of the consuming end are 
much brighter for an increased demand. 

Rubber Market 

Little variation was noted in crude rubber prices through- 
out the week. Spot ribbed smoked sheets were offered 
quite freely at 20c. per lb., but as far as could be ascertained 
no business was transacted at this level. Sellers of January 
are also asking 20c. per lb. Futures remained nominally 
unchanged with sellers scarce and a fair amount of in- 
quiries received. January-March closed at 21c., April-June 
at 22Jc., and July-December at 25J@26c. One factor re- 
ported a small lot sale for April-June at 22c. 

Naval Stores 

There is a firm belief in the trade that buying interest 
in the near future will increase and prices were advanced 
by leading interests. A boost of 6c. per gal. on turpentine 
was noted during the week which is now quoted at 75c. per 
gal. Rosin, however, while firmer, remained quoted at for- 
mer levels. Trading during the week in general showed a 
moderate increase in small lot business. The Savannah 
market has not been subject to any change and remained 
stagnant with no sales reported in either turpentine or 
rosins. 

Correction 

In our issue of Jan. 5 we published a table on sodium 
compounds for 1918-1919 in which we erroneously trans- 
posed figures. The following is a correct table of the vari- 



ous important sodium compounds produced during 1918- 
1919: 

1918 1919 

Short Tons Short Ton* 

.Sodium Acetate 2,622 2,426 

Sodium Bicarbonate II 8,535 1 34.962 

Sodium Bichromate 28,334 26,526 

Soda Ash 1,390,628 981,054 

.Sodium Ferrocyanide 4,525 3,437 

Sodium Hydroxide 513,363 355.466 

The Baltimore Market 

Baltimore, Md., Jan. 11, 1921. 

The expected improvement in the market on fertilizer 
materials has not yet materialized. Purchases continued 
to be made on a "hand-to-mouth" basis, and trading is 
generally in small parcels. Heavy liquidation of stocks 
held by manufacturers is not to be noted. In fact most of 
the local fertilizer factories have been closed down since the 
first of the year and it is thought that normal operations 
will not be resumed for at least a few weeks. Merchants 
and speculators, however, are forced by necessity to place 
some of their materials on the market. These forced sales 
are being made at prices under nominal quotations. 

Fertilizer salesmen are reporting but indifferent success 
in their campaign for spring business. In certain sections 
the farmers' organizations have entered into agreements 
to delay purchasing until fertilizer prices are lowered or 
prices on farm products are increased. 

Acid Phosphate — Acid phosphate can be purchased at $16 
per ton, basis 16 per cent bulk, run of pile. The nominal quo- 
tation, however, is about fifty cents per ton above this fig- 
ure. Raw rock is said to be moving from the mines more 
rapidly than was the case a few months ago. 

Nitrate of Soda — Importers' quotations on this commodity 
are nominal at $2.85 per 100 lb. ex-vessel Atlantic ports. 
Resale lots, however, can be obtained at $2.75. 

Sulphate of Ammonia — Resale lots of sulphate are now 
offered at $3.75 per 100 lb., which marks a decline of 25c. 
since last report. This quotation governs on bagged mate- 
rial in carload lots. 

Potash — There are rather heavy stocks of foreign potash 
in local warehouses at present. It is believed, however, that 
a surplus does not exist as deliveries from now on will be 
light. It is also reported that many of the manufacturers 
have not covered their requirements. The market is quoted 
nominal; muriate, $1.70 per unit; kainit and manure salts. 
$1.50 per unit. All ex-vessel Atlantic ports. Nebraska 
potash can be had at a slight premium over the foreign 
goods. . 

Fish Scrap — Very little fish scrap has moved since last 
report. The nominal mai'ket has declined 25c. per unit, 
being now quoted at $3.75 and 10c. delivered Baltimore in 
buyers' bags. There are available stocks at the fish fac- 
tories. Ground scrap sold this week at $4 and 10c. Balti- 
more. Prime A menhaden fish oil can be had at 30c. per gal. 
in tierces delivered Baltimore. 

The Iron and Steel Market 

Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. H, 1921. 

Demand in the open market for steel products has not 
visibly inci-eased. On the whole, demand against old con- 
tracts is tending to decrease. With the independents there 
have been some reinstatements of business, or "releases" in 
connection with shipping orders previously suspended, the 
releases being prompted by the revision of contract prices 
recently down to the Steel Corporation or Industrial Board 
level, but these hardly make up for the completion from 
time to time of old orders. With the Steel Corporation, 
there are still full shipments against contracts on books, 
but it is apparent that the corporation's customers are not 
consuming steel in all cases altogether as fast as steel is 
being received, and an early increase in the rate of con- 
sumption will be requisite to forestall a decrease in the 
Steel Corporation's rate of production and shipments. 

Such an increase is not to be expected within the next 
few weeks. The predictions made in December, that there 
would be a distinct increase in steel demand immediately 
after the first of the new year, were probably made from 
habit. There are many precedents for the making of such a 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



141 



prediction in December, but there are no precedents for 
steel demand to increase in January. March or April, and 
September or October, are the established times for the 
steel market to broaden. At present, the more sanguine 
predict a decided improvement in demand before the end of 
March. Others doubt whether there will be any material 
impi'ovement before late in the year, if in this year at all. 

It is a new situation, or at least a new one for the present 
generation. The country is not, apparently, suffering from 
over-expansion in material development, in railroads, office 
and hotel buildings and dwelling houses. It does not seem 
to be overstocked with goods, except perhaps in some goods 
upon which wholesalers or retailers refuse to take the nec- 
essary loss, and of course excepting copper, which stands 
in altogether unique position and must not be used as a 
basis for generalizing. There is no very serious credit 
strain, as testified by the smallness of business failures. In 
other periods of depression and readjustment a decline in 
prices was essential, but the operation was distinctly sub- 
sidiary. Now the principal thing is a great readjustment in 
values of all commodities and in wage rates and compensa- 
tion for personal service of various descriptions. It is 
known what needs to be done, but from lack of precedent it 
is difficult to estimate the length of time that will be 
required. The time may prove much shorter than many now 
estimate, for it is largely a matter of men changing their 
minds. Experience is still fresh as to how rapidly men can 
do that in one direction. Why not rapidly in the other? 

Steel Corporation Tonnage 

The Steel Corporation's unfilled obligations decreased 
by 873,359 tons during December. The first decrease 
was in August, and the decreases have steadily grown 
larger. There were fair bookings in December, however, 
for while the decrease in unfilled obligations represented 
64 per cent of capacity for the month the shipments may be 
estimated at about 94 per cent, production being at about 
"92 per cent, while there was a large movement of tubular 
goods accumulated, in addition to the current output. Thus 
the net bookings must have been about 30 per cent, total 
bookings being in excess of this, in offset of cancellations, 
of which there certainly were some. The independents, 
although their order books were almost bare, had light 
bookings. There is no trend, as was expected by some, for 
buyers to leave the corporation and patronize independents, 
while on the other hand there are some instances of buyers, 
formerly customers of independents, now seeking to obtain 
a place as Steel Corporation customers. 

Prices 

At various times from the middle of November to the 
end of December the independent market on the different 
steel products receded to the Steel Corporation or Industrial 
Board level. The markets are now steady at those prices. 
There is occasional shading in some commodities by inde- 
pendents, but this shading is distinctly exceptional. The 
majority of independents ai-e firm in their price views, while 
the Steel Corporation, with well-filled order books, has no 
occasion to give the subject a thought. 

It is a fair statement that the independents do not cut 
prices because there is no sufficiently attractive business in 
sight. Some independents might cut the price on a com- 
modity to secure one fair-sized order, but in general the 
attitude is that price cutting would not pay. As between 
operating at 20 to 50 per cent, which is the prevailing range 
with plants that are not closed entirely, at present prices, 
and operating at 80 to 100 per cent at prices quite a number 
of dollars a ton below the present level, the choice would 
no doubt be instant. When such an operation becomes a 
possibility the whole price structure in the steel market will 
be recast if necessary to attain the end. 

Steel ingot production in December was at the rate of 
about 21,000,000 tons a year by the Steel Corporation and 
at about 10,000,000 tons a year by the independents, or 
31,000,000 tons altogether. Independent operations decreased 
rather steadily during December, but the rate now is about 
the same as that at the end of December, say 7,000,000 or 
8,000,000 tons, while the Steel Corporation's rate remains at 
about 21,000,000 tons. 



Carlots 


Leas Carlotj 


_ 




$0.55 - 


$0 60 


$0 13 - 


$0 13; 


.I3J- 


14 


3 00 - 


3 25 


3 50 - 


3 75 


6 00 - 


6.25 


6.50 - 


6 75 


10 50 - 


II 00 


11.25 - 


II 50 


.14}- 


15 


15}- 


16 


I5i- 


.161 


17 - 


18 






50 - 


52 


1 85 - 


2 25 


2 75 - 


3 00 


.15 - 


16 


.161- 


18 


.10 - 


II 


m- 


12 


,04}- 


051 


06 - 


07 


4.00 - 


4 50 


4.50 - 


5 00 


.07 - 


"071 


■ ■ , J8 - 


:08} 


.18J- 


09 


091- 


10 


I8i- 


.181 


19 - 


.20 


.18 - 


.181 


181- 


.19 


28 - 


35 


40 - 


.50 






2.30 - 


2 40 



Sulpluirk', 60 dog. 
Sulphuric, 60 dog. 
Sulphuric, 66 deg., 
Sulphuric, 66 deg., 
Sulpliuric, 66 deg., 
Sulphuric, fuming, 



18 00 - 19 00 
21 00 - 22 00 



14 00 - 15 00 
22 50 - 23 00 



23 00 - 24 00 

25 00 - 26 00 

32 00 - 35 00 

^48 - ^SO 



26.50 - 27.00 



40.00 

1.30 

.51 

.33 

1.20 

5.00 



General Chemicals 

CURRENT WHOLESALE PRICES IN NEW YORK \LARKET 



Acetic anhydride lb. 

Acetone lb. 

Acid, acetic, 28 per cent 100 lbs. 

Acetic, 56 per cent 100 lbs. 

Acetic, glacial, 991 per cent, carboys, 

100 lbs. 

Boric, crystals* lb. 

Uoric, powder lb. 

Citric lb. 

Hydroclilorir- ICO lb. 

Hydrofluoric, 52 per c; nt lb. 

Lactic, 44 per cent tech lb. 

Lactic, 22 per lent tech lb. 

Molybdic, C. 1 lb. 

Muriatic, 20 deg. (see hydrochloric) .... 

> itric, 40 deg lb. 

^ itric, 42 deg lb. 

Oxalic, cryntals .lb. 

Phosphoric, ( rtho, 50 per cent solution. lb. 

Picric lb. 

Pyrogallic, resublini ed lb. 

" " , tank cars ton 

drunis ton 

tank cars ton 

, drums ton 

carboys ton 

20 per cent (oleum) 
tank cars ton 

Sulphuric, fuming, 20 per cent (oleum) 
drunis ton 

Sulph ric, fuming, 20 per cent (oleum) 
carboys ton 

Tannic, U. S. P lb. 

Tannic (tech.) lb. 

Tartari(^ crystals lb. 

Tungstic, per lb. of WO lb. 

Alcohol, Ethyl gal. 

Alcohol, Methyl (see methanol) 

Alcohol, deiiatired, 188 proof gal. 

.Mcohol, denatured, 190pro(.f gal. 

Alum, ammoniii luitij> lb. 

.\hi7Ti, potash lump lb. 

Alum, chrome lump lb. 

■Mumiuum Kulphate, conmiorcinl lb. 

.Aluminum sulphate, iron free lb. 

.Aqua ammonia, 26 deg., drums (7501b.) lb. 
Ammonia, anhydrcus, ryl. ( IOO-15Clb.).lb. 

Ammonium carhonatp, powder lb. 

Ammonium chloriile, granular (white 

salamoniac) (?!ominal) lb. 

Ammonium chloride, granular (gray sal- 
ammoniac) lb. 

Ammonium nitrate lb. 

Ammonium sulphate lb. 

Amylacetate gal. 

Am\ lacetate tech gal. 

Arsenic oxide, lumps (white ar.senic) . . lb. 
Arsenic, sulphide, powdered (red arsenic) lb. 

Rarium chloride ton 

Barium dioxide (peroxide) lb. 

Barium nitrate lb. 

Barium sulphate (precip.) (blaiic li\'V.!b. 
Bleaching powder(see calc. hypochlorite) . . 

Blue vitriol (see copper stilphate) 

Borax (see sodium borate) 

Brimstone (see sulphur, roll) 

Bromine lb. 

Calcium acetate 1 00 lbs. 

Calcium carbide lb. 

Calcium chloiide, fused, lump ton 

Calcium chloride, granulated lb. 

Calcium hypochlorite (bleach'g powder) lb. 

Calcium peroxide lb. 

Calcium phospliatc, monobasic lb. 

Calcium sulphate, pure lb. 

Camphor lb. 

Carbon bisulphide lb. 

Carbon tetrachloride, drums 11>. 

Carbony! chloride (phosgene) lb. 

Caustic pota.sh(see potassium lixdroxiQ"). 

Caustic soda (see sodium hydro>i(le) 

Chlorine, gas, liquid-cylinders ( 100 lb.), .lb. 

Chlorofor ni lb. 

Cobalt oxide lb. 

Copper as ( see iron sulphate) 

Copper carbonate, greenprecipilale. . . .lb. 

Copper cyanide lb 

Copper sulphate, crystals lb. 

Cream of tartar (see potas.sium bitartra(e). 

Kpsom salt (see ri'agi'c ium sulpl;afe) 

Kthyl Acetate Coiiv 85" gal. 

I'^thvl Acetate pure (acetic ether 98"; to 

100";,> 

rormaldehyde, 40 per cent lb. 

1 u;el oil, ref gal. 

Fusel oil, crude gal. 

Cilauber's salt (see sodium sulphate) . . . . 

Glycerine, C. P. drums extra lb. 

lodiie, resublinied lb. 

Iron oxide, red lb. 

Irtm sulpliate (copperas) I(!0 lb. 

Lead a(retate, normal lb. 

I^ead arsenate (paste) lb. 

I>ead nitrate, crystals lb. 

Litharge lb. 

T^ithium car bonate lb. 

Magnesium carbonate, technical lb. 

Magnesium sulphate, l'. S. P.. 100 lb. 
Magnesium sulphate, commercial.. 100 lb. 

Methanol, 95% 

Methanol, pure . . . . . 

IS ickel salt, double 

^'ickel sa!t, single 

Phosgene (see carbonyl chloride) . . 

Phosphorus, red 

Phosphorus, yellow 

Potassium bichromate 



1.35 

.52 

35 

I 40 

5.50 



^ 




.68 - 


.72 


_ 




.73 - 


.77 


.041- 


.041 


.05 - 


.05J 


.051- 


.06 


.061- 


.07 


.13 - 


I3| 


.14 - 


M* 


.02!- 


.03 


.03i- 


03i 


.03^- 


.031 


.04 - 


04 i 


.06;- 


.07 


.071- 


08} 


.30 - 


.32 


.33 - 


35 


.121- 


.121 


.13 - 


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.09;- 


.10 


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.09i- 


.09 J 


.091- 


. 10 


.09 - 


.09i 


.10 - 


10} 


.03J- 


031 


.04 - 


04i 






4 25 - 


4 50 


« 




3.50 - 


3 75 


.103- 


.11 


lli- 


.11} 


.15 - 


151 


.15 - 


16 


75.00 - 


80 00 


85.00 - 


90 00 


.24 - 


.25 


.26 - 


27 


.10 - 


lOJ 


.101- 


11 


.041- 


.05 


.051- 


.06 



.50 - 
2. to 
.04 
27.00 - 
.02 - 



.52 

2 05 
04} 
29 00 
.021 
.03 



.54 



.56 



.08 - 
.11 - 



.08} 
Hi 



. 04'- 
30 . 00 
.02^ 
.03J 
1.25 
.16 
.05 
.88 
.09 
.14 
.60 



05 

32 00 



- 1 



03 
035 
30 
.18 
.06 
.90 
.091 
.12 
.75 



.09 



.09} 



.22 - 
.06}- 



.22} 
.06} 



.10 - 

.43 - 

3 90 - 

":24 - 
.40 - 
.061- 



13} 
50 

1.0 

25 

50 

.07 



.18}- 



1.05 - 1 10 



1.50 - 15 
'!i3 - 14 
';69 - .09i 



10}- 
2 50 - 



gal. 
gal 

lb. 
lb. 



lb. 
.lb. 



.45 
.'i6 



.11 
3 00 



.46 
:i6} 



.19 
3 50 
2.75 

20 

3 85 

10 

2 00 

14 

14 

90" 

09" 

1 50" 



.19; 
3 60' 

3 00 

' 2i 

4 00 
20 

2 25 
16 
15 

I 00 
10 



III- 



12 



1 50 

1 30 

I 50 

.12 

.13 



1 75 
I 40 
1 70 

.12'. 

.13; 



.47 - 

35 - 

.161- 



.50 

37 

. 17 



142 



CHEMICAL AND MEtALLURGlCAl. ENGINEERING 



Vol 24, No. 3 



Carlots 



75 



35 
11 
10 

14 
00 



.40 

.11 

14J 
80.00 



Lc.«s Carli Is 

$0 37 -$0 38 
.25 
45 - 

IIJ 
12 - 
65 
15 - 



11 ;- 

60 - 
50 - 
31 - 
00 - 



.12 
.63 
52 
3H 
230.00 



.00 

.12'. 

65' 

53 

.32 



3. 



05 - 
50 - 
05^ 
40 - 
09i- 
00 - 
06.5- 
07 - 
00 - 
10 - 
21 - 
17 - 
90 - 

85 - 

06 - 
30 - 
031- 



2.15 

2.60 
.05 J 

2.50 
091 

7,50" 
07 
07J 

2 25 
101 
23" 
I7i 

4 00 



33 00 -35.00 

1 25 - 

43 

2 20 
2 70 

06 
2 60 
093^ 



- 3 



- 2 



2 



.06' 

31 

.041 



16 



17 

OU 

03 

75 

05; 

04" 

20 

08 

00 

09 



- 171 

- OU 

- 031 

- 2 00 

- 05J 

- 041 
201 

- 09 
20 00 



18- 



00 

07^ 

071 

50 

lOJ- 

24 - 

17; 

4 10 
04 

3 00 - 

06;- 

32"- 

041- 

33- 

. 171- 

.02 - 

.03J- 

2.25 - 
06 - 

.04Jr^ 

21 - 
. 10 - 



10 
3 70 
3 40 



11 



Pota.'sium bitartratc (cream of tartar) .... lb. 

Potassium b'^omide, granular lb. 

Potas.sium carbonate, U. S. P lb' 

P( tassium e rbonate, crude lb. 

Prtassiurn chlorate, crystals lb. 

Porassium cyanid(> lb 

Potas.sium hydroxide (caustic potash).. . . lb. 

Potassium nniriate ton 

Potassium iodide lb. 

Potassium nitrate lb. 

P( tassium permanganate lb. 

Potassium prussiate, red lb. 

Potassium prussiate, yellow lb. 

Potas.sium sulphate (powdered) ton $225 

Rochellc salts (see sodium potas tartrate) 

Salammoniac (see ammonium chloride) 

Sal soda (see sodium carbonate) 

Salt cake ton . 

Silver cyanide oz. 

Silver nitrate oz. 

Soda ash, light 100 lb. 

Soda ash, dense 100 lb. 

Sodium acetate lb 

Sodium bicarbonate 1 00 ib. 

Sodium bichromate lb. 

Sodium bisulphatc (nitre cake) ton 

Sodium bi.sulphite powdered, U.S.P lb. 

Sodium borate (borax) lb. 

So<lium carbonate (sal soda) 100 lb. 

Sodium chlorate lb. 

Sodium cyanide, 96-98 per cent lb. 

Sodium fluoride lb. 

Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) 100 lb. 

Sodium hyposulphite lo. 

Sodium nitrate 1 

Sodium nitrite . . lb. 

Sodium peroxide, powdered lb. 

Sodium phosphate, dibasic lb. 

Sodium potas.sium tartrate (Rochelle salts) lb. 

Sodium prus-siate, yellow lb. 

Sodium silicate, solution (40deg.) lb. 

Sodium silicate, solution (60deg.) lb 

Sodium sulphate,crystals(Glauber'ssalt) 1 00 lbs. 
Sodium sulphide,crystal,60-62per cent(conc.) lb 

Sodium sulphite, crystals lb. 

Strontium nitrate, powdered lb. 

Sulphur chl ride, red lb. 

Sulphur, crude ton 

Sulphur dioxide, liquid, cylinders lb. 

Sulphur (sublimed) , flour 100 lb. 

Sulphur, roll (brim.stone) 100 lb. 

Tin bichloride, 50 per cent lb. 

Tin oxide lb. 

Zinc carbonate, precipitate lb. 

Zinc chloride, gran lb. 

Zinc cyanide lb. 

Zinc dust lb. 

Zinc oxide, XX lb. 

Zinc sulphate lb. 



Coal-Tar Products 

NOTE — The following prices are for original packages in large quantities: 

Alpha-naphthol, crude lb. 

Alpha-naphthol, refined lb. 

Alpha-naphthylamine Ib. 

Aniline oil, drums extra lb. 

Aniline salts lb. 

Anthracene, 80% in drums ( 1 00 lb.) lb. 

Benzaldehyde (f.f .c.) lb. 

Benzidine, base lb. 

Benzidine sulphate . . , Ib 

Benzoic acid, U.S.P lb. 

Benzoate of soda, U.S.P . lb. 

Benzene, pure, water-white, in drums ( 1 00 gal.) gal. 

Benzene, 90%, in drums ( 1 00 gal.) gal. 

Benzyl chloride, 95-97',, , refined lb. 

Benzyl chloride, tech lb. 

Beta-naphthol benzoate lb. 

Beta-naphthol, sublimed , lb. 

Beta-naphthol, tech (nominal) lb. 

Beta-naphthylamine, subHmed lb. 

Cresol, U. S. P.. in drums (100 lb.) lb. 

Ortho-cresol, in drums (100 lb.) Ib. 

Cre.sylic acid, 97-99 ,, straw color, in drums gal., 

Cresylic acid, 55-97' ., dark, in drums gal. 

Crcsylic acid, 50%, first quality, drums gal. 

Dichlorbcnzene lb. 

Diethylaniline lb. 

Dimethylaniline lb 

Dinitrobenzene lb 

Diiiitroclorbenzene .• lb. 

Dinitroiiaphthalene lb. 

Diiiitroplienol lb. 

Diiiitrotoluene lb. 

Dip oil, 25%, tar acids, car lots, in drums gal. 

Diphenylamine lb. , 

H-acid lb. 

M(;ta-phenylenediamine lb. 

Monochlorbcnzonc lb. 

Moiioethvlaniiine , lb. 

NaphthalVnc crushed, in bbls. (250 lb.) lb. 

NaplithalcMC, flake Ib. 

Naplitlialciie, balls lb. 

Xaphthiotiio acid, crude lb. 

Nitrobenzene lb. 

Nitro-naplithalene lb. 

Nitro-toluene lb. 

Ortlio-amidophenol Ib. 

Ordio-dichlor-benzene lb. 

Ortho-tiitro-phenol lb. 

Ortho-nitro-toluene lb. 

Ortho-toluidine lb. 

Para-aniidophenol, base lb 

Para-amidophenol, HCl lb. 



40 
50 
12 
18 
70 
16 



.20 
13 
.70 
.55 
.33 



.45 
2.50 



00 

06i 

90 

10 

00 

08 

08 

2 75 
11 
30 
.18^ 

4 60 
.041 

07 
34 
05 
35 

.18 
021 

.04 
2.50 

.061 
05 
22 

.10! 



.12 
4 35 
3 90 



_ 




50 - 


.51 


16 - 


.18 


19 - 


20 


111- 


12 


121- 


13 


45 - 


.49 


50 - 


.60 


12 - 


13 


13^- 


.14 


10 - 


.10^ 


.11 


Wh 


03-i- 


.031 


.04 - 


.06 



$1 10 — 


$1 15 


1.45 — 


1 50 


40 — 


.44 


23 — 


.25 


27 — 


.30 


85 — 


l,.00 


2 00 — 


-2.10 


1 00 — 


1.10 


«5 - 


, .90 


70 .— : 


.75 


75 — 


.85 


.30 — 


.35 


28 — 


,32 


35 — 


.40 


25 — 


.35 


3 50 — 


4.00 


75 — 


' .80 


,38 — 


.42 


i;25 - 


2.40 


16 — 


.18 


23 — 


25 


95 — 


1 00 


90 — 


95 


65 — 


75 


06J— 


15 


1 25 r^ 


1 30 


65 — 


.90 


27 — 


.30 


25 — 


.3o: 


35 — 


.40 


40 — 


.45 


T.7 — 


30 


il = 


40 


75 


1 40 — 


1 55 


1 25 — 


1 30 


.14 - 


16 


1 75 — 


2 25 


08 - 


085 


08 


08', 


09 


095 


70 — 


75 


12 — 


15 


40 — 


.50 


18 — 


.25 


3 20 — 


3 75 


15 — 


20 


75 — 


80 


23 — 


30 


25 — 


.30 


1 90 — 


2 CO 


2 20 — 


2 25 



Para-diolilorbcnzcne lb. .10 — 15 

Paranitroaniliiip lb. .93 — 1 . 00 

Para-nitrotolurno lb. 1 25 — I . 40 

Para-phcnylcnediamine lb. 2 20 — 2 35 

Para-tol uidino Ib. 170 — I 80 

Phthalic anhvdridc Ib. 55 — 60 

Phenol, U. S. P., drums (de.st.). (240 lb.) Ib. 09 — 10 

Pyridine gal. 2 00 — 3 50 

Uesorcinol, technical lb. 2 50 — 2 60 

Resorcinol, pure Ib. 3 60 — 3 80 

Salicylic acid, tech., in bbls. (110 lb.) lb. 25— 28 

Sahcylic acid, U. .S. P lb. 29 — 35 

Salol ; lb. 85 — 95 

Solvent naphtha, water-white, in drums, lOOgal gal. 28 — 32 

Solvent naphtha, crude, heavy, in drums, 1 00 gal gal. .16 — .18 

Sulphanilic acid, crude lb. 30 — 35 

Tolidine - lb. 1 35 — 1 40 

Toluidine, mixed , . . . lb. 40 — .45 

Toluene, in tank cars gal. 30 — 32 

Toluene, in drums gal. .33 — 35 

Xylidines, drums, 1 00 gal lb. .45 — .50 

Xylene, pure, in drums gal. 42 - — .45 

Xylene, pure, in tank cars gal. .45 — .... 

Xylene, commercial, in drums, 100 gal gal. 33 — 35 

Xylene, commercial, in tank cars gal. .30 — .... 

Waxes 

Prices based on original packages in large cjuantities. 

Beeswax, refined, dark Ib. $0 24 — $0 26 

Beeswax, refined, light lb. 27 — 28 

Beeswax, white pure lb. 35 — 40 

Carnauba, No. 1 lb. . 85 — .90 

Carnauba, No. 2, North Country . Ib. 35 — .40 

Carnauba, No. 3, North Country Ib. 19 — .20 

•Japan Ib. .19 — .20 

Montan, crude lb. .07 — .08 

ParafBne waxes, crude match wax (white) 105-110 

m.p Ib. .05 — 051 

Paraffine waxes, crude, scale 124-126 m.p lb. 04; — ■ .05; 

Paraffine waxes, refined, 118-120 m.p Ib. .065 — 06; 

ParafBne waxes, refined, 125 m.p lb. 071— 071 

ParafBne waxes, refined, 128-130 m.p Ib. 07f— .08" 

Paraffine waxes, refined, 133-135 m.p Ib. 091 — • 095 

ParafBne waxes, refined, 135-137 m.p lb. . 105 — 1 1 

Stearic acid, single pressed lb. 1 31 — .13; 

Stearic acid, double pressed :. lb. .131 — -14 

Stearic acid, triple pressed lb. .1 41 — .14; 

Flotation Oils 

\\\ prices are f.o.b. New York unless otherwise stated, and are ba.sed on 
carload lots. The oils in 50-gal. bbls., gross weight, 500 lb. 

Pine oil, steam dist., sp.gr.. 0.930-0.940 g il. $1 90 

Pine oil, pure, dest. dist gal. 1 . 50 

Pine tar oil, ref., sp.gr. 1.025-1.035 g.I. .48 

Pine (^r oil, crude, sp.gr. 1.025-1.035 tank cars f.o.b. Jacksonville, 

Fla gal. .35 

Pine tar oil. double ref., sp.gr. 0.965-0.990 gal. . 75 

Pine tar. ref., thin, sp.gr., 1.080-1.960 gal. ' 36 

Turpentine, crude, sp. gr., 0.900-0.970 gal. I 25 

Hardwood oil, fob. Mich., sp.gr., 0.960-0.990 gal 35 

Pinewood creosote, ref gal. . 52 

Naval Stores 

The following prices are f.o.b. New York for carload lot-s. ' 

RosinB-D.bbI '. 2801b. $8 75 - 

Rosin E-1 280 lb. 8 75 — 

Rosin K-N 2801b. 8 75 — 

Rosin W. G.-W. W 280 Ib. 9 00 — 

Wood rosin, bbl 280 Ib. 9 00 - 

Spirits of turpentine gal. 75 — 

Wood turpentine steam dist gal. 70 — 

Wood turpentine, dest. dist gal. 69 — . . . . 

Pine tar pitch, bbl 200 Ib 

Tar, kiln burned, bbl. ( 500 lb.) bbl. 

Retort tar, bbl 500 1b. 15 00 

Rosin oil, first run gal 60 

Rosin oil, second run gal. 62 

Rosin oil, third run gal- 72 

Solvents 

73-76 deg., steel bbls. (85 Ib.) gal. 

70-72 deg.. steel bbls. (85 Ib.) gal. 

68-70 deg., steel bbls. (85 lb.) gal. 

V. M. and P. naphtha, steel bbls. (85 lb.) gal. 

Crude Rubber 

I'ara — Upriver fine lb. $0 18; 

Upriver coarse lb. 14 

Upriver caucho ball lb. . 1 4J 

Plantation — First latex crepe lb. 21 

Ribbed smoked .sheets lb. 20 

Br"wn crepe, thin, clean lb. .18 

Arabcr crepe -Vo. I lb. .20 

Oils 

VEGETABLE 
The following prices are f.o.b. New York for carload lot,*. 

Castor oil. No. 3, in bbls lb. $0 09; 

Castor oil, A A. in bbls [b. I • j 

China wood oil. in bbls. (f.o.b. Pac. coast) lb. 08, 

Cocoanut oil, Ceylon grade, in bbls lb. i' 

Cocoanut oil. Cochin grade, in bbls lb. 13 

Corn oil, crude, in bbls jb. 09 

Cottonseed oil. crude (f. o. b. mill) jb. 06 

Cottonseed oil. summer yellow jb. aqi 

Cottonseed oil. wi ter yellow lb. nl' 

Linseed oil. raw, car lots (domestic) 8»j- ^J 

Linseed oil. raw. tank cars (domestic> gal. 69 

I. iiiscrd oil, boiled, car lots (d<)ine.«tip> gal. . /8 



8 
15 
15 



50 
00 
50 



$0 41 

3'> 

38 

.30 


$0.19 
I4J 
.141 



$0 10; 

12" 

09 

13 

13; 
09; 

07 

09J 

09. 

77 

70 

79 



January 19, 1921 



CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 



143 



I 



Olive oil, commercial K:il. 

Palm, Lagos tty. 

Palm, Niger lb. 

Peanut oil, crude, tank cars (f.o.b. mill) lb. 

Peanut oil, refined, in bbis lb. 

Rape.seed oil, refined in bbls gal. 

Rapeseed oil, blown, in bbls gal. 

Soya bean oil (Manchurian), in bbls. N. Y lb. 

Soya bean oil, tank cars, f.o.b.. Pacific coa«t lb. 

FISH 

Light pressed menhaden gal. 

Yellow bleached menhaden gal. 

White bleached menhaden gal. 

Blown menhaden t gal. 



Miscellaneous Materials 

All f.o.b. New York Unless Otherwise Stated 

Barytes, ground, white, f.o.b. Kings Creek, S. C net ton 
Barytes, ground, off color, f.o.b. Kings Creek .... net ton 

Barytes, crude, 88''i(aj94% ba.. Kings Creek net ton 

Barytes, floated, f.o.b. St. Louis net ton 

Barytes, crude, first grade, Missouri net ton 

Blanc fixe, dry lb. 

Blanc fixe, pulp net ton 

Casein lb. 

Chalk, domestic, extra light lb. 

Chalk, domestic, light lb. 

Chalk, domestic, heavy lb. 

Chdlk, Enghsh, extra light lb. 

Chalk, English, light lb. 

Chalk, English, dense lb. 

Chjna clay (kaolin) crude, f.o.b. niine^, Georgia. . . net ton 

Chmaclay (kaolin) washed, f.o.b. Cieorgia net ton 

China clay (kaolin) powdered, fob. Georgia net ton 

China clay (kaolin) crude f.o.b. \ irginia points. . . . net ton 
China clay (kaolin) ground, f.o.b. Virginiapoints. . ret ton 

China clay (kaolin), imported, lump net ton 

China clay (kaolin), imported, powdered net ton 

Feldspar, crude, f.o.b. Maryland and North Caro- 
lina points gross ton 

Feldspar, crude, f.o.b. Maine net ton 

Fe!d-;par, ground, f.o.b. Maine net ton 

Feldspar, ground, f.o.b. North Carolina net ton 

Feldspar, ground, f.o.b. N. Y. State net ton 

Feldspar, ground, f.o.b. Baltimore net ton 

Fullers earth, fob. New York net ton 

Fullers earth, granular, f.o.b. Fla '. . net ton 

Fullers earth, powdered, f.o.b. Fla. net ton 

Fullers earth, imported, powdered net ton 

Graphite, crucible, 90%